Toxicity Study of Psidium guajava Linn....

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    01-Feb-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    1
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Toxicity Study of Psidium guajava Linn....

  • 177

    °“√»

    ÷°…“æ

    ‘…¢Õß

    „∫Ω√

    —Ëß

    °“√»÷°…“æ‘…¢Õß„∫Ω√—ËßToxicity Study of Psidium guajava Linn. Leaves.

    ‡Õ¡¡π—  Õ—µµ«‘™≠å * , ª√“≥’ ™«≈‘µ∏”√ß * , æ—™ √—°…“¡—Ëπ * ·≈– ª√“≥’ ®—π∑‡æÁ™√ **

    * °Õß«‘®—¬·≈–æ—≤π“ ¡ÿπ‰æ√

    ** °Õß欓∏‘«‘∑¬“§≈‘π‘°

    °√¡«‘∑¬“»“ µ√å°“√·æ∑¬å

    ∫∑§—¥¬àÕ„∫Ω√—Ë߇ªìπæ◊™ ¡ÿπ‰æ√∑’Ë„™â‡ªìπ¬“√—°…“Õ“°“√∑âÕ߇ ’¬ ªí®®ÿ∫—π¬—߉¡à‡§¬¡’°“√√“¬ß“π¥â“πæ‘…

    «‘∑¬“¢Õ߬“ ¡ÿπ‰æ√™π‘¥π’È §≥–ºŸâ«‘®—¬®÷߉¥â∑”°“√»÷°…“§«“¡‡ªìπæ‘…‡©’¬∫æ≈—π„πÀπŸ∂’∫®—°√ ·≈–æ‘…

    ‡√◊ÈÕ√—ß„πÀπŸ¢“« ‚¥¬„Àâ “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ëß„πÀπŸ∂’∫®—°√∑“ߪ“° §”π«≥À“¢π“¥¢Õß “√ °—¥∑’Ë∑”„ÀâÀπŸ∂’∫

    ®—°√µ“¬√âÕ¬≈– 50 (LD50

    ) æ∫«à“ ¡“°°«à“ 20.0 °./°°. °“√»÷°…“æ‘…‡√◊ÈÕ√—ß„™âÀπŸ¢“« 128 µ—«∑—Èß Õ߇æ»

    ·∫à߇ªìπ 4 °≈ÿà¡ §◊Õ°≈ÿࡧ«∫§ÿ¡ªÑÕππÈ”°≈—Ëπ·≈–°≈ÿà¡∑¥≈Õß 3 °≈ÿà¡ ªÑÕπ “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ëß¢π“¥ 0.2, 2.0

    ·≈– 20.0 °./°°./«—π (‡∑’¬∫‡∑à“°—∫ 1, 10 ·≈– 100 ‡∑à“ ¢Õߢπ“¥∑’Ë„™â√—°…“§π‰¢â∑âÕ߇ ’¬) µ“¡≈”¥—∫

    ‡ªìπ‡«≈“ 6 ‡¥◊Õπ º≈°“√»÷°…“æ∫«à“ÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâ°≈ÿࡉ¥â√—∫¬“¡’πÈ”Àπ—°µ—«≈¥≈ß °“√°‘πÕ“À“√¢ÕßÀπŸ∑ÿ°

    °≈ÿࡉ¡à·µ°µà“ß°—π ‰¡àæ∫惵‘°√√¡∑’˺‘¥ª°µ‘¢ÕßÀπŸ∑ÿ°°≈ÿà¡ „πÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâæ∫«à“®”π«π‡¡Á¥‡≈◊Õ¥¢“«, √–¥—∫

    ‡ÕÁπ‰´¡å ALP, SGPT ·≈–´’√—Ë¡ BUN ‡æ‘Ë¡¢÷ÈπÕ¬à“ß¡’π—¬ ”§—≠ (P

  • 178

    ABSTRACT

    Guava leaf is traditionally used as an antidiarrheal drug. Since toxicological data havenot been reported, acute toxicity study in mice and chronic toxicity study in rats were per-formed. In acute toxicity study, LD

    50 of water extract of guava leaves given orally in mice

    was more than 20.0 g/kg.For chronic toxicity study, 128 rats of both sexes were divided into four groups. The

    control group received distilled water orally and the three treatment groups received theextract of guava leaves at the dose of 0.2, 2.0 and 20.0 g/kg/day (equivalent to 1, 10 and 100times of usual therapeutic dose for the treatment of diarrhea) for 6 months. Body weight gainsof male rats in all guava-treated groups were significantly lower than that of the control groupwhile there was no difference in food consumption among all groups. Behavior and symptomwere normal. There were significant increase (P

  • 179

    °“√»

    ÷°…“æ

    ‘…¢Õß

    „∫Ω√

    —Ëß

    amritoside, (9) sesquiguavaene, (10) catechol,

    pyrocatechol, tannin, (11) amino acids(12) ·≈–

    πÈ”¡—πÀÕ¡√–‡À¬(13) °≈‰°°“√ÕÕ°ƒ∑∏‘Ï·°âÕ“°“√

    ∑âÕ߇ ’¬Õ¬à“ßÀπ÷ËߢÕß “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ëß Õ“®‡°‘¥®“°

     “√ quercetin ´÷Ëß¡’§ÿ≥ ¡∫—µ‘¬—∫¬—Èß°“√À≈—Ëß

    acetylcholine „π√–∫∫∑“߇¥‘πÕ“À“√∑”„Àâ≈¥°“√

    ∫’∫µ—«¢Õß≈”‰ â‡≈Á°(5)(14)·≈–≈¥°“√‡§≈◊ËÕπ‰À«¢Õß

    ≈”‰ â„À≠à(15)πÕ°®“°π’È “√·∑ππ‘π¬—ß “¡“√∂

    ¬—∫¬—Èß°“√‡®√‘≠‡µ‘∫‚µ¢Õ߇™◊ÈÕ®ÿ≈‘π∑√’¬å∑’Ë∑”„À⇰‘¥

    Õ“°“√∑âÕ߇ ’¬(1)(2)Õ“®™à«¬‡ √‘¡ƒ∑∏‘Ï°—π„π°“√

    √—°…“Õ“°“√∑âÕ߇ ’¬„π§π¢Õß “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ë߉¥âÕ’°

    ¥â«¬

    Ω√—Ë ß ‡ªìπæ◊™∑’Ë¢÷Èπ‰¥â∑—Ë«‰ª∑ÿ°¿“§¢Õß

    ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ®÷ßÀ“ßà“¬·≈–√“§“∂Ÿ° πÕ°®“°π’È

     ”π—°ß“π§≥–°√√¡°“√ “∏“√≥ ÿ¢¡Ÿ≈∞“π (  ¡.)

