META Post v6.7.1 Users Guide

689
version 6.5.0

Transcript of META Post v6.7.1 Users Guide

Page 1: META Post v6.7.1 Users Guide

6.5.0

version
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BE A CAE Systems S.A. 3 µE A v.6.5.0 User�s Guide

µΕΤΑ PostProcessor version 6.5.0 User�s Guide

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µETA PostProcessor version 6.5.0. USER'S GUIDE Updated in PDF form for version 6.5.0. December 2009 COPYRIGHT © 1990-2009 BETA CAE SYSTEMS S.A. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This µETA PostProcessor User's Guide is an integral part of the µETA PostProcessor software. This User's Guide, in whole or in part, may not be copied, reproduced, translated, transferred, or reduced to any form, including electronic medium or machine-readable form, or transmitted or publicly performed by any means, electronic or otherwise, unless BETA CAE Systems consents in writing in advance. Use of the software and its documentation has been provided under a software license agreement. BETA CAE Systems assumes no responsibility or liability for any damages or data loss caused by installation or use of the software. Information described in this documentation is furnished for information only, is subject to change without notice, and should not be construed as a commitment by BETA CAE Systems. BETA CAE Systems assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may appear in this manual. The software and its documentation contain valuable trade secrets and proprietary information and are protected by copyright laws. Unauthorized use of the software or its documentation can result in civil damages and criminal prosecution. All other company and product names, mentioned in the software and its documentation, are property, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. BETA CAE Systems S.A. Kato Scholari, Thessaloniki, GR-57500 Epanomi, Greece Tel: +30-2392 021420 Fax: +30-2392 021417 E-mail: [email protected] URL: http://www.beta-cae.gr

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MAIN TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

Chapter 2 REMARKS ON µETA AND THE USER INTERFACE

Chapter 3 LOADING DATA FILES

Chapter 4 CONTROLLING THE DISPLAY STYLE OF THE MODEL

Chapter 5 ANIMATION & CONTOUR DISPLAY

Chapter 6 CUT PLANES & CUT SECTIONS

Chapter 7 ISO - FUNCTIONS

Chapter 8 IDENTIFICATION OF ENTITIES & RESULTS

Chapter 9 GROUPS

Chapter 10 CAMERA CONTROL, VIEWS MANAGEMENT & EXPLODE VIEW

Chapter 11 VIDEO & IMAGE HANDLING

Chapter 12 2D-PLOT TOOL

Chapter 13 OPERATIONS RELATED TO 3D FIELD STATES RESULTS

Chapter 14 TOOLS FOR NVH ANALYSIS

Chapter 15 SECTION FORCES

Chapter 16 ANNOTATION TOOL

Chapter 17 ADVANCED FILTER

Chapter 18 SAVING IMAGES & DATA AND PROJECTS

Chapter 19 REPORT COMPOSER

Chapter 20 EXTRA COMMANDS AVAILABLE FROM THE COMMANDS LIST

Chapter 21 AUTOMATING µETA

Chapter 22 SETTINGS, DEFAULTS FILE & USER TOOLBARS

Chapter 23 PAGES & WINDOW DEPENDENT ATTRIBUTES

Chapter 24 AVAILABLE AUTOMATED PROCEDURES

APPENDICES

Appendix A PARTS FILTERING VARIABLES

Appendix B MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSIONS & BOOLEAN OPERATIONS

Appendix C µETA RUNNING OPTIONS

Appendix D TIPS & TRICKS ON VARIOUS TOPICS

Appendix E SUPPORTED RESULTS IN µETA

Appendix F ELEMENT RESULTS & THEIR HANDLING IN µETA

Appendix G ASCII COLUMN FORMAT SUPPORTED in µETA

Appendix H CONVERT TEXT ENCODING IN µETA SUPPORTED FORMAT

Appendix I SPREADSHEET EDITOR

Appendix J WHAT CAN BE EXPORTED FROM µETA

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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION Table of Contents

1.1. About µETA ................................................................................................................................8 1.1.1. Supported platforms............................................................................................................9 1.1.2. Supported Interfaces / Formats.........................................................................................10

1.2. About this USER'S GUIDE........................................................................................................13 1.2.1. General .............................................................................................................................13 1.2.2. Notations and Symbols .....................................................................................................14

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1.1. About µETA

µETA is an advanced CAE post-processing tool. The top priority throughout its development is considered to be the user friendliness and the fast handling/processing of results from finite element analysis.

Basic concepts and features of the software are the following:

- Fast handling and processing of results.

- High performance graphics.

- Broad coverage of result types.

- Flexibility deriving from a user friendly and totally customizable interface.

- Wide range of tools such as 2Dplots that can be associated with the 3D display, multiple drawing windows, multiple cut planes, iso-contours, explode feature and others.

- Assistance with model calibration through various tools such as video synchronization.

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1.1.1. Supported platforms

IBM AIX 4.3.3 and higher � 32 bit

AIX 5.x � 32 bit AIX 5.x � 64 bit

SUN SOLARIS 5.8 and higher � 32 bit SOLARIS 5.8 and higher � 64 bit

SGI IRIX 6.5 and higher � 32 bit IRIX 6.5 and higher � 64 bit

HP HP-UX 11 pa-risc � 32 bit HP-UX 11 pa-risc � 64 bit

Linux

(glibc 2.2 or later)

32 bit 64 bit

MS-Windows Win2000 / NT / WinXP � 32 bit WinXP � 64 bit

MacOS x 10.4 x86-32

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1.1.2. Supported Interfaces / Formats

NASTRAN

Format: - Bulk Data file. - Binary (.op2), Nastran2004 NEW (.op2) format and .op2 files from Cray. - filenameDENSn.op2 files from VR-NASTRAN. - .op2 files created by GENESIS. - .op2 files created from MARC. Contact Status and Friction Forces are

supported via the op2 file only. - Contact forces results and contact pressure results from NX-NASTRAN

op2 files.

- Punch files (SORT1 and SORT2 format). - Punch files created by GENESIS. - Punch files created by FDynam. - X-Y punch files.

Data***:

- Nodal results (translational and rotational). - Element results (Solids, Shells and Line elements). - NASTRAN SOL 200 (Design Optimization).

LS-DYNA

Format: - Keyword input file. - Binary result files: d3plot, d3eigv, intfor, d3thdt and binout files. - d3plot files compressed with FEMZIP. - LS-DYNA databases in CADFEM format. - d3hsp file for Part data. - ASCII LS-DYNA time history databases.

Data***: - Nodal results. - Element results (Solids, Shells and Line elements). - Part results. - Initial Stress and Strain results.

ABAQUS Standard & ABAQUS Explicit

Format: - Input file .inp. - Output database .odb (Field & History data). - Result files .fil. - ASCII results file .fin.

Data***: - Nodal results. - Element results (Solids, Shells, Line Elements & Axisymmetric).

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PAM-CRASH

Format: - PAM-CRASH input .pc (2000 & 2G) file. - .DSY results file. - DSY files compressed with FEMZIP.and DSY.gz - .THP files and Compressed THP.gz files

Data***: - Nodal results. - Element results (Solids, Shells, Line and Link elements).

RADIOSS

Format: - RADIOSS input D00 file (Block format). - RADIOSS ANIM A00x files (versions 3.1 - 4.4). - Compressed A00x (gz and Z) files. - .T01 files (versions 3.1 - 4.4).

Data***: - Nodal results. - Element results (Solids, Shells and Line elements). - Results for User defined Material Laws.

MADYMO

Format: - KIN3 file. - All Time History databases for 2Dplot.

Data***: - Nodal results.

ANSYS

Format: - *.rst, *.rth, *.cdb files are supported.

Data***: - Nodal results.

- Element results (Solids and Shells).

MEDINA

Format: - *.bif and *.bof files

Data***: - Nodal results. - Element results (Solids, Shells)

PATRAN

Format: - Model geometry from PATRAN format files (Solids and Shells only). - Results from ASCII files in neutral PATRAN format. - FE-Fatigue results in neutral PATRAN format.

Data***: - Node and element results (Solids, Shells and Line elements).

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UNIVERSAL Files

Format: - *.unv files of types 15, 55, 58, 82, 780, 781, 2411, 2412, 2414 and 2431

Data***: - Nodal results.

Column ASCII Files

Format: - Any Column ASCII format file that has the results sorted either on Element id or Node id basis.

- Column ASCII format files from FDynam.

Data***: - Nodal results. - Element results (Solids, Shells and Line elements).

ISO Files

Format: - *.ISO files with their corresponding *.00i files.

Data***: - Curve Data

*** For more details on supported elements and results, refer to Appendix E of this Users Guide.

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1.2. About this USER'S GUIDE

1.2.1. General

This User's Guide aims at new users� progressive familiarity with µETA. Effort has been put forward, for this document to serve both as a Reference Manual and as a User�s Guide. The user may find here an outline of used functions for viewing results with µETA.

This User's Guide follows a procedural approach and it is partitioned into chapters. Each chapter refers to a distinctive unit of the program. The sequence of chapters begins with those dealing with the main functionality of the program and gradually moves to more advanced features and tools.

The user may communicate with µETA either through the user interface or through the command editor. Most of the program�s functions are supported in both modes but the new user is advised to work with the user interface for more simplicity. Hence, this User�s Guide focuses mainly on the user interface, except in cases where it is not possible to describe basic functions without referring to commands.

It should be noted that the command editor offers more options in most cases.

There are also extra functions available from the command editor. A detailed list of these functions is given in Chapter 20.

Moreover, at the end of each chapter, a list with all commands related to that particular chapter follows. Considering that list, the advanced user may alternatively perform all actions described in the relevant chapter using only the command editor.

If you have any questions about this User�s Guide, find errors or omissions in it, please email BETA CAE Systems S.A at: [email protected]

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Introduction 1.2.2. Notations and Symbols

Throughout this document, the following text presentation conventions are followed to distinguish the various text interpretations.

Object � Action Presentation Example

µETA functions, buttons and keyboard keys All capitals and Italics NOT

µETA terms First Letter Capital And Italics Curve Options card

µETA commands Courier New color background black

User input in commands or elsewhere

Courier New, Italics and Underlined Read session test.op2

Referenced field for user input <Quoted> Read session <File name>

Available options within a step of a command application

In brackets and separated by slashes { / / / }

explode model interactive {<Enter Model id> / act / all}

Tabs within a card Red Color & Italics as follows: Tab>Sub-tab

Curve Options>Synchronize tab within the 2Dplot card

Graphical conventions are also used. Mouse and keyboard icons, arrows, cursors etc. are widely utilized. Some examples are presented below:

Cursor position in a µETA drawing window when in selection mode.

Click and drag with mouse button movement (box selection).

Cursor position in the µETA drawing window not in selection mode or over menus and entry cards.

Keyboard for alphanumerical input

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Chapter 2 REMARKS ON µETA & THE USER INTERFACE

Table of Contents 2.1. General .....................................................................................................................................16 2.2. Screen Layout...........................................................................................................................16 2.3. Use of mouse buttons ...............................................................................................................17 2.4. Selecting items from the screen................................................................................................17 2.5. Function of keys........................................................................................................................18 2.6. View control using the mouse ...................................................................................................20 2.7. Using File Browsers ..................................................................................................................21 2.8. Using lists .................................................................................................................................21

2.8.1. Selection ...........................................................................................................................21 2.8.2. Multiple selection...............................................................................................................21 2.8.3. Series selection.................................................................................................................22 2.8.4. Filtering listed items by name............................................................................................22 2.8.5. Filtering listed items by ids ................................................................................................23 2.8.6. Visibility of listed items ......................................................................................................23

2.9. Fields for text input....................................................................................................................23 2.10. Adjusting tuning bars (sliders).................................................................................................24 2.11. Messaging in µETA.................................................................................................................24 2.12. Working with commands.........................................................................................................25

2.12.1. Using the Commands list ................................................................................................26 2.12.2. Using the command line..................................................................................................27 2.12.3. Command history ............................................................................................................27 2.12.4. General Remarks on commands.....................................................................................28

2.13. Drawing windows (3d) and 2d plot windows ...........................................................................28 2.13.1. Remarks on Drawing windows (3d) and 2d plot windows ...............................................29

2.14. Customizing the Interface .......................................................................................................30 2.14.1. Customizing the layout of the interface ...........................................................................30 2.14.2. Customizing the attributes of the interface (attributes of cards and windows).................34

2.15. Key issue: Active model, Active window and Enabled Windows .............................................35 2.15.1. Active Model....................................................................................................................35 2.15.2. Active Window.................................................................................................................36 2.15.3. Enabled Windows ...........................................................................................................36

2.16. Focusing on items...................................................................................................................37 2.16.1. The Focus Group of buttons:...........................................................................................37 2.16.2. Focusing through cards...................................................................................................38 2.16.3. Lock Manager .................................................................................................................39

2.17. Related Commands ................................................................................................................40

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2.1. General

µETA can be launched with several different running options. Refer to Appendix C at the end of this User�s Guide or to the Set Up Guide for more information on running options.

Functions, which expect a selection, remain activated unless another function, which expects a selection, is activated or ESC key is pressed.

2.2. Screen Layout

The interface is totally customizable. Therefore, the layout that is presented here is not standard.

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2.3. Use of mouse buttons

The left mouse button is mainly used to:

- press buttons and activate menu buttons or deactivate menu buttons

- select entities from the screen

- select or deselect entities from lists

The middle mouse button is mainly used to:

- cancel the currently activated button

- declare the end of a selection process

- show an input field or a menu hosted behind a menu button

The right mouse button is mainly used to:

- show an input field or a menu hidden behind a menu button

- lock a state for animation

- deselect from the screen previously selected items

The mouse buttons are also used:

- for moving cut planes

- combined with the CTRL key for view control

2.4. Selecting items from the screen

The user may select items either one by one or by box-selection.

- For one by one selection, press the left-mouse button on each entity.

- For box-selection, press and hold the left mouse-button and drag the mouse by means of the diagonal of a rectangle.

- To deselect items (in functions where this is possible), use the right mouse button instead of the left. Deselecting is possible either on one by one basis or using a box selection.

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2.5. Function of keys

Cancels the currently activated function or closes a card which is in focus.

Top standard view on vehicle (global) coordinate system.

Front standard view on vehicle (global) coordinate system.

Left standard view on vehicle (global) coordinate system.

Bottom standard view on vehicle (global) coordinate system.

Back standard view on vehicle (global) coordinate system.

Right standard view on vehicle (global) coordinate system.

Zoom in at mouse cursor position.

Zoom out at mouse cursor position.

Zoom all.

Default view.

Moves the view so as the mouse cursor points at the center of the Active window. For SUN keyboards the corresponding key is STOP.

Opens the card Set Visible Entities which controls the visibility of entities. For SUN keyboards the corresponding key is AGAIN.