    ¬—ß π—∫ πÿπ„Àâ„™âΩ√—Ë߇ªìπÀπ÷Ëß„πæ◊™ ¡ÿπ‰æ√®”π«π

    66 ™π‘¥(1) ‡ªì𬓠¡ÿπ‰æ√æ◊Èπ∫â“π‡æ◊ËÕ°“√æ÷Ëßµπ‡Õß

    ‚¥¬„™â ”À√—∫·°âÕ“°“√∑âÕ߇ ’¬ ·µà‡π◊ËÕß®“°¬—߉¡à

    ‡§¬¡’√“¬ß“π°“√»÷°…“À“§«“¡‡ªìπæ‘…¢Õß “√

     °—¥„∫Ω√—Ëß ´÷Ëß®–‡ªìπ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈ ”§—≠„π°“√∑’Ë®–

     π—∫ πÿπ„Àâ„™â„∫Ω√—Ëß¡“‡ªì𬓵àÕ‰ª §≥–ºŸâ«‘®—¬®÷ß

    ‰¥â∑”°“√»÷°…“æ‘…¢Õß “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ëß„π —µ«å

    ∑¥≈Õ߇æ◊ËÕ„Àâ∑√“∫∂÷ßæ‘…‡©’¬∫æ≈—π·≈–æ‘…√–¬–

    ¬“«∑’ËÕ“®‡°‘¥¢÷ÈπµàÕ√–∫∫µà“ßÊ ¢Õß√à“ß°“¬ ·≈–

    ‡ªìπ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈ π—∫ πÿπ°“√„™â„∫Ω√—Ë߇ªì𬓉¥âÕ¬à“ß

    ª≈Õ¥¿—¬µàÕ‰ª

    «—µ∂ÿ·≈–«‘∏’°“√ —µ«å∑¥≈Õß

    ÀπŸ∂’∫®—°√æ—π∏ÿå ICR ®“° ”π—° —µ«å

    ∑¥≈Õß·Ààß™“µ‘ ¡À“«‘∑¬“≈—¬¡À‘¥≈ πÈ”Àπ—° 20 + 2

    °√—¡ ®”π«π 60 µ—« ‡æ»≈– 30 µ—« ÀπŸ¢“«æ—π∏ÿå

    «‘ µ“√å ®“° ”π—° —µ«å∑¥≈Õß·Ààß™“µ‘ ¡À“«‘∑¬“≈—¬

    ¡À‘¥≈ πÈ”Àπ—° 120 + 10 °√—¡ ®”π«π 128 µ—« ‡æ»

    ≈– 64 µ—« ‡≈’Ȭ߄πÀâÕß —µ«å∑¥≈Õß∑’Ë¡’Õÿ≥À¿Ÿ¡‘

    25 + 1 Õß»“‡´≈‡´’¬  §«“¡™◊Èπ —¡æ—∑∏å 60% ‰¥â

    √—∫· ß «à“ß«—π≈– 12 ™—Ë«‚¡ß „ÀâÕ“À“√ ”‡√Á®√Ÿª

    ®“°∫√‘…—∑‡®√‘≠‚¿§¿—≥±åÕ“À“√ —µ«å®”°—¥ ·≈–πÈ”

    ª√–ª“∑’Ë –Õ“¥‰¡à®”°—¥ª√‘¡“≥

     ¡ÿπ‰æ√

    „∫Ω√—Ë߇°Á∫„π™à«ß„∫·°à ‡π◊ËÕß®“°¡’§”

    ·π–π”«à“‡ªìπ√–¬–‡«≈“∑’Ëæ◊™„Àâ “√·∑ππ‘π Ÿß ÿ¥(1)

    ®—¥À“‚¥¬ΩÉ“¬æƒ°…»“ µ√å °Õß«‘®—¬·≈–æ—≤π“

     ¡ÿπ‰æ√ π”¡“≈â“ß„Àâ –Õ“¥ º÷Ëß·≈–Õ∫·Àâß∑’Ë 50

    Õß»“‡´≈‡´’¬  ∫¥‡ªìπºßÀ¬“∫‡æ◊ËÕ„™â‡µ√’¬¡ “√

     °—¥„Àâ —µ«å∑¥≈Õß

    «‘∏’°“√»÷°…“°“√‡µ√’¬¡ “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ëß ”À√—∫ —µ«å∑¥≈Õß

    π”„∫Ω√—Ëß∑’Ë∫¥‡ªìπºßÀ¬“∫¡“µâ¡ °—¥

    (reflux) ¥â«¬πÈ”°≈—Ëππ“π 2 ™—Ë«‚¡ß ®”π«π 2 §√—Èß

    π” “√ °—¥∑’ˉ¥â∑—ÈßÀ¡¥¡“√–‡À¬·Àâߥ⫬‡§√◊ËÕß

    √–‡À¬·Àâß¿“¬„µâ ÿ≠≠“°“» (rotary evaporator)

    ·≈– ª√—∫ª√‘¡“µ√¥â«¬πÈ”°≈—Ëπ‡ªìπ 1:1 ®“°°“√

    µ√«®À“ “√ ”§—≠∑“ß惰…‡§¡’ æ∫«à“¡’ “√·∑π

    π‘π 10.44% (w/w)

    °“√∑¥ Õ∫æ‘…‡©’¬∫æ≈—π

    ∑¥ Õ∫æ‘…‡©’¬∫æ≈—πµ“¡«‘∏’ Weil(16)

    ‚¥¬∑¥ Õ∫æ‘…¢Õß “√ °—¥∑“ߪ“° „™âÀπŸ∂’∫®—°√

    ‡æ»≈– 30 µ—« ∑—Èß Õß‡æ» ¢π“¥∑’Ë„Àâ §◊Õ 3.9, 5.9,

    8.9, 13.3 ·≈– 20.0 °√—¡¢Õߺߠ“√ °—¥/πÈ”Àπ—°

    ÀπŸ 1 °‘‚≈°√—¡ (°./°°.)  ”À√—∫°≈ÿࡧ«∫§ÿ¡„Àâ

    πÈ”°≈—Ëπ ‡ΩÑ“¥ŸÕ“°“√∑’ˇª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ß„π√–¬– 5 ™—Ë«‚¡ß

    ·√°Õ¬à“ß„°≈♑¥ ∫—π∑÷°Õ“°“√º‘¥ª°µ‘·≈–®”π«π

    ÀπŸ∑’˵“¬„π√–¬–‡«≈“ 24, 48 ·≈– 72 ™—Ë«‚¡ß ·≈–

    §”π«≥À“¢π“¥¢Õ߬“∑’Ë∑”„ÀâÀπŸ∂’∫®—°√µ“¬√âÕ¬≈–

    50 (LD50

    )

  • 180

    °“√∑¥ Õ∫æ‘…‡√◊ÈÕ√—ß

     ÿà¡·∫àßÀπŸ¢“«ÕÕ°‡ªìπ 4 °≈ÿà¡Ê ≈– 32

    µ—« (‡æ»≈– 16 µ—«) ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ °≈ÿࡧ«∫§ÿ¡ ªÑÕπ