Esc

y

x F1

z

z F2

y x

y

z F3

x

y F4

x z

z F5

y x

z

x

F6 y

F7

F8

F9

F10

F11

F12

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The buttons ALL, NONE and INVERT can be used for quick selection.

For activation or deactivation of flag buttons, the box selection is also available. While pressing and holding the left mouse button, select by box the flag buttons to be activated. To deactivate, press and hold the right mouse button and select by box.

This type of entities does not exist in the selected loaded model.

This type of entities exists in the selected loaded model but it will not be visible.

This type of entities exists in the selected loaded model and will be visible.

From this toggle button select the loaded model to apply the entities visibility control.

Enters the command history window and moves up / down in that window. Moves up / down in the History of any text button if the latter is focused. Moves up / down in a list of any card if the list is focused.

Moves left / right the command editor cursor or any other text cursor.

Moves pages up / down in a list if the list is focused.

Moves to the first / last entity in the list if the list is focused. Moves to the start / end of a text in a text field if the text field is focused.

Moves the focus to different tabs or fields within a card. When used inside the Commands list, it opens the next step within the command tree of the selected command. When used inside a field for directory / file selection, provides Auto-Completion and moves through available options that match the input string.

Necessary to accept an input in a field or in an input card if an OK button is not included in the card. If OK button exists then pressing ENTER is the same as pressing OK button. Also, necessary to apply a command from the command line.

It can be used with designated keys (eg. the one that is underlined within the name of a pull-down menu) to open pull-down menus and to navigate between options within a pull-down menu.

Page Up

Page Down

Home End

Tab

Enter

Alt

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2.6. View control using the mouse

The view rotates around an axis, which is perpendicular to the mouse track and lies on the screen plane. The rotation pole is automatically defined on the closest position that the mouse was pointing at when the left mouse button was pressed.

The view rotates around an axis, which is normal to the screen plane. The rotation pole is automatically defined on the closest position that the mouse was pointing at when the right mouse button was pressed.

The view translates along the mouse track.

The view Zooms IN and OUT according to the mouse movement. Shifting the mouse downwards or to the left causes the view to Zoom IN. By transposing it upwards or to the right, causes the view to Zoom OUT. Zoom IN and OUT is also achieved through the mouse wheel.

Mouse Track

Ctrl

Rotation Axis

Mouse Track

Ctrl

IN

OUT

Ctrl

Ctrl

Mouse Track

Rotation Axis

Remarks:

- To apply faster the above modes for view control, especially on large models, the user may press both CTRL and SHIFT key. In this way, the model is viewed only with feature lines during the changing of the view and response is remarkably faster.

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2.7. Using File Browsers

1. Filters can be applied at the Look in field at the top of the browser and all applied filters are kept in a history box at the bottom of the browser for future use.

2. Pressing the Left Mouse button inside either of the two lists and then hitting any letter-key enables selection of the first item in the list that has a name starting with this letter.

3. Listed files / directories can be sorted in ascending / descending order according to any of the available columns (Name, Size, Date) by pressing the Left Mouse button on the title of the respective column.

4. A file or a directory can be renamed or deleted directly from the File Browser lists (press the Right Mouse button on top of an item and the relevant options menu appears).

3

m2

1

Enter

2.8. Using lists

Many functions in µETA use lists. Lists are easy to handle and the features that are used for selecting and unselecting listed items apply to most of them. 2.8.1. Selection

To select a listed item use the left mouse button. If the left mouse button is pressed on another listed item, then the previous selected one becomes unselected and the new one is selected.

2.8.2. Multiple selection

To select more than one listed items, keep the CTRL key pressed and use the left mouse button. Unselect a selected item in the same way (keep the CTRL key pressed and click the left mouse button on the selected listed item).

Ctrl

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2.8.3. Series selection

Series selection may be performed by keeping the left mouse button pressed and dragging the mouse until all the required items are marked. The same can be applied by selecting the first item of the series and then select the last item of the series while keeping SHIFT key pressed. a. b.

Shift

Some lists hold items of different hierarchical levels. These lists support tree form listing. Trees can be expanded or collapsed using the left mouse button. 2.8.4. Filtering listed items by name

The filtering fields in cards support filtering by name. In this case, the following wild characters are supported:

* : match any or no characters at all. ? : match any single character. [ ] : match any of the characters inside the brackets. [A-E] : match any of the characters of the specified range inside the brackets. [!A] or [^A] : match any of the characters except the ones specified inside the brackets.

Examples on filtering by name are depicted below:

Match all items in the list that include the string �PART� within their name.

Match all items in the list that their name ends with either of the strings:

�PART<any single character>1� �PART<any single character>3�

Match all items in the list that their name ends with either of the strings:

�PART<any single character>1� �PART<any single character>2� �PART<any single character>3�

Enter

Enter

Enter

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2.8.5. Filtering listed items by ids

For fields that support filtering of listed items by ids, type inside the field the ids of the entities and press ENTER. The following syntax forms are available:

Simple selection 4/6/8 or 4,6,8

Selects entities with ids 4, 6 and 8.

Range selection 4-8-2 Selects the entities with ids between 4 and 8 with a step of 2. If the step number is omitted, the step is one.

Combination of the above options

1/4/5-10-2 Selects entities with ids 1, 4, 5, 7 and 9.

2.8.6. Visibility of listed items

Inside the Groups List and Curve List in 2Dplot listed items which are currently not visible are shown with gray colored font.

Inside the Active Model, the Annotations, the Cut Planes and the Visual Resources lists, there is a visibility column, denoted by a light bulb, which shows the current visibility status of the listed item. Double clicking on the light bulb with the left mouse button switches the bulb on and off and thus shows or hides the listed item.

X2

2.9. Fields for text input

All user input fields provide a history list. The user may open the history list for selection or switch the selected entry, one-by-one, by traveling in the history with the Up and Down arrow keys.

An option menu appears when pressing the Right Mouse button in a user input field.

To clear a history list, press the Right Mouse button on top of the arrow button and select Clear history.

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2.10. Adjusting tuning bars (sliders)

Some functions incorporate tuning bars for adjusting control parameters. These bars may be moved either: - By dragging the bar with the left or the middle

mouse button and move it left - right. - By activating the respective field and move the bar

using Up � Down arrows on the keyboard. The moving step is 1.

2.11. Messaging in µETA

The user communicates with the program through: - META-Post Messages window. It prints information during execution of commands. All these

messages are written in META_post.log file after the program is quitted. A pop-up menu appears when pressing the right mouse button inside the window.

- Command editor. Any command may be applied by typing it in the editor and pressing ENTER.

is focused.

Press this button with the Left mouse button to open the Command History

window. Alternatively, press

the Up or Down arrow keys while

the Command Line

META-Post Messages window

Command Editor (Command Line)

- Command history window. Each applied command is passed to the Command History. - Tools � Tips with descriptive information about a function. These Tool-Tips appear when the

mouse cursor is placed over the respective button.

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2.12. Working with commands

Functions and processes within µETA may be applied either from the main interface or from the Commands list or by typing commands in the command editor. A full list of commands in a tree form appears in the Commands card, which is invoked by selecting Commands from the Tools pull-down menu.

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Remarks

- The Commands list can be sorted alphabetically in ascending / descending order according to either the Command or the Help column just be pressing the Left Mouse button on top of the title of the respective column.

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2.12.1. Using the Commands list

For the following example, the target is to apply the command: read session <File name>

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1. From the Commands list select read. The tree with the available options is expanded. read is written in the command line.

2. From the available options under read, select session. session is added to the command line and the relevant tree is expanded and now the only option is <{Filename}>. The brackets { } denote that user input is required. In other commands, the user input may be denoted with the word <Enter>.

3. Press the Left Mouse button on top of the <{Filename}> string to enter the field for user input.

4. Enter the path in the filed and press ENTER. Alternatively, the file may be selected from a file browser which can be invoked by pressing the relevant button with the Left Mouse button.

The command is executed and passed to the command history.

3 2

1

4

4 Enter

Remarks:

- The Commands list can be searched on a keyword basis using the Filter field (options for filtering by name are described in par. 2.7.4). When a filter is applied, only the commands that contain a string that matches the string in the Filter field remain listed.

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2.12.2. Using the command line

Alternatively, the user could use only the command line for entering a command. Assume that the same command as previous is to be applied: read session <File name>. In this case, the TAB key for completion and information can be proved very useful.

1

Tab

2

Tab

Tab

4

3

Tab

2.12.3. Command history

To view the Command History, press the arrow button with the Left Mouse button.

Alternatively, press the Up or Down arrow keys while the Command Line is activated.

7

Enter

Tab

6

5

Tab

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2.12.4. General Remarks on commands

- To work faster with commands, the user may select already executed commands from the command history window either with the left mouse button or navigating with the Up and Down arrow keys inside the command history window. The selected command is typed in the command line. The user may alter a name or what else is necessary and apply the new command by pressing ENTER.

- The final step of almost all commands that are applied on entities is selection. For this step, four options are provided:

a) <Range> This option requires user input regarding ids of entities that will accept the command. The following syntax forms are available:

Simple selection 4/6/8 or 4,6,8 Selects entities with ids 4, 6 and 8..

Range selection 4-8-2 Selects the entities with ids between 4 and 8 with a step of 2. If the step number is omitted, the step is one.

Combination of the above options

1/4/5-10-2 Selects entities with ids 1, 4, 5, 7 and 9.

b) act The command is applied on visible entities. c) all The command is applied on all entities. d) pick The command enters �selection from screen� mode. The user picks

from the screen the entities that will accept the command.

2.13. Drawing windows (3d) and 2d plot windows

The user has the option to create multiple Drawing (3d) windows and 2d plot windows. Loaded models appear in all 3d windows that exist at the time of loading. 2d plot windows are used to view results in a 2-D diagram form. To create a Drawing (3d) or a 2d plot window, select with the left mouse button the corresponding option from the Windows pull-down menu.

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2.13.1. Remarks on Drawing windows (3d) and 2d plot windows

- To delete a window, press X at the right top corner with the left mouse button.

- All currently available windows (3d and 2d plot windows) are displayed in the Windows switcher. Switch between the different windows just by picking them with the Left Mouse button or by pressing CTRL + TAB keys from the keyboard.

- The windows may be docked / undocked from the Windows pull-down menu.

- All currently available windows can be tiled, tiled vertically, tiled horizontally, minimized and cascaded. These options are available from the Windows pull-down menu. Only docked and not minimized, windows are considered for tiling or cascading. Moreover, the user can handle the windows manually and may customize their layout.

- The Layout can be controlled automatically through the Windows>Layout, which allows the user to perform multiple window arrangement combinations (24) without the need to create the windows before hand. Also the user can convert 3d to 2d windows and vice versa just by selecting the respective list option and then pick the necessary windows. Also window swapping can be performed, by selecting the respective windows to swap positions.

- 3d windows can be synchronized with each other. In case at least two 3d windows exist and one of them is active, the option Synchronise appears within the Windows pull-down menu and can be used for synchronizing this 3d window with another one. That means that any change in the view of the latter window is reflected in the view of the former window (the currently Active one). For the Windows switcher shown above, Window1 is a 2d plot window and Window2 is a 3d window. The corresponding Windows pull-down menu is:

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2.14. Customizing the Interface

2.14.1. Customizing the layout of the interface

All available cards, menus and User defined toolbars (see Chapter 22 for details in User defined toolbars) can be docked or tabbed in all four sides of the Graphical display.

- By pressing the Right Mouse button anywhere inside the Top bar (where the pull down menus are placed), a full list of all available cards, menus and User toolbars appears indicating their current visibility status. The user may control from this list the visibility of these cards and menus.

Standard µETA Tools & Menus

User Defined Toolbars

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- Docking a card. Pick it with the Left Mouse button and drag � drop it to one of the sides of the µETA display. If another card is already docked, the second card is docked according to which side of the first card has been picked for dropping the second one. To un-dock a card, pick it from the 2 lines border side (x sign and 2 parallel lines) and drag � drop.

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- Tabbing a card. Pick it with the Left Mouse Button and drag - drop on top of the 2 lines border side (x sign and 2 parallel lines) of an already docked card. To un-tab a card, pick it from the Tab label and drag - drop.

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- Minimizing a card. Pick it with the Middle Mouse Button on the title bar. The window is minimized, so that only the title bar is shown. It can be moved as any other card by pressing and dragging the left mouse button on it. To restore the card to its original size, press the Middle Mouse Button on the title bar once more.

- Customizing the columns of a list in a card. To change the order with which columns of cards appear, select the column name with the Left Mouse button and drag � drop to another position. The width of columns can also be customised.

Remarks

- To just move a card on the side without docking it or tabbing it, press the CTRL key before dropping the card.

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- To save the layout of the User Interface, select the Save GUI settings option from the Windows pull-down menu. The layout is saved in a file named META_post.xml, which is located in the directory ./BETA/META and it is read by µETA upon launching. (For more details on META_post.xml file refer to Chapter Settings, Defaults File & User Toolbars).

- Another level of user interface customization is achieved through the definition of User Toolbars. Commands or series of commands can be assigned to buttons and these buttons may be grouped in different toolbars. Definition of buttons and toolbars has to be included within the META_post.defaults file. Refer to Chapter 22 for details on User toolbar definition. All available User defined toolbars can be found under the User Toolbars pull-down menu and can be docked or tabbed just like any other standard card / menu / tool.

- Lock the page (windows) layout by selecting the Lock option from the Windows pull-down menu. This way by resizing the workspace the windows will be resized too in order the selected layout to be kept.

The respective command is: page layout {lock / unlock} <page_id>

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2.14.2. Customizing the attributes of the interface (attributes of cards and windows)

- To modify the attributes of the User Interface for Unix and Linux platforms, select the Qt Config ... option from the Windows pull-down menu and the Qt Configuration tool opens. Use this tool to set new attributes for the User Interface. In the end, in order to apply the new settings, it is necessary to save the settings through the Save option from the File pull-down menu within the Qt Configuration card.

NOTE that the Qt Configuration tool is a third party software, completely independent from µETA.

- For Windows platforms, the attributes are the same as those used as global attributes for Windows. Therefore, if any modification will take place on the global Windows attributes, this will also affect the attributes of µETA.

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2.15. Key issue: Active model, Active window and Enabled Windows µETA offers enhanced manageability throughout a simple, user-friendly interface. This fact becomes more prominent when loading and post-processing multiple models at the same time. On the other hand, even if only one model is being processed, µETA provides the option of viewing results on several drawing windows or 2D Plot windows at the same time. For multi-model and multi-window easy handling, there are two important keywords that the user should be familiar with from the very beginning: Active model and Active window. 2.15.1. Active Model

The Active model is the model that will accept almost every action or applied function in µETA. To control Active model, press the left mouse button on top menu Models. The relevant card appears.

1. All currently loaded models appear in the list. Each model is assigned a unique id number.

Renaming the models� description can be achieved either through the interface by clicking on the Model�s label or through the command

model label <Description> <Model id> 2. With the left mouse button select only one of the listed items to become the Active model. The

selected option becomes highlighed. 3. The user may select �Empty- option only for loading a new model without deleting any of the

already loaded ones. Applying any of the functions at the bottom of the card on �Empty- is the same as applying it on ALL option.