    πÈ”°≈—Ëπª√‘¡“≥ 10.0 ¡≈./°°./«—π ·≈–°≈ÿà¡∑¥≈Õß

    3 °≈ÿà¡ ªÑÕπ “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ë߇∑’¬∫‡∑à“ºß¬“ 0.2, 2.0

    ·≈– 20.0 °./°°./«—π ∑ÿ°«—𵑥µàÕ°—π‡ªìπ‡«≈“π“π

    6 ‡¥◊Õπ ¢π“¥¢Õ߬“∑’Ë„ÀâÀπŸ¢“«§‘¥‡ªìπ 1, 10 ·≈–

    100 ‡∑à“¢Õߢπ“¥∑’Ë„™â„π§π ´÷Ëß√–∫ÿ„Àâ„™â„∫Ω√—Ëß«—π

    ≈– 10 °√—¡(1) ‚¥¬§‘¥«à“§πÀπ—° 50 °‘‚≈°√—¡

    „π√–À«à“ߥ”‡π‘π°“√∑¥≈Õß ∫—π∑÷°

    πÈ”Àπ—°µ—«·≈–ª√‘¡“≥Õ“À“√∑’ËÀπŸ°‘π —ª¥“Àå≈– 1

    §√—Èß ·≈– —߇°µ°“√‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ßµà“ßÊ ¥—ßπ’È ≈—°…≥–

    ¢Õߢπ·≈–º‘«Àπ—ß µ“ ®¡Ÿ° √Ÿ∑«“√  ’¢Õ߇¬◊ËÕ‡¡◊Õ°

    (mucous membrane) Õÿ®®“√– °“√À“¬„® °“√‡¥‘π

    °“√∑√ßµ—« ·≈–惵‘°√√¡ (ÀπŸ∑’˵“¬√–À«à“ß°“√

    ∑¥≈Õß®–∂Ÿ°π”¡“ºà“´“°™—π Ÿµ√) ‡¡◊ËÕ§√∫°”Àπ¥

    ∑”°“√¥¡ ≈∫ÀπŸ¥â«¬Õ’‡∏Õ√å ‡®“–‡≈◊Õ¥®“°À—«„®

    ‡æ◊ËÕ𔉪µ√«®À“§à“∑“ß‚≈À‘µ«‘∑¬“ ‰¥â·°à ‡ªÕ√凴Áπµå

    ‡¡Á¥‡≈◊Õ¥·¥ßÕ—¥·πàπ (Hematocrit), ®”π«π‡¡Á¥

    ‡≈◊Õ¥¢“« (White blood cells) ·≈– ‡°≈Á¥‡≈◊Õ¥

    (Platelets) ‚¥¬π—∫®“° counting chamber §à“

    ∑“ß™’«‡§¡’§≈‘𑧉¥â·°à √–¥—∫¢Õß´’√—Ë¡‚´‡¥’¬¡·≈–

    ‚ª·µ ‡´’¬¡ ‚¥¬«‘∏’ Ion Selective Electrode

    Method(17) ‚¥¬„™â‡§√◊ËÕß Automated Sodium/

    Potassium Analyzer √ÿàπ NOVA1 (¢Õß

    NOVABIOMEDICAL, USA) ‡Õπ‰´¡å 3 ™π‘¥

    §◊Õ Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ‚¥¬«‘∏’¢Õß

    Bowers ·≈–§≥–(18) , Glutamic oxalacetic

    transaminase (SGOT) ·≈– Glutamic pyruvic

    transaminase (SGPT) ‚¥¬«‘∏’¢Õß Henry ·≈–

    §≥–(19) , Total cholesterol ‚¥¬«‘∏’ Enzymatic

    reaction, BUN ‚¥¬«‘∏’ Diacetylmonoxime,

    Creatinine ‚¥¬«‘∏’ Jaffe,s reaction, ‚ª√µ’π√«¡

    „™â«‘∏’ Biuret, Õ—≈∫Ÿ¡‘π „™â«‘∏’ Dye binding °—∫

    BCG, ‚°≈∫Ÿ≈‘π ‰¥â®“°°“√À—°§à“¢ÕßÕ—≈∫Ÿ¡‘π ÕÕ°

    ®“°§à“¢Õß‚ª√µ’π√«¡(17)

    ®“°π—Èπ∑”°“√ºà“´“°™—π Ÿµ√ µ√«®À“

    欓∏‘«‘°“√∑’Ë¡Õ߇ÀÁπ‰¥â¥â«¬µ“‡ª≈à“ (Gross

    lesions) ¢ÕßÕ«—¬«–¿“¬„π‰¥â·°à  ¡Õß À—«„® ªÕ¥

    À≈Õ¥≈¡ µàÕ¡∏—¬√Õ¬¥å À≈Õ¥Õ“À“√ °√–‡æ“–

    Õ“À“√ µ—∫ µ—∫ÕàÕπ ≈”‰ â ‰µ ¡â“¡ °√–‡æ“–ªí  “«–

    √—߉¢à ¡¥≈Ÿ° ·≈–Õ—≥±– ‚¥¬æ‘®“√≥“®“° µ”·Àπàß

    √Ÿª√à“ß ¢π“¥  ’ ≈—°…≥–º‘« ≈—°…≥–Àπ⓵—¥·≈–

    Õߧåª√–°Õ∫ (Texture) ¢ÕßÕ«—¬«– ™—ËßπÈ”Àπ—°

    Õ«—¬«–µà“ßÊ ·≈–‡°Á∫Õ«—¬«–„π 10% Phosphate

    buffer formalin 𔉪ºà“π¢∫«π°“√‡µ√’¬¡ ‰≈¥å

    ‡π◊ÈÕ‡¬◊ËÕ∑“ß®ÿ≈°“¬«‘¿“§»“ µ√å ‡æ◊ËÕµ√«®∑“ß®ÿ≈

    欓∏‘«‘∑¬“‚¥¬æ¬“∏‘·æ∑¬åºŸâ‡™’ˬ«™“≠

    °“√«‘‡§√“–Àå¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈„™â ∂‘µ‘‡™‘ßæ√√≥π“ °“√

    ∑¥ Õ∫ ¡¡µ‘∞“π„™â one-way ANOVA ·≈–

    ‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫§à“‡©≈’ˬ ‚¥¬«‘∏’ Duncan ,s New Mul-

    tiple Range Test ∑’Ë p

  • 181

    °“√»

    ÷°…“æ

    ‘…¢Õß

    „∫Ω√

    —Ëß

    µ“√“ß∑’Ë 1 §à“‡©≈’ˬ¢ÕßπÈ”Àπ—°µ—«·≈–°“√°‘πÕ“À“√¢ÕßÀπŸ∑’ˉ¥â√—∫ “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ëßπ“π 6 ‡¥◊Õπ

    Body weight gain (g) Food consumption (g/rat/day)