4. The visibility of the models can be controlled using the Or, And, Not and Invert functions at the bottom of the card. Note that these functions do not affect the Active status of models. They affect only the visibility status of models, which is shown in the left column. The visibility of the models is a Window Dependent Attribute, which means it is applied to the enabled windows. To learn more about the Window Dependent Attributes read the relevant Chapter.

5. To link a model in other windows, so that it can be made visible and manipulated in this window also, select the Link� button. A window pops up, where the user can select among the windows in which the model does not currently exist. Linking a model does not copy the model, so no extra memory is occupied by µETA.

6. To unlink a model select the Unlink� button. 7. To delete a model press the Delete button. The model is deleted from all windows and the

memory, it occupied, is freed. The model is also deleted if the user selects to unlink it from all windows.

8. The user can also explode the selected model/s by pressing the Explode button and drag the model keeping the left mouse-button pressed. Right mouse-button click on the Explode button will reset the action.

9. The user can change the model colors of one or more models by selecting the respective models and pressing on the Color button.

10. To view the whole paths of the models filenames deactivate the Compressed Filename option.

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Special Active Model Issues 1. Control of the Active model is also provided from the relevant

toggle menu within the main interface.

2. The user can lock one or more models in the Active Model list by pressing the right mouse

button. The model has to be linked in a window in order to become locked. To unlock models press the right mouse button on ALL. When models are locked: - Button Invert inverts only the visibility of the locked models - The user can easily navigate through the models by pressing Ctrl � Right/Left Arrow. Every

time Ctrl � Right/Left Arrow is pressed, the next/previous locked model or all locked models of the active window become active and are isolated in the window.

Locking models is a Window Dependent Attribute, which means that it is applied on the enable windows and the user can have differently locked models at each window. To learn more about Window Dependent Attributes read the relevant chapter.

3. µETA can also activate ONLY the models which exist in a 3d plot window, each time this is activated,. To enable this function, go to Tools > Settings and activate in the Global Settings > General the Activate Models of Active Window flag button.

4. It is possible to apply commands from the command line on models, which are not Active. For

that, it is necessary to follow the syntax: <id of the model>:<command to be applied>

Note that the colon is necessary in this case. Moreover, after application of such a command, the model, which is referenced by its id, remains not Active.

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2.15.2. Active Window

The Active window is the one that interacts with the user. However, if a model appears in more than one 3d windows, then the results of all functions that apply on the model are viewed in all windows where this model resides. Only one window at a time can be active. The currently Active window is highlighted in the Windows switcher.

2.15.3. Enabled Windows

In µETA there are some entities and settings, such as the current state, the drawing styles, the fringe options, the cut planes or the windows settings, which are called Window Dependent Attributes. Any command to modify these attributes is applied only to the Enabled Windows.

The user should not confuse the Active Window with the Enabled Windows: - Active Window can only be one window. It is the window which is in focus and it is highlighted in the Windows switcher. All options are set according to the active window each time. - Enabled Windows are the windows which the user has selected to apply some changes regarding the window dependent attributes.

More information about the window dependent attributes is displayed in Chapter 23 �Window Dependent Attributes�.

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2.16. Focusing on items Focusing actions may be performed in µETA through the following:

- Focus Group of buttons (For all types of entities). Focusing is performed directly on the 3d (Drawing) windows. For commands that selection is demanded, first activate the command and then select from the screen the Pids, Mids or Entities where the command is applied.

- Through cards (for entities relevant to each card). Selection of items is performed through the relevant list and the focusing outcome is viewed on the Drawing windows.

2.16.1. The Focus Group of buttons:

Focus functions can be applied either at Pid, at Mid or at Entities level. Focus functions can be applied on Cut Planes and Iso-functions (Iso-lines and Iso-surfaces) either when on Pid, on Mid or on Entities mode.

Logical operation for the selection of items to remain visible.

Logical operation for the selection of items to become visible.

Logical operation for the selection of items to be excluded from the view. The Peel option (exclude the visible outer elements) is included in the right mouse options of NOT.

Logical operation to invert the visibility of items. This means that visible items become not visible and vice versa.

As long as this flag button is activated, it keeps the working area locked.

Logical operation to make all the items that belong to the Active model visible. If the flag Lock is active, only the items that were visible at the time this button was activated will become visible.

Logical operation for all neighbouring items to those which are currently visible, to appear on the screen as well.

Logical operation for the selection of hidden Pids, Mids or Entities to become visible. This is a two-stage focus function. First, visibility is inverted to select the Pids, Mids or Entities to become visible. Select either one by one using the left mouse button or by multiple box selection. Selected items are excluded from the screen. When selection is over, press the middle mouse button. Selected Pids, Mids or Entities become visible.

Logical operation for the selection of Pids, Mids or Entities not to be excluded from the screen. This is a two-stage focus function. First select the Pids, Mids or Entities that will be kept visible either one by one using the left mouse button or by multiple box selection. Selected items are excluded from the screen. When selection is over, press the middle mouse button. All selected Pids, Mids or Entities, and only these, become visible.

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Remarks:

- All focus commands are Active model dependent regarding Pids, Mids and Elements of a model. When focusing is applied through picking from the screen, the user can also choose if the focus actions should be applied to only the picked model or all active models (this is handled from the Focus Buttons Behaviour in the Settings window, see also Chapter �Settings, Defaults File & User Toolbars�).

- Focusing on other items such as Cut Planes and Iso-functions is independent of the Active model.

- For the Or, Not, And focus commands within the main menu, �undo� feature is available for the last five steps. The user can move one step back each time the right mouse button is pressed while still inside the focus function.

- Focusing can be limited only on specified entities for the commands Or, And, Not, All and Neighb. This is available through the menu that appears after pressing the middle or the right mouse button on the relevant function.

From the menu that appears, select the type of entities where focusing will be applied and proceed with the picking of items from the screen.

Particularly for All command, it is possible to select more than one type of entities. By removing the mouse pointer out of the menu, all entities of the model that belong to the selected types, become visible.

- Applying the All option of the Neighb pop-up menu brings to display all neighboring Pids / Mids / Elements until no other neighbors are found, in just one step.

2.16.2. Focusing through cards

For the use of the Focusing functions which are embedded within the different tools / cards

the application sequence is as follows:

- From the list within the card select the items to perform focusing.

- Select the focus function from the Focus buttons within the card.

- The outcome is viewed in the Drawing windows.

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2.16.3. Lock Manager

The user has the option to store locked visibilities.

By pressing the Lock flag button with middle mouse button an Input window will appear in order the user to save the current visible entities in the Lock Manager with the name that will be specified in this input window.

By pressing the Lock button with right mouse button the Lock Manager window appears.

In the Lock Manager there is a list with all the saved Locks. New locked visibilities can be saved from the currently visible entities or by using Advanced Filter. Stored locks can be relocked by pressing the

button. Focus commands can be applied on the stored locks. Stored locks can be duplicated and deleted. Having Auto Fit(F9) activated by selected a stored lock the locked entities will be fitted in the screen. With Auto Redraw activated when a stored lock is selected in the list only the locked entities will stay visible.

Selecting a lock from the list with right mouse button a pop-up menu appears where the user can: - Relock the selected stored visibility - Update the selected stored lock adding the currently visible entities - Rename the selected stored lock. - Duplicate the stored lock - Save the selected stored lock into a session file. - Copy the stored locks to other models in the same or in other windows - Apply focus commands - Delete the selected stored lock

Remarks:

- Using the Active Models and Active Windows functionality the user may save different Locked visibilities for different models in different Windows. For more information about Active Models andEnabled Windows refer to Chapter 2.15

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2.17. Related Commands

√ √

√ √

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Chapter 3

LOADING DATA FILES Table of Contents

3.1. Loading Geometry Data............................................................................................................42 3.2. Loading Results Data................................................................................................................43 3.3. Loading Scalar Results .............................................................................................................46 3.4. Loading Vector Results.............................................................................................................47 3.5. Remarks on Loading Data ........................................................................................................48

3.5.1. General .............................................................................................................................48 3.5.2. Remarks on particular types of results ..............................................................................52 3.5.3. Active Models....................................................................................................................53 3.5.4. Loading additional Models.................................................................................................54

3.6. Loading additional results for the same model..........................................................................54 3.7. Loading results from different files but for the same model.......................................................55 3.8. Loading Design Optimization results (NASTRAN SOL 200) .....................................................56

3.8.1. Remarks on loading Design Optimization results..............................................................57 3.9. Loading Complex Results .........................................................................................................58 3.10. Loading Composites Results ..................................................................................................58 3.11. Transforming results with respect to a local coordinate system..............................................61

3.11.1. Creation of User Coordinate Systems.............................................................................61 3.11.2. Results transformation ....................................................................................................62

3.12. Loading Safety Margin results ................................................................................................65 3.13. Loading PATRAN results ........................................................................................................66 3.14. Loading of Column ASCII results files.....................................................................................67 3.15. Loading of Universal results files ............................................................................................67 3.16. Linear Combination of Results ................................................................................................67

3.16.1. General functionality .......................................................................................................67 3.16.2. One-step creation of multiple states corresponding to different points of a Load History70 3.16.3. Combination of results from different files .......................................................................70 3.16.4. Remarks on Linear Combination of results .....................................................................71

3.17. Related Commands ................................................................................................................72

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3.1. Loading Geometry Data

From the File pull down menu, select Open. The �Read Results� card opens in the Geometry tab, by default. Note that using the File New option the user can create a New Empty session. Prior to any other type of data, geometry data of a model should be loaded. Supported files are:

NASTRAN Bulk data file, .op2 output file or .pch punch file. Also NASTRAN op2 files created from ADAMSMNF are supported.

LS-DYNA Keyword input file, d3plot file or d3eigv in case of an Eigenvalue analysis, INTFOR file (Read geometry & results from the INTFOR). Also compressed femzip d3plot files.

ABAQUS .inp input file, Output database (extension .odb) or ABAQUS results file (extension .fil), or ASCII results file (extension .fin).

PAM CRASH .pc input file (2000 and 2G) or DSY results file. Also compressed femzip and .gz DSY files

RADIOSS RADIOSS input D00 file (Block format) and A000 results files (versions 3.1 - 4.4). Compressed (gz, Z) ANIM files can be read.

MADYMO Geometry (Shells, Solids, Ellipsoids) from .kn3 file. Also displacements are read from the .kn3 file as well.

ANSYS Geometry from .cdb file or .rst file or .rth file. PATRAN PATRAN Geometry (Shells & Solids) in Patran file format. MEDINA Geometry from .bif file

UNIVERSAL FILES

Geometry from .unv files in formats: - Nodes: 15, 781, 2411 - Elements: 82, 780, 2412, 2431 - Properties: 2437, 2448, 2470 - Materials: 1710, 1714, 1716

META DATABASES Geometry from .metadb file

For all the above solvers apart Madymo and Patran the ANSA Comments are supported only if the geometry is loaded from the respective input file. The hierarchy of the model, as this is represented in ANSA Part Manager, the color of each part as defined in ANSA, as well as the names of entities as defined in ANSA, is passed to µETA through the ANSA Comments. Session files created by µETA can be read as well (refer to Chapter �Automating META�).

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The File Format selection field allows filtering of files depending on the Solver. This field is by default set to Auto Detect, so the user need only select a solver type if a file does not have the appropriate extension (e.g. the *.odb extension for ABAQUS). The Model action field controls whether the model to be loaded will overwrite the currently active model, overwrite all loaded models, or create a new model. In the Filename field the user can input the path to the model to be loaded and load its geometry by hitting ENTER or clicking the Read button. Note that the field features auto-completion (in conjunction with the "Tab" key) of the path typed. Alternatively, the user can open the File Manager by clicking on the appropriate button and locate the model geometry file.

The Read Results card has a history feature, so the user can select a previously loaded geometry file from the list that appears pressing the button at the right of the Filename field.

Now the model is loaded and appears in all enabled windows.

Note that if the File Format field is switched to Session, the user may select a session file to read. (For details on the creation of session files from µETA refer to Chapter 21).

3.2. Loading Results Data Loading the results of a model (Displacement data and Scalar or Vector Results data) is made in one step, provided that some checks have been done, beforehand, by the user. A guideline for loading results follows:

1. Assuming that geometry is already loaded, switch to the Results tab. Four tabs can be seen, the current being the

States tab. 2. The results file with the available states is

recognized automatically. In case it isn�t, or if a file other than the one recognized is to be read the user can locate it manually: use the Filename field, or open the File Manager from the button, or load a previously loaded file from the history button of the Filename field).

The existing model states within the selected file will appear in the list box. 3. Select the states to load. By default all

states are selected but as many states as necessary can be read at the same time - selection follows the standard functionality of lists and selected states remain highlighted.

Do not click Read yet, but switch to the Deformation tab.

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From the toggle button, that holds all available results of Displacement data within the particular file, select the desired type of data (e.g. Displacements, SPC Forces, Velocities, Accelerations) using the left mouse button. Notice the Set as Default button which forces µETA to remember the selected type of data for the next file to be loaded, even in a different session.

Note that the term Displacements refers to node vector data. However, node vector data may also be loaded under Scalar or Vector Results. The reason that node data are denoted as Displacement is that loading node vector data this way, makes it possible to view them as deformation of the model on the screen. Regarding information on Displacement Data that can be loaded refer to Appendix E. Remarks on loading Displacements

In the Read Options section, if the Deformation Scale Factor selection field is set to Auto Calculate, the scale factor for deformation is calculated automatically for each model and for the selected state(s).

This means that the factor�s value depends also on the Displacement data of the selected state(s) and a factor is assigned each time the Read button is pressed. Therefore, selecting to load more than one state results in selected states having the same factor, while selecting and loading states one after the other causes the calculation of a different factor for each state.

This scale factor is related to the flag button DEFORM of the Focus group of buttons (refer to Chapter �Controlling the Display Style of the Model�) and determines how the deformation of the model (which, itself, is related to node data) is viewed on the screen. If the Deformation Scale Factor selection field is set to Specify, the last calculated scale factor is attributed to the model. In case this is the first model to be loaded, then a default factor of 1 is attributed to the model.

The Cut-Off tab is a feature used to limit the amount of data loaded by µETA and avoid memory allocation problems due to large databases. By typing a value, a check is made by µETA and, depending on the results of each part of the model, only required data are loaded. Also by activating the Cut-Off Hidden parts only results for the visible parts are loaded. If the Cut-Off Values less than flag button is on and a value has been specified in the field then µETA will perform the following actions during loading: - For Deformation results: If over 90% of the nodes of a part have a magnitude which is less

than the specified Cut-Off value, then only values for the nodes which have a magnitude above the Cut-Off will be loaded for this part. The rest nodes of this part will be assigned a 0 value. The same happens if the Cut-Off Hidden parts is activated before loading the deformation and some parts are hidden, then these parts will be assigned a 0 value after loading.

- For Scalar or Vector results: If over 90% of the Nodal Function, Element Centroid and Element Corner (if present) results of a part exhibit an absolute value (ABS(x)) less than the specified Cut-

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Off value, then only values for the elements which have a magnitude above the Cut-Off will be loaded for this part. The rest elements of this part will be assigned a 0 value.

Note that the condition of 90% of the values of a part takes into account the total number of Nodal Function, Element Centroid and Element Corner results. The same happens if the Cut-Off Hidden parts is activated before loading the Scalar or Vector and some parts are hidden, then these parts will be assigned a 0 value after loading.

Remarks on the Cut-Off feature:

- The condition of the 90% applies on part level and not on model�s level. - For Scalar and Vector results, the condition of 90% of the values of a part takes into account the

total number of Nodal Function, Element Centroid and Element Corner results. - For NASTRAN, PATRAN and ASCII results, filtering is performed by default with a Cut-Off value

0. This cannot be deactivated but the user may specify another Cut-Off value, if necessary. - The saved µETA databases for models with compressed results are not supported from

versions older than the µETA v5.1.0.

Having loaded the model Geometry and having decided on which States to load and what Displacement data to load, the user needs to decide whether Scalar or Vector results will be loaded. Description of loading either of them follows in the next sections.

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3.3. Loading Scalar Results

Assuming that Scalar results are to be loaded:

1. Switch to the Scalar tab to load Scalar results - these include all node and element data available within a file.

2. Depending on the solver and the results requested, a number of selection fields appear and the user can select which of the available results will be loaded. The first field holds the requested results while in the depicted example three additional fields appear: one for the available component results of the respective Scalar function, one for the available options regarding which side of the shells the results refer to (e.g. Max of Top-Bottom, Average of Top-Bottom etc) and one offering the option to read either Centroid, Corner or Integration Point results (this is oriented to NASTRAN or ABAQUS files which may hold this kind of data). For supported Scalar function results files refer to Appendix E. Notice the Set as Default button, which forces µETA to remember the selected type of results for the next file to be loaded, even in a different session.

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3 4

1

The Read Options section of the Scalar tab includes different options for calculating element results on nodes (e.g. nodal stress Compute, Average and Average, Compute options) and options for transforming node and element results to specified local coordinate systems. A detailed description of these options is available in Appendix F. 3. Verify that the required results to be read are active. If Vector results instead of Scalar were

required to be loaded move to the next section. 4. Having checked that the required results options are selected, click on the Read button - µETA

reads in the relevant data.

Remarks on loading Scalar Results: - Note that the red asterisk denotes results calculated by µETA. - For ABAQUS element results that are output by the solver at the Integration Points, if the Corner

loading option is selected, µETA calculates the Corner values by extrapolating the Integration Point results at the vertices of the elements. A detailed description of handling such results is available in Appendix F.

- Optionally, in case of PATRAN files, the Select Template filename field can be used to point to a template file model that will be read before loading the results.

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3.4. Loading Vector Results

Assuming that Vector results are to be loaded: 1. Switch to the Vector tab to load Vector

results - these include all node and element data available in vector form within a file.

2. Depending on the solver and the results

requested, a number of selection fields appear and the user can select which of the available results will be loaded. The first field holds the requested results while in the depicted example two additional fields appear: one for the available component results of the respective Vector function and one for the available options regarding which side of the shells the results refer to (e.g. Max of Top-Bottom, Average of Top-Bottom etc). For supported Scalar function results files refer to Appendix E. Notice the Set as Default button, which forces µETA to remember the selected type of results for the next file to be loaded, even in a different session.

The Read Options section of the Vector tab includes a selection field for the Vector Scale Factor - the scale factor refers to the size of drawn vectors when viewing Vector Results in vector plot option of Fringes mode. The selection field is by default set to Auto Calculate, µETA taking into account the vector results of the selected states. Alternatively, the factor can be user-defined by selecting Specify. 3. Verify that the required results to be read

are active. 4. Having checked the required options, click

on the Read button - µETA reads in the relevant data.

3 4

2

1

Remarks on loading Vector Results - Note that the red asterisk denotes results calculated by µETA. - Optionally, in case of PATRAN files, the Select Template filename field can be used to point to a

template file model that will be read before loading the results. - The Cut-Off feature functionality is similar to that of the Scalar tab.

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3.5. Remarks on Loading Data

3.5.1. General

- It is not necessary for the Geometry data, the Displacements and the Functions results to be compatible (to be associated with the same solver). For example, Geometry data may be loaded from a NASTRAN .op2 file and Displacements from an ABAQUS .odb file. Obviously in this case, the compatibility of Node and Element IDs is necessary and the user is the only one who can assure that this condition is met.

- One state can hold one type of Displacement and one type of either Scalar Results or Vector Results. Any attempt to load a second type of Displacement or Results for an already loaded state will result in overwriting the corresponding existing type of data. If the user desires to view mutually excluded types of data for the same states, at the same time, he/she has to load the model (geometry) as another, i.e. new, model.

- The user should not confuse Displacement type of data with Displacements results. The term Displacement refers to all node vector data available within each file, while Displacements results correspond to the actual translation or rotation (if available) of each node of the model. All available node vector data may be loaded also under Scalar or Vector Results. The reason that node vector data are denoted as Displacement is that loading node vector data as Displacement enables viewing them as deformation of the model on the screen.

- Since node vector data may be loaded as Displacement as well as Scalar Results or as Vector Results, it is possible to view at the same time and for the same state two types of node vector data. For example, Displacements of a state may be loaded as Displacement while corresponding SPC Forces for the same state may be loaded as Scalar or Vector Results. This is not possible for element data (i.e. stresses, strains) since these may be loaded only as Scalar or as Vector Results, which are mutually excluded for the same state.

- The buttons All and Invert as well as the Filter field at the bottom of the States tab, provide quick selection in cases where a large number of states is present. Apart from filtering by name, with functionality similar to other lists, the Filter field recognizes numbers that correspond to the ascending order of the listed states starting from the top. The following syntax forms are available:

1. Simple selection 4/6/8 Selects the fourth, the sixth and

the eighth states.

2. Range selection 4-8-2 Selects the states between the fourth and the eighth with a step of 2 (fourth, sixth and eighth state). If the step number is omitted, the step is one.

3. Combination of the above options

1/4/5-10-2 Selects the first, the fourth, the fifth, the seventh and the ninth states.

4. Using the inherent variables of µETA : first and last. These are predefined variables, used only for the selection of states.

$first-$last-2 Selects states from first to last with a step of 2. The ($) sign should precede the variables� name. These variables are only valid from the command line and not from the File Manager filtering field.

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- Unloading (removing from the history list) data files is done by mouse right-click on the history or on the file manager button of the filename field (both in Geometry and Results tab).

- Clear and Create New functionality allows the user to create a new session without the need to reset settings used in a previous session, delete previous models and windows. This can be achieved through the File> Clear and Create New option, which activates the following card:

- Option to start the new session having a new 3d or 2d plot window.

- Options:

a) to keep recording in the already existing session.

b) to Clear existing session file.

c) to Create a new session file and then a File Browser appears in order to name the new session.

- Capability to reset all the Settings that have been defined in previous sessions (e.g. deformation factor, labels etc)..

- Table 3.1 in the following page presents a summary of the most common form options of data with their combinations, regarding types of data that the user may face when working with µETA. Other types of results, such as Strain Energy, Extra Variables and Element Forces, along with their different form options, may also be encountered and they can be treated in the same way.

- By the end of a loading process, both the geometry file-path of the model and the loaded states appear in a tree-form list in the States card (open from States pull down menu).

T T

In the States window, Geometry data (the model itself) is referred to as the Original State, while all states lying under the Original State are identified from their ID numbers. The main window and the States card should appear as follows:

State currentlyin view

Model�s Coordination System

Model filename

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Table 3.1. Most common data form options

Type of Data

Type of Results available

within the file regarding the

selected Type of Data

Result form options available within the file regarding the selected

Type of Results

GEOMETRY DISPLACEMENT

(Node data to be viewed as model�s deformation on the

screen)

Node data (i.e. Displacement,

Inverse of displacements SPC forces, Velocities,

accelerations)

Node data (i.e. Displacement, SPC forces, Velocities,

accelerations, Eigenvectors)

SCALAR RESULTS (Node & Element data)

Element data (i.e. Stresses,

Strains, Forces)

Node data (i.e. Displacement, SPC forces, Velocities,

accelerations, Eigenvectors)

VECTOR RESULTS (Node & Element data)

Element data (i.e. Stresses,

Strains, Forces)

* For NASTRAN

Complex results

Complex results

oordinate System ordinate System

* For NASTRAN

* For LS-Dyna & PAM-CRASH

ABAQUS

* For ABAQUS & RADIOSS

Complex results

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ECS: Element CGCS: Global Co

Complex results

* For LS-Dyna & PAM-CRASH

* For ABAQUS & RADIOSS

Complex results

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* Clarifications on references of Table 3.1. For NASTRAN Stress or Strain results

1. Reads in the Top or Bottom value according to which absolute value is Maximum for each element.

2. Reads in the Top value of each element 3. Reads in the Bottom value of each element 4. Reads in both the Top and the Bottom values of each element 5. Reads in the difference Top � Bottom 6. Reads in the average (Top + Bottom)/2 7. Reads in the average of absolutes (|Top| + |Bottom|) /2 8. Reads in the Top or Bottom values 9. Reads in the major membrane stress components

- Top and Bottom corresponds to Z1 and Z2 fiber distances for stress and strain calculations in NASTRAN. - Top corresponds to Z2 fiber distance. The default is +T/2 (by default in ANSA this side is colored in gray). - Bottom corresponds to Z1 fiber distance. The default is -T/2 (by default in ANSA this side is colored in

yellow). - The positive direction is determined by the right-hand rule, and the order in which the grid points are listed

on the connection entry. T is the local plate thickness defined either by T on this entry or by membrane thickness at connected grid points, if they are input on connection entries.

- The Top and Bottom value are calculated according to which absolute value is Minimum for each element. - The major membrane stress components are extracted from the middle shell layer.

For LS-Dyna and PAM-CRASH results 1. Reads in the Inner, Outer or Middle surface value according to which

absolute value is Maximum for each element. 2. Reads in the Inner surface value of each element 3. Reads in the Outer surface value of each element 4. Reads in the Middle surface value for each element 5. Reads in both the Inner and the Outer surface values of each element 6. Reads in the difference Inner � Outer 7. Reads in the average (Inner + Outer + Middle) /3 8. Reads in the average of absolutes (|Inner| + |Outer| + |Middle|) /3 9. Reads in the Inner, Outer or Middle surface value according to which

absolute value is Minimum for each element. For ABAQUS and RADIOSS results

1. Reads in the Inner or Outer surface value according to which absolute value is Maximum for each element.

2. Reads in the Inner surface value of each element 3. Reads in the Outer surface value of each element 4. Reads in both the Inner and the Outer surface values of each element 5. Reads in the difference Inner � Outer 6. Reads in the average (Inner + Outer)/2 7. Reads in the average of absolutes (|Inner| + |Outer|) /2 8. Similar to (1) for the Minimum value of each element. 9. Reads in the major membrane stress components.

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3.5.2. Remarks on particular types of results

ABAQUS: - Significant improvement to the time needed to find the Results (Steps) within an ABAQUS odb file

from µETA PostProcessor v5.4.0 and on. An ASCII compressed file, small in size, is saved in the tmp directory of the user the very first time an ABAQUS odb file is opened. The next time that the same odb file is opened, the process to find the results is incomparably fast, provided that the compressed ASCII file is not removed from the tmp directory.

- In case of an ABAQUS .odb, .fil or .fin results file, if the corresponding ABAQUS .inp ASCII file lies in the same directory, the program automatically reads it and identifies the different parts of the model. Otherwise, all parts of the model are presented with the same color. However, if the ABAQUS .inp ASCII file was created in ANSA with the output option Preserve Ids in Names, then the parts can be identified in µETA from the .odb, .fil and .fin files even if the .inp file does not reside in the same directory.

- In case of ABAQUS fasteners, µETA can resolve the DCOUP3D elements, derived after ABAQUS has initialized the fastener elements. In TIE definitions, can display and support the connectivity of the parts through line elements and show also the nodes adjusted, in case the parameter ADJUST is used. In contacts with the parameter ADJUST= META can show the nodes after they are adjusted by ABAQUS. In Rigid Bodies the parameter POSITION = CENTER OF MASS can be taken into account, so that the reference node of the RIGID BODY is displayed at the center of mass of the RIGID BODY. What is displayed depends on the file loaded and on the contents of the loaded file�s folder. The table below exhibits all possible cases:

TIE

In folder Loaded file

Fasteners Connectio

ns Nodes shown

Adjusted

Connectivity through line

elements

CONTACT PAIR, ADJUST

RIGID BODY (POSITION=CENTER OF MASS)

odb odb Only CONN3D YES -

Nodes shown

adjusted

Rigid Body not shown, Ref Node at center of mass

dat/pre/ fst(1) + odb

odb Only CONN3D YES -

Nodes shown

adjusted

Rigid Body not shown, Ref Node at center of mass

inp - - YES

Nodes shown before adjust

Rigid Body shown, Ref Node at geom

center of Rigid nodes

inp+odb

odb Only CONN3D YES YES

Nodes shown

adjusted

Rigid Body shown, Ref Node at geom

center of Rigid nodes

Inp

CONN3D and

DCOUP3D

YES YES Nodes shown

adjusted

Rigid Body shown, Ref Node at

center of mass inp+dat/pre/fst(1)

+odb odb

CONN3D and

DCOUP3D

YES YES Nodes shown

adjusted

Rigid Body shown, Ref Node at

center of mass

(1) For FASTENERS, the information is output from ABAQUS in the .dat/.pre file (the keyword: *PREPRINT, MODEL=YES must be included within the ABAQUS input (.inp) file) or in the .fst file.

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For TIE in ABAQUS EXPLICIT the output to .dat/.pre file (the keyword: *PREPRINT, MODEL=YES, CONTACT=YES must be included within the ABAQUS input (.inp) file) will improve reading performance. For CONTACT PAIR, ADJUST= the information is output from ABAQUS in the .dat/.pre file (the keyword: *PREPRINT, CONTACT=YES must be included within the ABAQUS input (.inp) file). For RIGID BODY, the information is output from ABAQUS in the .dat/.pre file (the keyword: *PREPRINT, MODEL=YES must be included within the ABAQUS input (.inp) file for ABAQUS Explicit. Not necessary for ABAQUS Standard.)