    Mean + SD %Difference Mean + SD %Difference

    0 16 M 464.2 + 73.9 20.6 + 1.00.2 16 M 463.9 + 63.8 -0.1 20.6 + 1.0 0.02.0 16 M 411.0 + 33.6 -11.5* 19.3 + 1.2 -6.320.0 10 M 393.2 + 44.9 -16.3* 18.5 + 1.8 -10.20 15 F 181.5 + 36.8 13.4 + 1.3

    0.2 14 F 170.8 + 29.2 -5.9 13.2 + 1.2 -1.52.0 13 F 160.7 + 21.7 -11.5 13.0 + 1.4 -3.020.0 13 F 167.5 + 30.5 -7.8 13.3 + 1.1 -0.7

    M = Male, F = Female

    * significantly different from control (P

  • 182

    µ“√“ß∑’Ë 3 º≈∑“ß™’«‡§¡’¢ÕßÀπŸ¢“«‡æ»ºŸâ∑’ˉ¥â√—∫ “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ëßπ“π 6 ‡¥◊Õπ

    Dose of P. guajava (g/kg/day) Parameters 0 0.2 2.0 20.0

    n=16 n=16 n=16 n=10Sodium (mmol/l) 151.5 + 1.5 150.3 + 1.3* 150.2 + 1.5* 150.2 + 1.1*Potassium (mmol/l) 5.3 + 0.8 5.6 + 0.6 5.2 + 0.7 5.8 + 0.6ALP (U/l) 38.7 + 11.3 98.6 + 29.6* 97.2 + 18.6* 96.7 + 29.3*SGOT (U/l) 102.7 + 16.1 102.7 + 21.9 104.7 + 22.4 111.6 + 23.7SGPT (U/l) 16.0 + 6.1 22.2 + 7.0* 22.4 + 8.2* 23.0 + 5.0*Cholesterol (mg%) 98.2 + 30.6 95.7 + 20.2 88.2 + 10.8 73.1 + 16.1*BUN (mg%) 19.2 + 2.8 21.6 + 2.0* 23.9 + 2.0* 21.1 + 2.2*Creatinine (mg%) 1.3 + 0.2 1.1 + 0.2* 1.3 + 0.2 1.2 + 0.1Total Protein (g%) 6.8 + 0.3 6.6 + 0.3* 6.7 + 0.1 6.8 + 0.3Albumin (g%) 3.0 + 0.1 3.0 + 0.1 3.1 + 0.1* 3.0 + 0.1Globulin (g%) 3.8 + 0.3 3.6 + 0.3* 3.5 + 0.1* 3.8 + 0.2

    µ“√“ß∑’Ë 4 º≈∑“ß™’«‡§¡’¢ÕßÀπŸ¢“«‡æ»‡¡’¬∑’ˉ¥â√—∫ “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ëßπ“π 6 ‡¥◊Õπ

    Dose of P. guajava (g/kg/day) Parameters 0 0.2 2.0 20.0

    n=15 n=14 n=13 n=13Sodium (mmol/l) 149.9 + 1.1 150.5 + 1.1 150.0 + 1.3 151.8 + 1.1*Potassium (mmol/l) 4.3 + 0.5 4.2 + 0.4 4.2 + 0.7 4.8 + 0.2*ALP (U/l) 59.6 + 31.5 76.1 + 30.0 61.8 + 29.5 55.7 + 15.0SGOT (U/l) 102.3 + 26.6 91.8 + 16.3 111.8 + 33.0 101.1 + 31.4SGPT (U/l) 19.3 + 10.2 15.5 + 4.3 25.2 + 6.1* 21.1 + 4.7Cholesterol (mg%) 96.4 + 16.6 102.1 + 21.1 99.5 + 23.5 95.1 + 25.7BUN (mg%) 21.4 + 3.0 22.8 + 1.6 24.4 + 3.8* 22.2 + 2.6Creatinine (mg%) 1.3 + 0.1 1.0 + 0.2* 1.1 + 0.2* 1.4 + 0.2Total Protein (g%) 7.4 + 0.2 7.0 + 0.4* 7.0 + 0.4* 7.2 + 0.7Albumin (g%) 3.3 + 0.2 3.7 + 0.2* 3.7 + 0.3* 3.8 + 0.3*Globulin (g%) 4.1 + 0.2 3.3 + 0.3* 3.2 + 0.3* 3.4 + 0.4*

    The results are expressed as Mean + SD* significantly different from control (P

  • 183

    °“√»

    ÷°…“æ

    ‘…¢Õß

    „∫Ω√

    —Ëß

  • 184

    (P

  • 185

    °“√»

    ÷°…“æ

    ‘…¢Õß

    „∫Ω√

    —Ëß

  • 186

    (P

  • 187

    °“√»

    ÷°…“æ

    ‘…¢Õß

    „∫Ω√

    —Ëß

    ‚ª·µ ‡ ’́¬¡„πÀπŸ‡æ»‡¡’¬°≈ÿà¡∑’ˉ¥â√—∫¬“ 20 °./°°.

    ‡æ‘Ë¡¢÷Èπ°«à“°≈ÿࡧ«∫§ÿ¡Õ¬à“ß¡’π—¬ ”§—≠∑“ß ∂‘µ‘

    Õ¬à“߉√°Áµ“¡°“√‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ß∑’ˇ°‘¥¢÷Èπ¥—ß°≈à“«‰¡à

    πà“®–¡’§«“¡ ”§—≠À√◊Õ¡’º≈µàÕ√–∫∫ √’√–À√◊Õ

    √–∫∫™’«‡§¡’¢Õß√à“ß°“¬ —µ«å∑¥≈Õß ‡π◊ËÕß®“°

    ‡ªìπ°“√≈¥≈ßÀ√◊Õ‡æ‘Ë¡¢÷Èπ∑’ËπâÕ¬¡“°·¡â«à“®–¡’π—¬

     ”§—≠∑“ß ∂‘µ‘‡¡◊ËÕ‡∑’¬∫°—∫°≈ÿࡧ«∫§ÿ¡ √–¥—∫ BUN

    „πÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâ°≈ÿà¡∑¥≈Õß∑ÿ°°≈ÿࡇæ‘Ë¡¢÷Èπ®“°°≈ÿà¡

    §«∫§ÿ¡„πª√‘¡“≥‡≈Á°πâÕ¬ Õ“®¡’ “‡Àµÿ®“°°“√

    µ‘¥‡™◊ÈÕÀ√◊Õ¡’‡≈◊Õ¥ÕÕ°„π°√–‡æ“–≈”‰ â (23) √–¥—∫

    ‡ÕÁπ‰´¡å ALP ·≈– SGPT „πÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâ°≈ÿà¡