- When loading geometry from an ABAQUS input file, µETA updates the coordinates of the reference nodes of DCOUP3D and FASTENER elements from the .dat or .pre file (provided that these files are placed within the same directory). These coordinates are written in single precision in the .dat or the .pre file and µETA updates only what is necessary (i.e. only the coordinates of the reference nodes of DCOUP3D), therefore, maintaining, as much as possible, the accuracy of the model.

- In order to load results to an ABAQUS model that contains continuum elements (Thick) Shells then the following issues should be considered:

a) When the user selects to read element results for the Inner and Outer surface on the Centroid, then only the Max value of Inner and Outer is loaded.

b) When the user selects to read element results for the Inner and Outer surface on the Corner or the Integration Points of the Elements, then both the values on the Inner and the Outer surface are displayed as corner values. However, since these elements have actually only one Integration point, the same value appears on all corners of the same surface of the element. Nevertheless, this is the only way to display at the same time values on both surfaces of these elements.

The non-typical handling of Inner and Outer results for these elements derives from their hybrid formulation (they are formulated as solids but have their results as shells).

LS DYNA: - If a d3eigv LS-Dyna file is read, the toggle button with the available results hosts the options:

Displacements and Velocities, which correspond to Eigenvectors Translational and Rotational degrees of freedom respectively.

- To be able to read LS-Dyna Part Results it is necessary to have the .d3hsp file in the same directory with the .d3plot file. µETA reads the results on PARTS output from LS-Dyna.

3.5.3. Active Models The user must be cautious with the Active model when loading multiple

models. A number of choices are available, controlled by the Model action pull down of the Read Results card. Load action is controlled by the Model action pull down of the Read Results card and takes place on the Active model. Regarding the Active model, the following cases exist during loading a geometry model or data:

Active model may point at ALL, so all loaded models are active. Actions such as focus commands, states animation, etc apply to all models. Making all models active can also be achieved without opening the

through the relevant button from the Basic Buttons group.

To make a model active the user can either select it from the list or

through the relevant button from the Basic Buttons group. Notice the palette button that allows the user to easily change the model�s color. For ALL or Empty the button becomes gray.

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Active model may point at �Empty�. This is used so that if Overwrite Active Model is selected an already loaded model will not be lost. Apart from that, this option applies the same as ALL, i.e. actions apply to all models. The option can also be selected through the relevant button

from the Basic Buttons group.

3.5.4. Loading additional Models When a second model geometry is about to be loaded, the user has the option to overwrite an existing model or all models, or load the new model as an additional one - the functionality is controlled by the Model action pull down of the Read Results card. More options can be found in the window that pops-up when the Model action pull-down points to an Overwrite option (i.e. Active Model, All Models, etc) and the user reads the new model:

- Select this option to load the new model and overwrite the model that the Model action pull down points to.

- Select this option to load the new model as an additional model in the active window.

- Select this option to load the new model in a new window?

- This option appears if more than one 3d Window exist. Select this option to load the new model in all enabled windows.

Remark:

- Change Model by pressing either Ctrl+Left keyboard arrow or Ctrl+Right keyboard arrow.

3.6. Loading additional results for the same model The user has the option to load additionally different results from the same file. After having loaded one type of results switch the Model action menu to Create New Model. In the window that pops-up, type a label for the new results to be loaded and press OK. Select different types of results from the same file in the Deformation and Scalar or Vector tabs and press the Read button.

The additional states appear below the previously loaded states, distinguished by the user label.

Remarks - Every results loaded afterwards will be loaded under the label Other Results. If the user wants to

load results under the default label, Create New Model has to be chosen again and a blank label must be inserted.

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3.7. Loading results from different files but for the same model µETA offers the possibility to read in results from different files and place them under the same model. This can be done by loading results and selected states from another file, right after the model geometry and its results have been loaded. The additional states appear in the list of the states card below the previously loaded states - µETA identifies that these states belong to a file different from the loaded model file but does not overwrite the states loaded previously.

Suppose that a model and the selected corresponding states have been loaded already from the Read Results card, as described previously. The name of the file appears in the filename field (A), while all available and selected states appear in the list (B) of the Results tab � this file has only one state.

Next:

1. From the Results tab, select another file that holds results referring to the model that is already loaded.

2. The states appear in the list - note that these states are not read yet but they only appear in the list.

3. Select type of results and which states to read �here all 3 states will be loaded.

4. Press the Read button.

Notice that the filename appearing in the states card is the one used to load the model geometry.

The selected states are loaded and appear in the States list under the same model.

B

A

32

4

1

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3.8. Loading Design Optimization results (NASTRAN SOL 200)

Particularly for results being the outcome of a Design Optimization solution (NASTRAN SOL 200), the loading process takes place according to the following:

The steps are the same as in the ordinary loading process. The results of each cycle generated by the optimization procedure can be found under the pull down menus of the Deformation, Scalar and Vector tabs. These hold all available types of respective data within the particular file. The user may select one of the cycle

results, the state(s) to read in and click the Read button. In this example, Displacements for Cycle 0 is chosen and the results are registered under Cycle 0 within the States card.

Repeat the same procedure to load results for another Cycle. From the relevant pull down menu select another Cycle result, select the state(s) to read in from the state list and press the Read button. The new results are loaded and Cycle 1 is added to the Cycles list of the

States card.

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3.8.1. Remarks on loading Design Optimization results

- Note the Deformation Scale Factor tab in the Read Options field. If it is necessary to use the same Scale factor for all cycles, then after loading the first cycle with the Auto calculate option selected, the second cycle must be loaded with the Specify option selected. The deformation factor of the previously loaded cycle will be shown in the input filed and the cycle can be read in.

- To read results of an Optimization Solving Process (NASTRAN SOL 200), results for each cycle can either be loaded all in one step, using All Cycles, or be loaded separately one after the other. This applies to Displacement, Scalar Results and Vector Results types of data.

- Design Variables, Design Responses and Objective Function values of a design optimization analysis can be viewed in a 2Dplot window. Refer to Chapter 12 for further details.

- Shell Thickness results are supported from the NASTRAN punch file. - In case of reading results of a Shape Optimization analysis:

1. The Shape Changes results in the Deformation results list are the movements of the nodes at each cycle that correspond to the Design Variable changes for the Grids. Normally, the movements of the Grids are the Design Variables and each value of these variables is reflected as the Design Change. 2. First load the Shape Changes as Deformation results in µETA. Actually, no subcase is loaded but only cycles that correspond to the Original State. These Shape Changes values for each cycle actually correspond to the Original position of the Grids at that cycle. 3. To visualize only the Shape Changes without any result, move from one cycle to another while you are in the Original State. However, here keep in mind the following not-ordinary behavior: - You may contour the results by selecting one of the Node Components for Fringes. - However, the fringebar and the contours correspond to the difference from the Original Position. But when you identify a node then you can only see on the screen the position values and not any results. This is because the Shape Changes are loaded as new positions and not as results. So, actually you have as fringes the values of the difference from the Original state, but when you identify a node you cannot see these values. You just see the position components of that node at that cycle. Therefore, the contouring value for each node at a cycle is the difference between the Position of the node at that Cycle and the Original position (the position of the node at cycle 0). 4. Then Load Displacement results for all cycles. These Displacement results are the Displacement results corresponding to the loadcase. In this way, in the end, you can have for each cycle the Deformation that includes the Shape Change for that cycle plus the Displacement that correspond to the Displacements of the loadcase for that particular geometry of that cycle. 5. How often NASTRAN will output also results (data recovery) in a SOL200, depends from the parameter NASPRT.

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3.9. Loading Complex Results Complex results are loaded using the common Read procedure described previously. The user may select to read in either Real, Imaginary, Magnitude or Phase values. However, in order to visualize the actual response of a model throughout a period (360°) for a particular frequency it is necessary to generate interpolated states, taking into account both the magnitude and the phase values. This is achieved through the Generate tab of the States card according to the following:

Follow the model-loading steps up to the point of adjusting the drop down menus in the Results tabs. 1. Switch the toggle button that holds the

components of the complex results to the Generate option.

2. Edit the number of interpolated states to be generated in the field that appears on the right.

3. Press the Read button. The selected states are read in and listed in the States card along with the interpolated states. The latter states are generated taking into account both the magnitude and the phase.

} Generated States

3

1 2

Enter

Remarks

For Scalar Results, the extra option Max of All Angles is available. If this is selected the program identifies and loads for each frequency the maximum value of the requested invariant throughout a whole period (360°).

3.10. Loading Composites Results

µETA supports Scalar and Vector Results for Composite materials (e.g. Composite Stresses) deriving from a relevant NASTRAN analysis and also by the Genesis® optimizer in NASTRAN op2 file format and punch file format. 1. The procedure is similar to the standard one.

Switch to the Results tab and select the appropriate options (e.g. Composite Stresses).

2. Adjust the toggle buttons that hold the various types of results accordingly, e.g. options regarding the layers of the composite that the results will refer to. In this example, the option Layer is selected and this allows for specifying the number of layers in the field that appears on the right (in this case one layer).

3. Press the Read button.

2 Enter

1

3

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The PCOMPG keyword is supported. To facilitate this, an extra option: GlobalLayer appears to the menu that holds the options regarding the Layers and the Section points (Dyna, Abaqus and Nastran) for the loaded results. This menu appears if composite results are identified in the model.

Remarks

- The id that is entered in the respective field corresponds to the Ply Id as this is defined in the PCOMPG card. On the contrary, the value entered to the respective field of the Layer option corresponds to the order of the Ply as this appears in the PCOMP or PCOMPG definitions.·

- NamedLayers. This is related to Names assigned to composite layers when using the Laminate tool in ANSA. If these names are assigned, they are included in the ANSA comments within the NASTRAN Bulk data file. These ANSA comments are read by µETA PostProcessor and the names of the layers are available for selection by typing the "?" inside the respective field of the NamedLayers option.

The available Scalar Results results and layer options for Composite materials are summarized below:

Options for Composite stresses

Options for Composite strains

Options for Layer selection

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Remarks - When loading Composites results it is possible to load and view simultaneously results for any

two (2) plies defined from the Layer: option within the Results tab. The id numbers of the two (2) plies must be separated with a colon (:). So, for example, the expression 2:5 implies viewing results of the 2nd and the 5th layer.

- Values for the first ply are viewed on the Bottom side of the shells (negative side). Values for the second ply are viewed on the Top side of the shells (positive side).

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3.11. Transforming results with respect to a local coordinate system

3.11.1. Creation of User Coordinate Systems It is possible to create a User coordinate system (either rectangular, cylindrical or spherical) inside µETA PostProcessor. The respective commands are: - Coordinate System defined by picking nodes from the screen:

model create coord fixed {cyl / rect / sph} <Enter a new id> pick - Coordinate System defined by entering the node ids or the coordinates: model create coord fixed {cyl / rect / sph} <Enter a new id> <Enter Origin (either a

node id or coordinates)> <Enter z point (either a node id or coordinates)> < Enter xz point (either a node id or coordinates)>

Remarks - The first selected point defines the Origin, the second selected point defines the z-axis and the

third selected point defines the XZ plane. The X axis is defined as the projection of the third point on the axis which is normal to the Z axis and belongs to the XZ plane. The Y axis is defined using the right-hand rule.

- The actual current position of the nodes is considered when the coordinate system is defined by selecting existing nodes

- The created coordinate systems can be assigned on nodes or elements and the respective transformed results with respect to the assigned systems can be loaded through the relevant options of the Read Results > Results > Scalar tab.

It is possible to create a coordinate system and assign it at the same time on selected entities (nodes or elements). The respective commands are: For Nodal Vector Results: - Coordinate System defined by picking nodes from the screen: model create nodecoord fixed {cyl / rect / sph} <Enter new id> pick {act / all / identified / pick / <Range of the Entities ids to assign the coordinate system>}

- Coordinate System defined by entering the node ids or the coordinates: model create nodecoord fixed {cyl / rect / sph} <Enter new id> <Enter Origin

(either a node id or coordinates)> <Enter z point (either a node id or coordinates)> < Enter xz point (either a node id or coordinates)> {act / all / identified / pick / <Range of the Entities ids to assign

the coordinate system> For Element Tensor Results: - Coordinate System defined by picking nodes from the screen: model create elemcoord fixed {cyl / rect / sph} <Enter new id> pick {act / all / identified / pick / <Enter a range of the Entities ids to assign the coordinate system> - Coordinate System defined by entering the node ids or the coordinates: model create elemcoord fixed {cyl / rect / sph} <Enter new id> <Enter Origin (either a node id or coordinates)> <Enter z point (either a node id or coordinates)> < Enter xz point (either a node id or coordinates)> {act / all / identified / pick / <Enter a range of the Entities ids to assign the coordinate system>

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Remarks - The first selected point defines the Origin, the second selected point defines the z-axis, the

third selected point defines the XZ plane. The X axis is defined as the projection of the third point on the axis which is normal to the Z axis and belongs to the XZ plane. The Y axis is defined using the right-hand rule.

- The actual current position of the nodes is considered when the coordinate system is defined by selecting existing nodes.

- These commands provide in one step the creation of the coordinate system as well as the assignment of this system to the required entities.

- There is an extra advantage when using the commands that are related to Nodal Vector Results. The values of these results with respect to the user local system (designated as �uloc� when a node is identified) are updated upon the execution of these commands. This is shown in the images below.

However, the Scalar results cannot be updated automatically. It is necessary to re-load the respective variable. For example, if the Normal-1(UCS) stress variable has been loaded as Scalar results and another user local coordinate system is assigned on some of the elements, the Normal-1 (UCS) value is not updated. To update this value, it is necessary to re-load the Normal-1(UCS) stress results.

3.11.2. Results transformation µETA can load nodal-based and element tensor results transformed to local coordinate systems. The calculation for this transformation takes place during the loading procedure. The following transformation options are available when reading Scalar and Vector Results results through the Read Options button at the bottom of the Scalar and Vector tabs:

Read Options relatedto results Transformation

A detailed description of Transformation Read Options follows (for other Read Options please refer to Appendix F).

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Local Nodal System: Local System selected: Valid for Nodal data that are loaded as Scalar Results. When selected, the Nodal data are calculated with respect to the Local coordinate system of the nodes.

For NASTRAN, the local coordinate system is the one defined in the CD field for each node. For ABAQUS, the local coordinate system of nodal results is the one specified with the TRANSFORM keyword (supported only if geometry has been loaded from an ABAQUS input file .inp). To load these nodal results as Scalar Results it is necessary to switch the options of the Scalar tab to one of the Direction-Local components. The Direction-X,Y or Z component options refer to the nodal results with respect to the Global coordinate system even if though the Local System read option was selected.