    ∑¥≈Õß∑ÿ°¢π“¥¬“‡æ‘Ë¡¢÷Èπ®“°°≈ÿࡧ«∫§ÿ¡Õ¬à“ß

    ‡¥àπ™—¥ ‚¥¬‡©æ“–√–¥—∫‡ÕÁπ‰´¡å ALP ∑’Ë Ÿß°«à“

    °≈ÿࡧ«∫§ÿ¡ª√–¡“≥‡°◊Õ∫ 3 ‡∑à“ °“√‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ß

    ¥—ß°≈à“«· ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“ “√ °—¥®“°„∫Ω√—Ë߇¡◊ËÕ„Àâ

    ‡ªìπ‡«≈“π“π¡’æ‘…µàÕµ—∫ ∑—Èßπ’ÈÕ“®‡π◊ËÕß®“°·∑ππ‘π

    ‚¥¬·∑ππ‘π®–‰¡à∂Ÿ°¥Ÿ¥´÷¡„π√–∫∫∑“߇¥‘πÕ“À“√

    ·µà∂â“¡’·º≈‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ„π∑“߇¥‘πÕ“À“√·∑ππ‘π®–∂Ÿ°

    ¥Ÿ¥´÷¡·≈–∑”„À⇰‘¥æ‘…µàÕµ—∫‰¥â(24) Õ“°“√æ‘…∑’Ë

    ‡°‘¥µàÕµ—∫¡’§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å°—∫πÈ”Àπ—°¢Õßµ—∫∑’ˇæ‘Ë¡¢÷Èπ

    „πÀπŸ°≈ÿà¡∑¥≈Õ߇滺Ÿâ∑ÿ°°≈ÿà¡ πÕ°®“°π’È√–¥—∫

    Cholesterol „πÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâ°≈ÿà¡∑¥≈Õß∑’Ë¢π“¥¬“ 20.0

    °./°°. ∑’Ë≈¥≈ß®“°°≈ÿࡧ«∫§ÿ¡ Õ“®¡’ “‡Àµÿ®“°

    °“√≈¥°“√ √â“ß Cholesterol ∑’˵—∫‡π◊ËÕß®“°

    ‡´≈≈åµ—∫∂Ÿ°∑”≈“¬(23) ®“°º≈°“√∑¥≈Õߥ—ß°≈à“«

    ¢â“ßµâπ πà“®–‡ªìπ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈∫àß™’È«à“°“√∑”ß“π¢Õßµ—∫

    ÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâ°≈ÿà¡∑¥≈Õß¡’·π«‚π⡇ ◊ËÕ¡ ¡√√∂¿“æ≈ß

    ¡’√“¬ß“π«à“ “√·∑ππ‘π à«π∑’Ë≈–≈“¬πÈ”‰¥â ´÷Ë߇ªìπ

     à«πª√–°Õ∫„π„∫¢Õßæ◊™ ¡ÿπ‰æ√™π‘¥Àπ÷ËߢÕß

    Õ‘π‚¥π’‡´’¬¡’æ‘…µàÕµ—∫ ‰µ ·≈–°√–‡æ“–Õ—°‡ ∫√à«¡

    ¥â«¬„π·æ–(25) ‡ªìπ∑’Ëπà“ —߇°µ®“°º≈°“√∑¥≈Õß

    „πÀπŸ‡æ»‡¡’¬°≈ÿà¡∑¥≈Õß∑ÿ°°≈ÿà¡ ‰¡àæ∫¢âÕ∫àß™’È

    À√◊Õ·π«‚πâ¡«à“µ—∫∑”ß“πº‘¥ª°µ‘ ∑—Èß∑’ˉ¥â√—∫¬“

    ¢π“¥∑’ˇ∑à“°—π·≈– ¿“æ·«¥≈âÕ¡‡¥’¬«°—π∑ÿ°Õ¬à“ß

    ŒÕ√å‚¡π‡æ»Õ“®®–¡’º≈µàÕ°“√ÕÕ°ƒ∑∏‘Ï¢Õß “√

    ∑”„Àâ “√∫“ß™π‘¥Õ“®· ¥ßæ‘…µàՇ滙“¬·≈–

    À≠‘߉¡à‡∑à“°—𠇙àπ alcohol ®–æ∫Õÿ∫—µ‘°“√

    · ¥ß§«“¡‡ªìπæ‘…µàÕµ—∫ „π‡æ»™“¬¡“°°«à“‡æ»

    À≠‘ß(26) √–¥—∫´’√—Ë¡Õ—≈∫Ÿ¡‘π ∑’ˇæ‘Ë¡¢÷Èπ®“°°≈ÿà¡

    §«∫§ÿ¡·≈–√–¥—∫´’√—Ë¡‚°≈∫Ÿ≈‘π∑’Ë≈¥≈ß®“°°≈ÿà¡

    §«∫§ÿ¡„πÀπŸ‡æ»‡¡’¬∑ÿ°¢π“¥¬“‡ªìπ°“√‡æ‘Ë¡¢÷Èπ

    ·≈–≈¥≈ß„πª√‘¡“≥∑’Ë ‡≈Á°πâÕ¬‰¡àπà“®–¡’º≈µàÕ

    √–∫∫ √’√–À√◊Õ™’«‡§¡’¢Õß√à“ß°“¬ —µ«å∑¥≈Õß

    ®“°º≈°“√∑¥≈Õßæ∫«à“πÈ”Àπ—°Õ«—¬«–

     —¡æ—∑∏åµà“ßÊ „πÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâ°≈ÿà¡∑¥≈Õß ‰¥â·°à  ¡Õß

    µ—∫ ¡â“¡ ‰µ∑—Èß Õߢâ“ß ·≈–°√–‡æ“–Õ“À“√ ¡’πÈ”

    Àπ—°‡æ‘Ë¡¢÷Èπ®“°°≈ÿࡧ«∫§ÿ¡ Õ“®®–‡π◊ËÕß¡“®“°

    πÈ”Àπ—°µ—«¢ÕßÀπŸ∑’Ë≈¥≈ß∑”„Àâº≈°“√‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫

    πÈ”Àπ—°Õ«—¬«–µàÕπÈ”Àπ—°µ—«ÀπŸ 100 °√—¡ ‡æ‘Ë¡

    ‡ªìπ —¥ à«π°—π¥â«¬ πÈ”Àπ—°µ—∫·≈–¡â“¡∑’ˇæ‘Ë¡Õ¬à“ß

    ‡¥àπ™—¥„πÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâ°≈ÿà¡∑¥≈Õß∑ÿ°°≈ÿà¡πà“®–∫àß™’È

    ∂÷ß·π«‚πâ¡°“√∑”ß“π¢Õßµ—∫∑’Ë≈¥ª√– ‘∑∏‘¿“æ≈ß

     “‡Àµÿ¥—ß°≈à“«¡“·≈â«¢â“ßµâπ

    º≈°“√µ√«®∑“ß®ÿ≈欓∏‘«‘∑¬“¢Õß

    Õ«—¬«–¿“¬„πæ∫欓∏‘ ¿“æµà“ßÊ ¥—ßµàÕ‰ªπ’È µ—∫

    ‡°‘¥°“√‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ß·∫∫‰¢¡—π (fatty change) „π

    ÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâ°≈ÿà¡∑¥≈Õß·≈–°≈ÿࡧ«∫§ÿ¡ „π‡æ»‡¡’¬

    æ∫°“√‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ßπ’È ”À√—∫°≈ÿࡉ¥â√—∫¬“ 0.2 °./°°.

    ·≈–°≈ÿࡧ«∫§ÿ¡ ≈—°…≥– fatty change ∑’˵√«®

    æ∫§√—Èßπ’Èæ∫‡ªìπ‡æ’¬ßÀ¬àÕ¡‡≈Á° (focal) ‰¡à

    °√–®“¬∑—Ë« lobules ¢Õßµ—∫ ®—¥«à“‡ªìπ mild

    degree ´÷Ë߉¡à√ÿπ·√ß®π∂÷ߢ—Èπ∑’Ë®–∫àß™’È«à“¬“‡ªìπæ‘…

    µàÕµ—∫ ‡π◊ËÕß®“°º≈∑“ß™’«‡§¡’∫àß™’È·π«‚πâ¡°“√

    ∑” ß “ π ¢ Õ ß µ— ∫ À πŸ ‡ æ » ºŸâ ° ≈ÿà ¡ ∑ ¥ ≈ Õ ß ≈ ¥

    ª√– ‘∑∏‘¿“æ≈ß „π¢≥–∑’˺≈°“√µ√«®∑“ß欓∏‘

    «‘∑¬“¢Õßµ—∫‰¡àæ∫§«“¡º‘¥ª°µ‘¢Õ߇´≈≈凥àπ™—¥

  • 188

    Õ“®‡æ√“–‡´≈≈åµ—∫ “¡“√∂´àÕ¡·´¡À√◊ÕøóôπøŸ„À¡à‰¥â

    (regenerate) (27) °≈â“¡‡π◊ÈÕÀ—«„®Õ—°‡ ∫‡ªìπÀ¬àÕ¡

    (Focal myocarditis) æ∫„πÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâ∑—Èß°≈ÿà¡

    §«∫§ÿ¡·≈–°≈ÿà¡∑¥≈Õß ·≈–欓∏‘ ¿“æπ’È à«π„À≠à

    ¡’ “‡Àµÿ®“°°“√µ‘¥‡™◊ÈÕ(28) °“√µ°µ–°Õπ¢Õ߇°≈◊Õ

    ·§≈‡ ’́¬¡„π∑àÕ‰µ (nephrocalcinosis) æ∫„πÀπŸ

    ‡æ»‡¡’¬°≈ÿà¡∑¥≈Õß∑ÿ°°≈ÿà¡  “‡Àµÿ§◊Õ¡’ª√‘¡“≥

    ·§≈‡ ’́¬¡„π‡≈◊Õ¥ Ÿß Õ“®‡π◊ËÕß¡“®“°¿“«–‰µ«“¬‡√◊ÈÕ√—ß

    ‚¥¬®–æ∫µ–°Õπ·§≈‡ ’́¬¡„π collecting duct ·≈–

    Henle,s loop √«¡∑—Èßµ“¡À≈Õ¥‡≈◊Õ¥ΩÕ¬¢Õ߉µ

     à«πÕ◊ËπÊ(29) °√«¬‰µ‚ªÉßæÕß (hydronephrosis)

    ∑’Ëæ∫„πÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâ∑ÿ°°≈ÿࡇªìπ欓∏‘ ¿“æ∑’Ë¡’‚Õ°“ 

    ‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ‡Õßµ“¡∏√√¡™“µ‘„πÀπŸ¢“«æ—π∏ÿå«‘ µ“√å µ—Èß·µà

    0-61 ‡ªÕ√凴Áπµå(30)  “‡Àµÿ∑’Ë·∑â®√‘߬—߉¡à∑√“∫

    °√«¬‰µÕ—°‡ ∫‡√◊ÈÕ√—ß (chronic pyelonephritis) æ∫

    „πÀπŸ‡æ»‡¡’¬°≈ÿà¡∑¥≈Õß∑ÿ°°≈ÿà¡ ¡—°‡°‘¥‰¥âßà“¬„π

    °√≥’∑“߇¥‘πªí  “«–∂Ÿ°Õÿ¥°—Èπ(29) º≈°“√µ√«®

    ∑“ß®ÿ≈欓∏‘«‘∑¬“∑’Ëæ∫§√—Èßπ’È ∫àß™’È«à“ÀπŸ‡æ»‡¡’¬

    °≈ÿà¡∑¥≈Õß¡’·π«‚π⡉µ≈¥ª√– ‘∑∏‘¿“æ≈ß ∂÷ß

    ·¡â«à“º≈∑“ß™’«‡§¡’®–‰¡à™’È™—¥«à“‰µ∑”ß“πº‘¥ª°µ‘

    °Áµ“¡ ·µàº≈∑“ß™’«‡§¡’∑’Ë√–¥—∫ Ÿß°«à“ª°µ‘¢Õß

    Creatinine ·≈–BUN ®–æ∫„πºŸâªÉ«¬‚√§‰µ

    ∑ÿ°™π‘¥∑’Ë√âÕ¬≈– 50 ¢ÕßÀπ૬‰µ (nephron) ∂Ÿ°

    ∑”≈“¬(23)

    ‡π◊ËÕß®“°º≈°“√∑¥≈Õߥ—ß°≈à“«¡“·≈â«

    ¢â“ßµâπ· ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“  “√ °—¥¢Õß„∫Ω√—ËßÕ“®‡ªìπ

    Õ—πµ√“¬µàÕºŸâ∫√‘‚¿§‰¥â ‡æ√“–©–π—Èπ„π°“√„™â “√

     °—¥„∫Ω√—Ë߇æ◊ËÕ°“√√—°…“‚√§∑âÕ߇ ’¬ §«√„™â„π

    ª√‘¡“≥·≈–√–¬–‡«≈“∑’Ë°”Àπ¥ ‰¡à„™â„πª√‘¡“≥∑’Ë

    ¡“°‡°‘π‰ª·≈–µ‘¥µàÕ°—ππ“π‡°‘π‰ª°Á®–‡ªìπ°“√

    „™â„∫Ω√—Ë߇ªì𬓠¡ÿπ‰æ√√—°…“‚√§∑âÕ߇ ’¬‰¥âÕ¬à“ß

    ª≈Õ¥¿—¬

     √ÿª®“°°“√»÷°…“æ‘…‡©’¬∫æ≈—π¢Õß “√ °—¥

    „∫Ω√—Ëß„πÀπŸ∂’∫®—°√ æ∫«à“‰¡àª√“°ØÕ“°“√æ‘…„¥Ê

    „πÀπŸ∂’∫®—°√∑’ˉ¥â√—∫ “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ëß∑“ߪ“°¢π“¥