Local Nodal System: User System selected: Valid for Nodal data that are loaded as Scalar Results. When selected, the Nodal data for each node are calculated with respect to the coordinate system specified by the user through the command: model edit system node {<System id> / pick} {<Node ids> / all / identified / pick}

irrespectively of the fact that Local coordinate systems may have been defined for nodes (CD field for NASTRAN and TRANSFORM keyword for ABAQUS). The above command regarding the assignment of coordinate systems to nodes can be used consecutively for multiple definitions. For example, the command: model edit system node pick pick is used in the following way: 1. Activate the command, 2. Select an existing coordinate system with the left mouse button, 3. Using the left mouse button, select the nodes to assign the picked coordinate system to, 4. Confirm selection with the middle mouse

button, 5. Select another existing coordinate system to apply it on another set of nodes, 6. Continue with the selection of the set of nodes, 7. Continue in the same pattern. To load these nodal results as Scalar Results it is necessary to switch the options of the Scalar tab to one of the Direction-Local components. The Direction-X,Y or Z component options refer to the nodal results with respect to the Global coordinate system even if though the Local System read option was selected. If no coordinate system has been defined, then by default the Global coordinate system is considered when using this Read Option, irrespective of whether Direction- X,Y or Z or Direction-Local component option was selected.

Local Nodal System: Specify selected: Valid for Nodal data that are loaded as Scalar Functions results. When selected, the user may specify the id of a coordinate system, defined either in NASTRAN / ABAQUS or inside µETA, in the respective field.

For NASTRAN this applies to all types of coordinate systems except CORD3G. For ABAQUS this applies to coordinate systems defined either using the TRANSFORM keyword or using the SYSTEM keyword (supported only if geometry has been loaded from an ABAQUS input file .inp). In this case, nodal data for all nodes will be calculated with respect to the specified coordinate system. To load these nodal results as Scalar Results it is necessary to switch the options of the Scalar tab to one of the Direction-Local

components. The Direction-X,Y or Z component options refer to the nodal results with respect to the Global coordinate system even if though the Local System read option was selected.

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Element Local System: User System selected: Valid for element tensor data. When selected, the element tensor data for each element are calculated with respect to the coordinate system specified by the user through the command: model edit system element {<System id> / pick} {<Element ids> / act / all / identified / pick}

The above command regarding the assignment of coordinate systems to elements can be used consecutively for multiple definitions. For example, the command: model edit system element pick pick can be used in the following way: 1. Activate the command, 2. Select an existing coordinate system with the left mouse button, 3. Using the left mouse button, select the elements to assign the picked coordinate system to, 4. Confirm selection with the middle mouse button, 5. Select another existing coordinate system to apply it on another set of elements, 6. Continue with the selection of the set of elements, 7. Continue in the same pattern. To load these element tensor results as Scalar Results, it is necessary to switch the options of the Scalar tab to one of the UCS (User Coordinate System) components (e.g. Normal-1(UCS)).

If no coordinate system has been defined, then by default the Global coordinate system is considered when using this Read Option, irrespective of whether UCS (User Coordinate System) component option was selected.

Element Local is System: Specify selected: Valid for element tensor data. When selected, the user may specify the id of a coordinate system, defined either in NASTRAN / ABAQUS or inside

µETA, in the respective field. For NASTRAN this applies to all types of coordinate systems except CORD3G. For ABAQUS this refers to the coordinate systems defined either using the TRANSFORM keyword or the SYSTEM keyword (supported only if geometry is loaded from an ABAQUS input file .inp). In this case, element tensor data are calculated for all elements with respect to the specified coordinate system. To load these element tensor results as Scalar Results it is necessary to switch the options of the Scalar tab to one of the UCS (User Coordinate System) components (e.g. Normal-1UCS).

Remarks - Note that the red asterisk denotes results calculated by µETA.

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3.12. Loading Safety Margin results

Safety Margin results can be calculated during the loading process. The stress limits necessary for the calculation of Safety Margin results may be acquired from one of the following �sources�:

- From the stress limits already defined by the user in µETA for Parts by applying the command: options safety part <Enter Stress Limit> {<Enter Part ids> / act / all / pick}

- From a NASTRAN Bulk data file or a NASTRAN .op2 file if the CT and/or CS fields are defined for the respective materials. Also, from an LS-DYNA keyword file, if the respective parameter is defined for the materials.

- From the stress limit already defined by the user in µETA for the whole model by applying the command:

options safety <Enter Stress Limit> In case more than one stress limit exist at the same time, then the stress limits are prioritized following the order they are referenced above. As an example, consider a case where stress limits have been defined for Parts and at the same time stress limits where also read in from a file (NASTRAN or LS-DYNA case). Safety Margin results in this case will be calculated for the stress limits defined for the Parts. Remarks:

- The user-defined stress limits for the parts can be reset and then the Safety Margins can be loaded again taking into account the stress limits that were defined in the model file (NASTRAN or LS-DYNA case). To reset the user-defined stress limits for the parts, the user may either:

a) Apply the command with 0 value stress limit: options safety part 0 {<Enter Part ids> / act / all / pick} or

b) Apply the command with the pick option for any stress limit value and select the parts with the right mouse button.

- Safety Margin results can be loaded by switching to one of the following Scalar Results option for Stress results from the Results tab:

Safety Margin (for ABAQUS, LS-DYNA, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS)

Safety Margin in Tension (for NASTRAN only)

Safety Margin in Compression (for NASTRAN only)

Safety Margin (Major Principal) (for NASTRAN only)

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3.13. Loading PATRAN results

Loading results in PATRAN ASCII format is automated by specifying filters for the files in the META_post.defaults. To achieve this, two prerequisites should be met: a. The model's geometry should be loaded from a file of any of the supported formats (refer to

Chapter 1.1.2). The files holding the relevant PATRAN results must reside in the same directory with the file that is used for loading the geometry data.

b. The parameters for reading PATRAN results should be defined in the META_post.defaults file (refer to the corresponding chapter). If the identification of PATRAN files is based on the extensions of the file, then the base name has to be the same as the base name of the file that was used for loading the model geometry.

Supposing that the above conditions are met, the loading procedure is the following: 1. First the Geometry of the model is read from the relevant file. 2. Switching to the results tab, the available results are detected automatically and are

displayed, provided the File Format menu is set to Nastran. 3. The user selects the appropriate results for Displacement, Scalar Results or Vector Results

and loads the results clicking the Read button. When the loading process ends, all loaded states appear in the States card under Original State.

Example 1:

Name of the Geometry file Name of PATRAN results files Filters defined in

META_post.defaults file

Displacement Template file: Test_1.DISP.RES_TMPL {.DISP.RES_TMPL}

Displacement Results files: Test_1.DISP1, Test_1.DISP2,� {.DISP%d}

Scalar Function Template file: Test_1.SCAL.RES_TMPL {.SCAL.RES_TMPL}

Scalar Functions Results files:Test_1.SCAL1, Test_1.SCAL2, � {.SCAL%d}

Vector Function Template file: Test_1.VEC.RES_TMPL {.VEC.RES_TMPL}

Test_1.nas

Vector Functions Results files:Test_1.VEC1, Test_1.VEC2, � {.VEC%d}

Example 2:

Name of the Geometry file Name of PATRAN results files Filters defined in

META_post.defaults file

Displacement Template file: Demo.dis.res_tmpl {.dis.res_tmpl}

Displacement Results files: Demo.001.dis, Demo.002.dis,� {.%3.3d.dis}

Scalar Function Template file: Demo.sca.res_tmpl {.sca.res_tmpl}

Scalar Functions Results files:Demo.001.sca, Demo.002.sca, � {.%3.3d.sca}

Vector Function Template file: Demo.vec.res_tmpl {.vec.res_tmpl}

Demo.nas

Vector Functions Results files:Demo.001.vec, Demo.002.vec, � {.%3.3d.vec}

Remark:

- Note that it is possible to load as Scalar results nodal values from a file saved in µETA with the extension %d.nres

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3.14. Loading of Column ASCII results files

µETA supports Column ASCII results files. The procedure of loading such files follows the previously explained functionality of loading Results, after a compatible Geometry file has been loaded. Note that some tweaking of the ASCII file may be required by the user, e.g. comments, or column names, if this was not done beforehand by the solver. This will allow µETA to correctly display information such as description of States (or Subcases) or of type of results � i.e. the result types presented in the drop-down list of the Scalar results tab. Detailed information on tweaking, as well as example Column ASCII files can be found in Appendix G.

3.15. Loading of Universal results files

µETA supports loading results from universal files. The types supported are 55, 58, 2414 and 2431. The procedure of loading such files follows the previously explained functionality of loading Results, after a compatible Geometry file has been loaded.

3.16. Linear Combination of Results

3.16.1. General functionality This tool supports NASTRAN, ABAQUS, ANSYS and METADB results.

NASTRAN .op2 output file and punch file

ABAQUS Output database (extension .odb) or ABAQUS results file (extension .fil), or ASCII results file (extension .fin).

ANSYS .rst file and .rth file

METADB All types of saved results. The user should be cautious with respect to compatibility when combining results from a META database.

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Assuming that at least one model geometry has been loaded from the Read Results card, selecting the relevant option from the Tools pull-down menu opens the tool:

From the Filename field select the respective file that includes the results that will be used for the linear combination. The states (subcases) included in the file are listed in the top list.

From the Deformation, Scalar and Vector tabs select the type of results that will be calculated through the linear combination.

From the States list, select the states that will be used for linear combination calculations and press Add. (Selection can be assisted by the Filter field, which operates in the same way as the one existing in the Read Results card). The selected states are passed to the bottom list.

Using the buttons Include and Exclude, the user may select, each time, which states from the bottom list should be considered for the calculation of the linearly combined results. By default, all states passed from the top to the bottom list have the Include status. The excluded states are marked with gray color fonts.

Using the Delete button, the user may delete selected states from the bottom list. Selection of states in the bottom list can be assisted by the buttons All, Invert and Filter. The flag buttons Deformation, Scalar and Vector control the types of results that will be created through the linear combination.

From the Load Factor column the user may edit the scale factor of each state that participates to the linear combination of results. Double click with the Left or single click with the Right Mouse button on the Load Factor column area that corresponds to a state and the respective field, for entering the factor, is activated.

Enter the value for the scale factor and press ENTER. To apply the same factor to multiple states, select the states and press the Right Mouse Button on top of the area of the Load Factor column. The respective field opens - enter the scale factor and press ENTER. All selected states are assigned the same scale factor. By default all states are added to the bottom list with a Load Factor 1. Optionally, the user may define a value from an existing curve (i.e. in a 2Dplot window) to be used for scaling the results of a state. In that case, the scale factor that will be used for that state is the Curve Value times the Load Factor. Overall scale factor = Load Factor * Curve Value

Enter

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Double click with the Left Mouse button on the Load History column area that corresponds to a state and the Curve Selection assistant pops-up: - From the Curves list, select one curve. - From the bottom list select the Curve Value that

will be used as a scale factor. In case a Curve Value option that have a �=� sign is selected, a field appears on the right side. Edit a value in that field and press ENTER.

The user may also enter the corresponding expression in the field that appears with single Left Mouse button click on top of the respective area within the Load History column. The syntax is the same as the one used for the User Defined curves Function in 2Dplot.

Selecting the states and with Right Mouse button click on top of the respective area within the Load History column will apply the same curve value to the selected states.

From the Options tab, the user may specify the title of the created state and its State id.

In the end, press the Read button. The new state is calculated for the currently Active model and is listed within the States list under the currently Active model. Also, for the state/s creation the Read Options (Refer to App. F) that are set on the Read Results card are taken into account.

Enter

Enter

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3.16.2. One-step creation of multiple states corresponding to different points of a Load History

In order to do this, it is necessary:

- To have at least one of the states, which is included in the linear combination calculation, assigned a Load History curve with either of the following Curve Value options:

1. y for current x

2. current x

- To specify a non-zero x-range (time range) and a number of steps from the Load History Options within the Options tab. This will be applied to the Load History curves that are used.

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3.16.3. Combination of results from different files The process is the same as described above. Load the second file from the Filename field and Add the states that should be used for the linear combination calculation. µETA recognizes that the source file is different and appends the new states under the second file in the bottom list.

At the stage the available options are the following: Option 1: The Combine Models flag button within the Options tab is deactivated.

The calculation of the linearly combined states is conducted by taking into account all Included states from all Models (files).

Enter

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Option 2: The Combine Models flag button within the Options tab is activated.

New states are calculated by combining one by one the Included states of all Added files (models). The way this combination works is the following: The first Included state in the list of the first model is combined with the first Included state in the list of the second model and with the first Included state in the list of the third model and so on.

The second Included state in the list of the first model is combined with the second Included state in the list of the second model and with the second Included state in the list of the third model and so on.

Remarks - With Option 1 it is possible to use Load History curves (the Load History Options within the Options tab are deactivated when the Combine Models flag is active). If, however, these have been already defined, they are ignored and only the Load Factor values are taken into account.

- For Option 2 it is mandatory that all files (models) have the same number of Included states at the time the Read button is pressed.

3.16.4. Remarks on Linear Combination of results - Results that are deriving from tensor data (e.g.: Von Mises Stresses, other invariants) are

calculated from the linearly combined tensor data. - Since the states (results) that are used for the Linear Combination of states are results that derive

directly from a file, it is not possible to use already calculated linear combined results (listed in the States card) within a new linear combination.

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3.17. Related Commands

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Chapter 4

CONTROLLING THE DISPLAY STYLE OF THE

MODEL Table of Contents

4.1. General .....................................................................................................................................74 4.2. Available Coloring Modes .........................................................................................................74 4.3. Global Drawing Styles...............................................................................................................76 4.4. per Pid / per Mid Drawing Styles...............................................................................................78

4.4.1. Modifying the per Pid / per Mid drawing styles ..................................................................78 4.4.1.1. From the menu under the per Pid / Mid button ..........................................................78

4.4.2. Transparent and Set Color options within per Pid / per Mid function.................................81 4.4.2.1. Controlling the transparency of a part / material........................................................81 4.4.2.2. Modifying and saving a set of per Pid drawing styles ................................................82 Step 1: Change the Pids Color by picking part(s) from the screen in two ways .....................82 Step 2: Lock the current styles in order to save the modifications..........................................84 Step 3: List the locked per Pid drawing styles ........................................................................84 Step 4: Change the per Pid drawing styles by picking the part(s) from the screen. ...............84 Step 5: Retrieve the locked per Pid drawing styles. ...............................................................85

4.5. Neutral Drawing Styles .............................................................................................................86 4.5.1. The Deform button ............................................................................................................86 4.5.2. The Light drawing style .....................................................................................................87 4.5.3. Model face culling .............................................................................................................87

4.6.Setting styles on different windows............................................................................................88 4.7. Display options regarding line elements ...................................................................................88 4.8. Related Commands ..................................................................................................................90

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4.1. General

A model�s display includes options for Coloring Modes and Drawing Styles. Six different Coloring Modes are available in µETA PostProcessor (Pid, Mid, Entities, Thickness, Contact Thickness, Unique Thickness). The Drawing Style group includes three types of styles: Global drawing styles, per Pid drawing styles and Neutral Drawing styles.