    20.0 °./°°. ·≈–®“°°“√»÷°…“æ‘…‡√◊ÈÕ√—ߢÕß “√

     °—¥„∫Ω√—Ëß‚¥¬«‘∏’ªÑÕ𬓷°àÀπŸ¢“«„π¢π“¥ 0.2, 2.0

    ·≈– 20.0 °./°°./«—π À√◊Õ‡∑’¬∫‡∑à“°—∫ 1, 10 À√◊Õ

    100 ‡∑à“¢Õߢπ“¥∑’Ë„™â√—°…“§π‰¢â∑âÕ߇ ’¬µ‘¥µàÕ

    °—ππ“π 6 ‡¥◊Õπ · ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“ “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ëß¡’

    ·π«‚πâ¡∑”„ÀâπÈ”Àπ—°µ—«≈¥≈ß„πÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâ∑’ˉ¥â√—∫¬“

    2.0 ·≈– 20.0 °./°°. ·≈– à«πª√–°Õ∫¢Õ߇≈◊Õ¥

    ‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈߉ª®“°°≈ÿࡧ«∫§ÿ¡ §◊Õ¡’®”π«π‡¡Á¥

    ‡≈◊Õ¥¢“«‡æ‘Ë¡¢÷Èπ„πÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâ∑’ˉ¥â√—∫¬“ 20.0 °./°°.

    ·≈–¡’®”π«π‡°≈Á¥‡≈◊Õ¥≈¥≈ß„πÀπŸ‡æ»‡¡’¬∑ÿ°

    ¢π“¥¬“ §à“¢Õß‚´‡¥’¬¡Õ‘ÕÕπ·≈– cholesterol ≈¥

    ≈ß ¢≥–∑’Ë§à“‡ÕÁπ‰´¡å ALP, SGPT ·≈– BUN ‡æ‘Ë¡

    ¢÷Èπ„πÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâ∑ÿ°¢π“¥¬“ „πÀπŸ‡æ»‡¡’¬æ∫«à“

    ‚´‡¥’¬¡·≈–‚ª·µ ‡´’¬¡Õ‘ÕÕπ‡æ‘Ë¡¢÷Èπ∑’Ë¢π“¥¬“

    20.0 °./°°. ·≈–§à“Õ—≈∫Ÿ¡‘π‡æ‘Ë¡¢÷Èπ„π¢≥–∑’Ë‚°≈∫Ÿ≈‘π

    ≈¥≈ß∑ÿ°¢π“¥¬“ πÕ°®“°π’Ȭ—ßæ∫«à“πÈ”Àπ—°µ—∫

    ·≈–¡â“¡∑’ˇæ‘Ë¡¢÷ÈπÕ¬à“߇¥àπ™—¥„πÀπŸ‡æ»ºŸâ∑’ˉ¥â√—∫¬“

    ·¡â«à“°“√»÷°…“π’ȉ¥â∑”°“√»÷°…“„π —µ«å∑¥≈Õß°Áµ“¡

    ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈∑’ˉ¥â™’È·π–„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“ “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ë߇ªìπ¬“

     ¡ÿπ‰æ√∑’Ë„™â√—°…“Õ“°“√∑âÕ߇ ’¬‰¥â„π√–¬–‡«≈“ —ÈπÊ

    ·µà°“√√—∫ª√–∑“π “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ë߇ªìπ‡«≈“π“πµàÕ

    ‡π◊ËÕßÕ“®¡’º≈°√–∑∫µàÕ°“√∑”ß“π¢Õßµ—∫·≈–‰µ

     “√ °—¥„∫Ω√—Ëß„™â‡ªìπ¬“√—°…“Õ“°“√∑âÕ߇ ’¬ ´÷Ëß„™â

    ‡©æ“–™à«ß√–¬–‡«≈“ —ÈπÊ ¥—ßπ—Èπ∂â“„™â¬“π’ȵàÕ‡π◊ËÕß

    °—ππ“πÊ §«√¡’°“√µ√«®‡≈◊Õ¥∑“ß‚≈À‘µ«‘∑¬“ ·≈–

    ™’«‡§¡’ ·≈–µ√«®ªí  “«– ‡æ◊ËÕÀ“§«“¡º‘¥ª°µ‘∑’Ë

    Õ“®‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ√–À«à“ß°“√„™â¬“

  • 189

    °“√»

    ÷°…“æ

    ‘…¢Õß

    „∫Ω√

    —Ëß

    §”¢Õ∫§ÿ≥ºŸâ«‘®—¬¢Õ¢Õ∫§ÿ≥ 𓬥√ÿ≥ ‡æÁ™√æ≈“¬

    ºŸâÕ”π«¬°“√°Õß«‘®—¬·≈–æ—≤π“ ¡ÿπ‰æ√ ∑’Ë„Àâ°“√

     π—∫ πÿπ·≈– à߇ √‘¡ß“π«‘®—¬§√—Èßπ’È π“ß®“√’¬å

    ∫—π ‘∑∏‘Ï ΩÉ“¬æƒ°…»“ µ√å „π°“√®—¥À“·≈–µ√«®

     Õ∫ ¡ÿπ‰æ√∑’Ë„™â„π°“√«‘®—¬ π“ß “«∑«’º≈ ‡¥™“

    µ‘«ß»å ≥ Õ¬ÿ∏¬“ ΩÉ“¬æƒ°…‡§¡’ „π°“√µ√«® Õ∫

     “√ ”§—≠¢Õß ¡ÿπ‰æ√ 𓬠¡π÷° ‡®…Æ“¿—∑√°ÿ≈

    ¿“§«‘™“欓∏‘«‘∑¬“ §≥–·æ∑¬»“ µ√å«™‘√欓∫“≈

    ¡À“«‘∑¬“≈—¬»√’π§√‘π∑√«‘‚√≤ ∑’Ë „À⧫“¡

    Õπÿ‡§√“–Àåµ√«® Õ∫ ‰≈¥å‡π◊ÈÕ‡¬◊ËÕ —µ«å∑¥≈Õß ·≈–

    π“ß “«Õ—≠™≈’ ®Ÿ±–æÿ∑∏‘ ∑’Ë„À⧔·π–π”·≈–

    µ√«®·°â‰¢°“√‡¢’¬π√“¬ß“π°“√«‘®—¬§√—Èßπ’È

    ‡Õ° “√Õâ“ßÕ‘ß1.  ”π—°ß“π§≥–°√√¡°“√ “∏“√≥ ÿ¢¡Ÿ≈∞“π

    °√–∑√«ß “∏“√≥ ÿ¢.  ¡ÿπ‰æ√„πß“π “∏“√≥ ÿ¢

    ¡Ÿ≈∞“π ”À√—∫∫ÿ§≈“°√ “∏“√≥ ÿ¢. Àπâ“ 98.