The model�s display is a window dependent attribute. This means that any modifications are applied to the enabled windows (by default all windows are enabled). More information about the window dependent attributes is displayed in Chapter �Window Dependent Attributes�.

4.2. Available Coloring Modes

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In this mode, the model is viewed with a different color assigned to each one of its

Property �Part� ids (Pids).

In this mode and depending on the solver, the model is viewed with its entities colored

according to their Material Id colors. Note that the Model Geometry must be loaded from the relevant input file.

In this mode, the model is viewed with the Top and Bottom color attributes of its shells.

Therefore, the Top surface of all shells is colored with one color and their Bottom surface with a different color, making it easier to identify the Top and Bottom surface definitions of shell elements. The colors for the Top and the Bottom surface may be changed using the commands:

style pident bot <Color Name> and style pident top <Color Name>

The Entities mode can be accessed in all states, provided the Fringe global drawing style is inactive. While in this mode, the shell thickness can be displayed by applying the command:

style shellthick on

Now the Shell Thickness of NASTRAN SOL200 models can be displayed accordingly by applying the command:

style shellthick options fringe

When in Thick Shells mode, the thickness of the shell elements will correspond to their element function.

The following coloring options lie under the highlighted toggle button located in the Basic Buttons menu.

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In this mode, different models are shown with their respective colors � a color legend next to

the title of each loaded model allows their distinction. The color of a model can be changed and reset applying the commands:

color model <Color Name> <Model id> and

color model reset < Model id >

In this mode, the model is viewed with fringes that correspond to the thickness values of the

shells. This comes into effect for Geometry data that hold such kind of information, therefore for the Nastran Bulk Data, the Nastran .op2 results file, the LS-Dyna .key keyword file, the .pc PAM-CRASH input file and the D00 RADIOSS input file. For ABAQUS this is applicable only if the .inp file exists. The range of the color bar is regulated from the Range Options card (refer to Chap. 5, par. 3.3). Note that Thickness values are available for the Original State only.

In this mode, the model is viewed with fringes that correspond to the Contact Thickness

values of the shells. This applies for LS-Dyna .key keyword file and PAM-CRASH .pc file. The range of the color bar is regulated from the Range Options card (refer to Chap. 5, par. 3.3). Note that Contact Thickness values are available for the Original State only.

By switching to this mode, the parts are colored according to their thickness in a way

that each existing thickness value is assigned a different color step of the fringebar.

Using this option, and provided that Failed Elements exist in the model results, these

elements are displayed in a contour plot according to the time they failed. To view failed elements colored in this mode, it is necessary to activate the Fringe flag button and select a state other than the Original. Note: If the coloring mode menu is switched to the Fail Time option, the function value of the elements corresponds to their failure time. This is applied for identification commands and for the annotation tool too. When the menu is switched

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back to the Pid option, the function values of the elements are switched back to the function values loaded in the first place.

4.3. Global Drawing Styles

These styles when applied have a global effect on all models and all parts and become the prevailing drawing options.

Wireframe

Pids color shaded

Feature lines

Pids shaded only in drawing window background color

View any type of results with color attributes

To activate or deactivate Global Drawing Styles click the left mouse button on the flag of the respective button. All possible combinations of the above options are allowed. However, the following should be kept in mind:

WIRE > FEATURE: WIRE includes FEATURE

SHADE > HIDDEN: SHADE includes HIDDEN

HIDDEN alone does not show anything

FRINGE alone does not show anything

Several Global drawing styles combinations are shown below:

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Global Drawing Styles are applied to all models and all windows irrespectively of the Active model and the Active window status.

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4.4. per Pid / per Mid Drawing Styles

The user can assign separate drawing styles to the entities of a model according to the part where they belong or their material. These drawing styles are assigned to each Property id (Pid) / Material id (Mid) respectively and are attached to this Pid / Mid until they are altered. To activate the per Pid / per Mid drawing styles, the user has to press the per Pid / per Mid flag button with Left Mouse button - a pop up menu appears and different drawing styles can be selected to be assigned to different Pids / Mids. The flag button changes between per Pid and per Mid depending on the selected Coloring Mode (see paragraph �Available Coloring Modes�).

Note that this deactivates all Global Drawing Styles set previously � Drawing styles can be either Global, per Pid or per Mid. Exceptions to this rule are two of the options that appear in the per Pid and per Mid menu: Transparent and Set Color. These two styles are applied and viewed irrespectively of the Global drawing styles status. This can done by pressing the middle mouse button instead of the left mouse button. This way the per Pid flag does not become active and only the per Pid Styles pop up menu appears, so the user can select these two styles.

4.4.1. Modifying the per Pid / per Mid drawing styles

The user may modify the per Pid / per Mid drawing styles of selected Pids /Mids in two ways:

4.4.1.1. From the menu under the per Pid / Mid button

Press the per Pid / per Mid button with the left mouse button. The menu under per Pid / per Mid button appears: Notice that when you activate the per Pid / per Mid button the Global Drawing Styles become inactive and cannot be selected.

The user can continue selecting and applying the new drawing styles unless he/she exits the per Pid / per Mid function either by pressing ESC key or by clicking the middle mouse button or by activating another function which includes selection.

From the screen, select either with the left mouse button or by box, the Pids / Mids to apply the set of drawing styles.

Use the left mouse button to create the set of drawing styles to apply on Pids/ Mids

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While still in per Pid / per Mid function the user can retrieve the previous drawing styles by simply pressing on the entity with the right mouse button. By exiting per Pid / per Mid function, the new drawing styles are attributed to the Part.

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4.4.1.2. From the Pids / Mids card

or

or

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Using the Pids / Mids card The Pids / Mids card is a versatile tool for quick selection and modification of per Pid / per Mid drawing styles. Selection and handling of Pids / Mids can be performed in several ways:

a. From the list within the Pids / per Mid card, using the left mouse button. The user can select Pids

/ Mids following the common list handling functionality, while selection can be assisted using the All and Invert buttons.

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b. Using the Filtering field � ability to filter by Part Id, Name or type (PShell, PSolid, PSfm, etc.) and by Material Name. Additionally, only for Pids, variables can also be used. Appendix A includes a full list of all these variables. An example of the use of filtering field is the following:

Suppose that part ids between 50 and 100 exist in a model that was loaded along with functions results. Typing the expression:

fmax>1000 || (id>50 && id<100)

inside the filtering field and pressing ENTER will result in selecting all Pids that have fmax greater than 1000, or their ids lie between 50 and 100. (To apply filtering, it is necessary to press ENTER after typing the expression). A complete list of all supported conventions, operators, constants and built-in functions is presented in Appendix B.

c. Using the selection buttons for Visible and Pick. For the latter, the user should pick the Pids / Mids from the screen.

As soon as Pids / Mids are selected, the user may apply focus commands to isolate the selected Pids / Mids on the screen. These focus commands are in the Right mouse button menu and theydiffer from those in the Focus Group of buttons in that OR, AND and NOT are applied on all visible

odels (not hidden) irrespectively of these being Active or not. However, ALL button still applies only on the Active model. This different behavior may seem odd at the beginning but soon the user

re flexibility and saves time. Also identification options are available. yles

nt function. In addition, the color of the Pid / Mid or of the whole Model can be changed or reset to the default. Handling of the Abaqus analytical surfaces is also available when the user selects an analytical surface form the Pids list (the hidden menu appears). The option Extrude Depth is valid only for the ABAQUS CYLINDER Type Analytical Surfaces. The option Revolve Steps is valid for the ABAQUS REVOLUTION Type Analytical Surfaces and for MADYMO entities where this is applicable (Ellipsoids, Cylinders). In the relevant fields the user may edit the value for the corresponding parameter that affects the visibility of the selected Analytical surfaces. Note that for Revolve Steps parameter the maximum allowable values are 100 and 50 for ABAQUS and MADYMO respectively.

4.4.2. Transparent and Set Color options within per Pid / per Mid function

The user should distinguish these options of the per Pid / per Mid function from the others, in that these can be applied and viewed irrespectively of the Global drawing styles being active or not. Note that transparency overrides the Fringe drawing style.

4.4.2.1. Controlling the transparency of a part / material

m

will discover that it offers moMoreover, from the Styles field within the Pids / per Mid card, the user may configure a set of Stto apply on selected Pids or Mids. Applying styles and colors is an Active model depende

To adjust the level of transparency of e.g. a Pid within a range 0 - 100.

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4.4

he following example illustrates the options available to the user regarding per Pid drawing styles anoptions presented are also available for the modification of the material display styles. Moreover, specially for the Pid styles, the user may save any set of drawing styles and retrieve them

whenever necessary. he user is advised to repeat this example step by step, using any available models, to become

famTh

Step 1: Change the Pids Color by picking the part(s) from the screen using two alternatives. SSt d drawing styles.

St d per Pid drawing styles.

.2.2. Modifying and saving a set of per Pid drawing styles

Td Colors. Variable options exist for the modification of the part display styles of the model. The

e

Tiliar with the per Pid drawing styles and Colors.

e steps followed in this example are:

tep 2: Lock the current styles in order to save the modifications. ep 3: List the locked per Pi

Step 4: Change the per Pid drawing styles by picking the part(s) from the screen. ep 5: Retrieve the locke

Step 1: Change the Pids Color by picking part(s) from the screen in two ways

The user may select to set a color to a part in either one of the following two ways: a) Through the menu under the per Pid button, from the Set Color button. As soon as the Color Card appears, select the color to apply. Then, using the left mouse button, pick from the screen the part(s) to assign the new color.

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) Through the Pids card ns referenced before. For this

ids list. Press the middle mouse button to accept the

bThe user may select the part by applying one of the available optioexample, the part is picked from the screen.

Press the Pick button

select from the screen the part to

and then

modify its color.

The selected part becomes highlighted in the Pselection.

tton within the Parts card and select a different color to apply � the color of the selected part is changed.

Remarks

- Pressing the Default Color button in the Pids card sets the color of the selected pids to their default color - the color of the pids when Geometry was loaded (irrespectively of the number of times this was altered in the

Press the Color Palette bu

meantime).

The user may define new colors from the Select Color card which opens pressing the relevant button and lists the available default and user-defined colors.

New colors can be created in the RGB format through the card that opens pressing the New button. The user can either type values or pick a color from the palette.

Note that it is also possible to define �semi-transparent colors� by setting a value between 1 and 255 in the Alpha channel field of the relevant window. The value �1� corresponds to full transparency

The User Defined Color is then shown in the available colors list. T mbol

.

he sy characterizes semi-transparent colors.

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yles in order to save the modifications

e Commands window the user can save the current per Pid drawing style and color of visible Pids order to be able to reapply that style when necessary. Multiple locked styles can be applied.

Step 3: List the locked per Pid drawing styles

rder to see the list of the saved locked styles in case there is more than one. The list an be seen in the META-Post Messages window.

Step 4: Change the per Pid drawing styles by picking the part(s) from the screen.

C een. The roof is picked

The result of the style change can be seen here. The roof has become transparent and the columns wired.

Step 2: Lock the current st

By applying the command style lock create <name> through the Command Line or throughthin

Apply the command style lock list through the Command Line or through the Commands indow in ow

c

hange the per Pid drawing styles once again by picking them from the scro become transparent and the columns wired.

1

2

4 6

Enter

or

Enter

or

t

3

7

5

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Step 5: Retrieve the locked per Pid drawing styles.

To retrieve one of the locked per Pid drawing styles, apply the command:

style lock get <name of style>

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rough the Command Line or through the Commands window.

Remarks

th

Enter

or

Additional information about the Pids card are available on Chapter 8, since the Pids card share the same functionality with the Statistics card.

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Click the

4.5. Neutral Drawing Styles

This is to describe two flag butt eform and Light. As the characterization �neutral� implies, if the Deform and Light buttons are active, the visibility of the per

4.5.1. The Deform button

If the Deform button is inactive, the model is viewed as in the Original State, with no deformation.

If the Deform button is active, the model is viewed deformed. In case the relevant setting (in Windows settings > Drawing) is activated, the Deformation Scale Factor, which regulates the viewing deformation on the screen is displayed in the title of the 3d plot window.

The factor is calculated for each model and the selected states at the time of loading Displacement data from the Read Results card, as mentioned in Chap. 3, par. 3.2. However, the user can alter the value of this factor in the following way:

Deform button either with the middle or with the right mouse button. A menu with radio buttons and an input field with the current value of the scale factor appears. Define the states the scale factor will act upon by switching on the relevant radio button. Type the new scale factor in the field and press ENTER, or use the +

ons within the Drawing styles group: D

Pid drawing styles is unaffected.

tivate the Deform button using the left mouse button.

When activated, the model is shown on the screen deformed, according to the state currently in view. In other words, Deform presents on the screen the Displacement data (node data) results of a state as translation of the model relatively to the Original State. From the States window, select a state other than the Original.

deactivate or ac

buttons which increase/decrease the current factor by an increment of 10%. The new scale factor is applied on the corresponding states of the Active model. Remarks: - In case of very small displacements, to avoid round-off errors a suitable scale factor must be defined. An appriopriate scale factor can be calculated by selecting the Auto Calculate option when loading the results. If results are

loaded with a Scale factor 1 and the Scale factor is later changed to a high value, the display of deformation will not be accurate due to the round-off errors.

- Defining a Deform Scale Factor is Active Model dependent. - The Deformation Scale Factor can also be defined in the States card, through the Scale tab. - A negative Deformation Scale Factor can also be applied.

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4.5.2. The Light drawing style

This button enables light effects providing, therefore, visualization of the model shadows.

with

Th he Tools > Settings (Lighting option) card or pressing either the middle or the right mouse button on the Light button. The Settings card appears and the user may adjust the values for the light parameters.

The user should distinguish between the Light within the Global Drawing Styles group and the Light within the

styles. Both functions are controlled from the Settings card. However:

- when per Pid drawing styles are the current view mode, if any of the Light functions is active, the view

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e user may control the Light parameters from t

Ligusing thmou

activate or deactivate the

ht flag buttone left

se button.

per Pid

will have light effects. - when Global Drawing Styles are

the current view mode, onlyLight within the

the Global Drawing

Styles group can affect the view.

:

4.5.3. Model face culling

The user has the option to cull selected faces according to their orientation, through the commandoptions cul bottom/disable/top

The example depicts culling and keeping of the bottom (negative

orientated) faces:

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rent windows

It is also pos for:

de, Wire, Feature, Hidden, Fringe, Light and Deform To apply s with

windowfor whapplied.

4.6.Setting styles on diffe

sible to open the Enabled Windows window directly when applying drawing styles. Thisis availableSha

- If the enabled windows are changed, then all future changes of the window dependent attribuwill be applied to these selected windows.