    2. Le Grand A. 1989. Anti-infective

    phytotherapies of the tree-savannah, Senegal

    (Occidental Africa). III : A review of

    phy tochemica l subs t ances and the

    antimicrobial activity of 43 species. J.

    Ethanopharmacol. 25(2) : 315-38.

    3. Caceres A, Cano O., Samayoa B., Aguilar

    L. 1990 Plants used in Guatamala for the

    treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. I.

    Screening of 84 plants against enterobacteria.

    J. Ethnopharmacol. 30(1) : 55-73.

    4. Lutterodt GD. 1989. Inhibition of

    gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by

    quercetin as a possible mode of action of

    Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the

    treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J.

    Ethanopharmacol. 25(3) : 235-47.

    5. Xavier Lozoya, Gloria Becerril and Migual

    Martinez. 1990. Intraluminal perfusion model

    of in vitro guinea-pig,s ileum as a model of

    study of the antidiarrheal properties of the

    guava (Psidium guajava). Arch. Invest. Med.

    (Mex) 21 : 155-62.

    6. »Ÿπ¬å¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈ ¡ÿπ‰æ√ §≥–‡¿ —™»“ µ√ å

    ¡À“«‘∑¬“≈—¬¡À‘¥≈. °â“«‰ª°—∫ ¡ÿπ‰æ√ 2. Àπâ“ 107.

    7. Arthur, H.R. and Hui, W.H., 1954.

    Triterpene acid from the leaves of Psidium

    guajava J. Chem. Soc. : 1403-6.

    8. Varshney, I.P. and Shamsuddin K.M., 1962.

    The chemical constituents of the leaves of

    Psidium guajava Linn. Vijnara Parishad

    Anusandkan Patrika. 5(2) : 77-81.

    9. Sesshadri, T.R. and Vasishta, K. 1965.

    Polyphenol of the leaves of Psidium guajava.

    Phytochemistry. 4(6) : 989-92.

    10. Bhati, A., 1967. Terpene chemistry. A

    preliminary study of the new sesquiterpene

    isolated from the leaves of guava, Psidium

    guajava. Perfum. Escent. Oil Rec. 58(10) :

    707-9.

    11. Pande, G.D. and Kumar, M., 1960. Study

    of Psidium guajava leaves as vegetable tanning

    material. J. Indian Leather Technologists,

    Assoc. 8 : 139-42.

    12. Winchester, R.V. 1975. Leaf amino acids

    of Psidium guajava. N.Z.J.Sci. 18(2) : 239-42.

    13. Smith, R.M. and Suvatibau, S., 1975.

    Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of Fi jian

  • 190

    guavas. Phytochemistry. 14(9) : 2013-5.

    14. Raemonkoe, Daoroek, et al. 1986. The

    study on the effect on smooth muscle of

    selected medicinal plants. Thai National

    Documentation Centre çMedicinal Plants in

    Thailand No.2é Bangkok : 101.

    15. Amphawan C. Apisariyakul, et al. 1987.

    Pharmacological screening of Thai Natural

    products. Chulabhorn Foundation and Mahidol

    University ç Pricess Congress Ié Bangkok :

    27.

    16. Carrol S. Weil. 1952. Calculation of

    Median effective dose. Biometrics : 240-63.

    17. ¿“§«‘™“‡§¡’§≈‘π‘° §≥–‡∑§π‘§°“√·æ∑¬å

    ¡À“«‘∑¬“≈—¬¡À‘¥≈. 2529. À≈—°«‘‡§√“–Àå·≈–

    ªØ‘∫—µ‘°“√‡§¡’§≈‘π‘°. Àπâ“ 121-251.

    18. Bower, G.N., Jr. & McComb, R.B. 1975.

    Measurement of total alkaline phosphatase

    activity in human serum. Clin. Chem. 21(3) :

    1988-95.

    19. Henry, R. J., Chaimori, N. Golub, O.J.

    and Berkman, S. 1960 Revised spectrophoto-

    metric methods for the determination of

    glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic

    pyruvic transaminase and lactic acid dehy-

    drogenase. Am. J. Clin. Path. 34(4) : 381-98.

    20. Reynolds, J.E.F. 1989. Martindale the extra

    pharmacopoeia, 29th ed. The pharmaceutical

    press, London : 779.

    21. Barbara A. Brown, 1984. Hematology, 4th

    ed., Lea& Febiger : Philadelphia : 33.

    22.  ÿ¿‘π—π∑å  ‡ªì§- “¬‡™◊ÈÕ, §≥–‡∑§π‘§°“√·æ∑¬å

    ¡À“«‘∑¬“≈—¬¢Õπ·°àπ, ‚≈À‘µ«‘∑¬“, Àπâ“ 162-4.

    23. æ√∑‘æ¬å ‚≈àÀå‡≈¢“, 2533. §≥–·æ∑¬»“ µ√å

    ‚√ß欓∫“≈√“¡“∏‘∫¥’ ¡À“«‘∑¬“≈—¬¡À‘¥≈, ‡§¡’§≈‘π‘°

    ª√–¬ÿ°µå, Àπâ“ 197-218.

    24. A. Wallace Hayes, Principles and Methods

    of Toxicology 2nd, Raven press : 74-5.

    25. Murdiati TB; McSweeney CS; Campbell

    RS; Stoltz DS. 1990. Prevention of hydro-

    lysable tannin toxicity in goats fed Clidemia

    hirta by calcium hydroxide supplementation.

    J. Appl. Toxicol. 10(5) : 325-31.

    26. ™—¬«—≤πå µàÕ °ÿ≈·°â«, ∏’√–¬ÿ∑∏ °≈‘Ëπ ÿ§π∏å,

    ªí≠≠“ ‡µÁ¡‡®√‘≠, 2535, À≈—°°“√∑“ßæ‘…«‘∑¬“ Àπâ“

    75-6.

    27. Zakim D., Boyer T.D., 1982. Hepatology.

    W. B. Saunders Company : 427.

    28.Thomas, C. 1984. Myocarditis. In : Richter,

    G. W., eds. Sandritter ,s color atlas and textbook

    of histopathology 7th ed., Year book medical

    publishers, Inc. Chicago; 69.

    29.  ßà“ π‘≈«√“ß°Ÿ≈, 2526, ‚§√ß°“√µ”√“»‘√‘√“™

    §≥–·æ∑¬»“ µ√廑√‘√“™æ¬“∫“≈ ¡À“«‘∑¬“≈—¬

    ¡À‘¥≈, πÈ”·≈–Õ‘‡≈Á§‚∑√≈—¬µå, Àπâ“ 134,166.

    30. Burton, D.S., Maronpot, R.R. and Howard

    III, F.L. 1979. Frequency of hydronephrosis

    in wistar rats. Laboratory animal science. 29(5)

    : 642-4.

  • 191

    °“√»

    ÷°…“æ

    ‘…¢Õß

    „∫Ω√

    —Ëß