4.7. Display

e.g. CDAMP) that hold a property i

view them as under the Tools pull-down menu, or >. , LS-Dyna .key input files, PAM-the referenced line elements as 3D

ection area. This option is enabled

different styles on multiple windowmodels loaded in all of them, simply press middle mouse button on top of one of the aforementioned buttons. The Enabled Win

appears. Select from the list the wiich the selected drawing style should

the

dows ndow(s) be

Remark tes

options regarding line elements

Line elements (i.e. beams, bars, etc) and scalar elements ( d are assigned a color by their id and listed in the Pids card (as it happens for shell and solid elements). It is possible to assign a radius value to line elements and s 3D entities. The value of the radius may be defined either in the Settings card, which lieby applying the command: options bradius <Radius valueParticularly for NASTRAN .op2 files, NASTRAN Bulk Data filesCRASH .pc files and RADIOSS D00 files, it is possible to view entities with a radius that corresponds to their defined cross swith the command: options bpradius enable.

Remarks

- To view line elements as 3D entities, it is necessary to apply the Shade per Pid drawing style

using one of the folowing comshedge / shidedge / shidmesh / shmesh / sho / smedge / smesh / smo / snolight / soedge / somesh

- To apply Bar Radius setting on line elements with a specified cross section area, it is mandatory to disable the bpradius option.

- By default the bpradius option is enabled. Moreover initially, when loading a file, the model�s line elements have not

from the relevant cards or using the command: style material ...

mand options:

been assigned the Shade per Pid drawing styles. The following example illustrates the 3D display options for line elements. Assume that Geometry data of a NASTRAN model have just been read, therefore, the bpradius option is enabled and line elements are viewed as lines because they have not been ascribed the Shade per Pid drawing style.

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a. 3D display of line elements with a radius relevant to their cross section area.

Activate the Shade per Pid style on selected line elements from the Pids card.

options bpradius disable

The line elements that hold a cross section value are viewed as 3D entities. They exhibit a radius relevant to their cross section area, since the bpradius option is enabled by default.

b. 3D display of line elements with a user defined radius Define a radius value for all line elements either by applying the command:

options bradius <Radius value> or from the Tools > Settings card, Drawing options. In order to view line elements with this radius, it is necessary to disable the bpradius option by applying the command:

oror

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4.8. Related Commands

√ √

√ √

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Chapter 5

ANIMATION & CONTOUR DISPLAY

Table of Contents

5.1. General .....................................................................................................................................92 5.2. States card................................................................................................................................92

5.2.1. Functionality of the States card � Navigation and selection of states................................93 5.2.1.1. Navigation within the States card list.........................................................................93 5.2.1.2. Selection of States � Filtering States.........................................................................94

5.2.2. Generate Interpolated States with the Original State ........................................................96 5.2.3. Generate Interpolated States between States...................................................................97 5.2.4. Deleting States..................................................................................................................97 5.2.5. The Undeform State option ...............................................................................................98 5.2.6. Performing animation � Animation options and parameters............................................101

5.2.6.1. Animation control.....................................................................................................101 5.2.6.2. Performing animation ..............................................................................................102 5.2.6.3. Speeding up animation............................................................................................102 5.2.6.4. Locking States for animation ...................................................................................103

5.2.7. Copying States................................................................................................................104 5.2.8. Using the States card with Design Optimization results ..................................................104 5.2.9. Creating an mpeg2, avi or gif video file ...........................................................................105

5.3. Models Synchronization & States Resampling .......................................................................108 5.4. Fringe Options ........................................................................................................................108

5.4.1. Setting Fringe drawing style ............................................................................................109 5.4.2. Viewing Principal Tensor Vector Components ................................................................114 5.4.3. Fringes on Line Elements ...............................................................................................114 5.4.4. Using different Fringe color bars .....................................................................................115 5.4.5. Min � max values and Range of the color bar .................................................................116

5.4.5.1. Auto Recalculate option � Visible option .................................................................116 5.4.5.2. Setting the range manually......................................................................................117 5.4.5.3. Scaling the Max and Min values of the color bar .....................................................117 5.4.5.4. Setting a Non-Linear Scale for the color bar ...........................................................118

5.4.6. Controlling the display of vectors according to a set range .............................................119 5.4.7. General remarks on Fringes............................................................................................120 5.4.8. Handling of ABAQUS Contact Results. ...........................................................................120

5.5. Related Commands ................................................................................................................121

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5.1. General

Viewing results in µETA PostProcessor is regulated from two program modules: The States card and the Fringe Options card, which regulates the Fringe drawing style. The States card mainly controls which state of the model is currently viewed. The definition �States� refers to a block of either Displacement results or Functions results or both, related exclusively to certain conditions of the model (time step, frequency, boundary conditions and load). All loaded states are listed in the States card under the respective model. From version6.0.0 and on, µETA, specifically for NASTRAN results, supports the display of the corresponding Load Sets for each Load Case separately, as opposed to displaying them all at once for any Load Case. Load Sets are displayed all at once only in the Original State. The Fringe Options card regulates the type of results to view on the screen (Displacement data or Functions data) and how these data are viewed.

5.2. States card

From the States card the user may:

- Navigate through the states and view them on the screen.

- Select states using filtering options.

- Generate interpolated states between different loaded states and the Original State.

- Generate interpolated states between loaded states.

- Delete Displacement and/or Function results of selected states.

- Set a selected state for a model as Undeform State and define its drawing style.

- Perform animation either for all existing states of a model or for locked states.

- Handle states with NASTRAN Design Optimization results effectively.

- Create an mpeg2 / avi / gif video file.

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5.2.1. Functionality of the States card � Navigation and selection of states Open the States card. All loaded models with their corresponding loaded states are listed in tree form.

5.2.1.1. Navigation within the States card list When you activate a window, the name of the state in the active window, for each loaded model, is written on the top left corner of each drawing window. Furthermore, the corresponding states are highlighted in the list inside the States card. Navigation through states is a window dependent attribute. This means that selection of a new state is applied to the enabled windows (by default all windows are enabled). More information about the window dependent attributes is displayed in Chapter �Window Dependent Attributes�. The selection of a state can be performed in three ways:

- Select from the list in the States card with the left mouse button.

- Use the up and down arrow keys from the keyboard to navigate through the states inside States card.

- Navigation from state to state may be performed even outside the States card (when the card is not focused or even not open at all). Press the PageDown and PageUp keys to pass to the next or the previous state respectively. Furthermore, use the Home key from the keyboard to select the Original State of the model or the End key to move to the last state of the model.

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Page Up

Page Down Home End

Remarks - In the third way navigation takes action on the Active model.

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5.2.1.2. Selection of States � Filtering States Selection of states follows the standard functionality for selecting listed items.

However, the user should note that for selecting and unselecting items within the States list, each model acts like a different list. For example, if the user selects with the left mouse button a state from one model, then pressing the left mouse button on a state of another model will not result in unselecting the previous selected state of the first referenced model.

The States card provides a filtering field for fast identification and selection of states, when many states are listed. Filtering may be performed either by the name of the State (in the same way as in all Filter fields), or by the name of the existing results (e.g. the filtering string *VonMises* will match all states that hold Von Mises results). Alternatively, filtering is available through using the following variables:

v0, subcase, step, state Corresponds to the state id

v1, cycle, frequency, eigenvalue, real_eigenvalue, time, mode

Corresponds to the value of the second referenced variable in a state (i.e. Time, Mode id)

v2, generation_number Corresponds to the ascending order number of interpolated states under a state (1,2,3 etc)

Dis Selects states that hold Displacement data (this variable is typed alone)

Fun Selects states that hold Function data (either scalar or vector) (this variable is typed alone)

1 2 3 4

- Variable v0

- Variable v1

- Variable v2

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The following example illustrates the use of filtering for selection of states.

1. Select the states with an id number that lies between 3 and 8. For that, enter the expression in the Filter field

v0>2 && v0<=8

and press ENTER. The corresponding states are selected.

2. Following the previous selection, choose the states with a Time value greater than 0.04. For that, add to the previous expression

&& v1>0.04

and press ENTER. The states that satisfy the whole query criteria are selected.

3. Add to selection, all interpolated states with an order number greater than 2. For that, add to the previous expression

|| v2>2

and press ENTER. The states that satisfy the whole query criteria are selected.

Remarks - Appendix B includes a complete list of all supported conventions, operators, constants and

built-in functions that can be used in Filtering field.

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5.2.2. Generate Interpolated States with the Original State Select the states to generate

interpolated states from. Any of the selection modes inside a list may be applied. Select the Generate tab.

Interpolation may be either Linear or Cosinusoidal. Select from the relevant toggle button. Selecting Cosinusoidal interpolation activates the Angle field and the user may change the default angle value. In that case, there is also the option to use only absolute values by activating the relevant flag buttons. The number of steps for the interpolation is defined in the Steps field. Note that the selected state is included. The users may choose to generate states either for Displacement data or for Function data or for both by activating the corresponding flag buttons within the card, provided that the selected loaded states are holding this type of data. If the �Smooth Transition of States� flag button is inactive, the interpolation will take place between each selected state and the Original State (geometry data).

The user can animate Eigenmodes directly by enabling the flag Modal Animation (Auto Generate Locked States), locking a state and selecting to animate. Press Generate. Interpolated states appear in tree form under the corresponding state and they can be identified from the FACTOR or ANGLE value assigned to them. Interpolated States can be deleted pressing the Delete Generated button, but the user should be aware that this action deletes all Interpolated States.

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5.2.3. Generate Interpolated States between States Select the states between which interpolated states will

be created. For that option at least two successive states should be selected. Now select the Generate tab.

Interpolation may be either Linear or Cosinusoidal. Select from the relevant toggle buttons. The number of steps for the interpolation is defined in the Steps field. Note that the first state of the pair is included. The user may choose to generate states either for Displacement data or for Function data or for both by activating the corresponding flag buttons within the card, provided that the selected loaded states are holding this type of data. Activate the "Smooth Transition of States" flag button. Now interpolation will be performed only between the selected successive states. Press Generate.

For each pair of states participating in the interpolation, corresponding interpolated states are placed in tree form under the state, which appears first in the list. In case variable v1 of the filtering corresponds to TIME, then the interpolated states are assigned the corresponding values of Time (v1) and STATE id (variable v0), instead of a factor value.

Interpolated States can be deleted pressing the Delete Generated button, but the user should be aware that this action deletes all Interpolated States.

5.2.4. Deleting States

1 +

Ctrl

Shift

1. Select the states to be deleted (either loaded states or interpolated states). Obviously, the Original State cannot be deleted since it corresponds to geometry data, therefore, the model itself.

2. Select the Delete tab � it holds the available options for deletion. Select the type of data to be deleted for each state and press the Apply button.

In this example assume that Subcase 1, Mode 1 holds Displacement data only, while Subcase 1, Mode 2 and corresponding Interpolated states hold both Displacement and Function data. The states which do not hold any kind of data anymore, are erased from the States list, by the end of the deletion process. Moreover, deletion of selected states deletes all interpolated states under the state as well.

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5.2.5. The Undeform State option

From the States card the user has the option to set states of the model as Undeform States. These states can have different drawing styles and can serve as a reference for comparison between states. The definition and use of Undeform States is effective only if Displacement data are loaded and viewed and if the Deform button, within the Drawing styles group, is activated.

Manipulation of undeformed states is achieved in the Undeform tab of the Options tab in the States window.

Creation of Undeform States To add an Undeform State select a state in the States List in the States window and press the Add button in the Undeform tab. The new Undeform State appears in the Undeform States list inside the Undeform tab. Drawing Style and Color of Undeform States

To set the drawing style for the highlighted Undeform States, select a drawing style from the drawing style pull-down menu inside the Undeform tab. The user can also set the color of the Undeform States by activating the User Color flag button and opening the color palette.

Deletion of Undeform States To delete the highlighted Undeform States press the Delete button in the Undeform tab. Right button menu

The user can manipulate the visibility of the selected Undeform States or delete them by pressing the right mouse button on the selected states and selecting an option from the popup menu.

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Optimization Results When post processing optimization results, the Undeform States can be used to view all the cycles of the selected state with the Follow Current State option or to view all the states of the selected cycle with the Follow Current Cycle. The following example demonstrates such a process with Follow Current State.

The model has 5 cycles and 3 subcases loaded for each cycle.

1

3

2

1

1. Select one by one all cycles of the model and create an Undeform State for each cycle of Subcase101. 2. Activate Follow Current State 3. Navigate through the states. Every time a new state is selected, µETA shows Undeform States of the selected state for all cycles, while all other existing Undeform States are hidden. If these Undeform States do not exist, they are automatically created.

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1

2

2 Shift3

1. In the Options > Undeform tab, click with the left mouse button on the title of the column of the cycles, so that the Undeform States are sorted according to cycle. 2. Select all states of the same cycle 3. Apply Wireframe as drawing style and a different color to each cycle. Now, selecting a subcase will show all the cycles of the subcase, each one with a different color.

Subcase101

Subcase102

Subcase103

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5.2.6. Performing animation � Animation options and parameters The user can control the animation of a model and adjust animation parameters from the Animation toolbar (by default on the top-left of the interface), from the States card or from the numeric pad of the keyboard (without the need for k0eeping the States card open). Keep in mind that in order to animate the states of a model the model should be Active.

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5.2.6.1. Animation control States card Keyboard

Move backwards (up in the States list) once

Move backwards (up in the States list) repeatedly.

Record any changes in Active�s window view and produce an mpeg2, avi or animated gif video.

Stop animation.

Move forward (down in the States list) repeatedly.

Move forward once (down in the States list).

Move forward � backward repeatedly.

Pause animation for the time SHIFT key is pressed.

Increase animations speed.

Reduce animation speed.

Ctrl 5 +

Ctrl 3 +

Ctrl 1+

Ctrl 6 +

Ctrl 4+

Ctrl + Enter

Shift

+ + Ctrl

+ - Ctrl

Remarks: - Keyboard animation control can be applied if a drawing window or a 2Dplot window is focused. If a card is focused, animation control cannot be applied. Also, refresh of multiple drawing windows during animation is now synchronized.

- The keyboard animation control is independent of the Num Lock button being active or not. - Videos can also be saved by applying the command

record avi / mpeg2 / gif start <filename> They are saved in the working directory, i.e. the directory µETA was opened in, but the user may specify a different directory by including in the filename of the video the path to the directory. Otherwise, by applying the command options changedir <directory path> the user may specify a different working directory in which videos will be saved.

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5.2.6.2. Performing animation - Select the state from which animation will

commence. - Adjust, if necessary, the animation speed (frames

per second) from the relevant field. Note that animation speed, in absolute terms, is machine dependent.

- Change, if necessary, the value in the Increment field (default is 1) and press ENTER to apply. This value corresponds to the step with which states are animated.

- With the left mouse button, press one of the animation options buttons.

- To stop animation, press the Stop button.

Animation commences from the state currently in view and is fully interactive. Thus, while in animation mode, the user may change the animation parameters, change the view or, even apply another function. Remarks:

- Animation procedure is Active Model dependent. - The user can select to view a number of the last animated states as feature lines.

5.2.6.3. Speeding up animation The Animation speed can be low for very large

models. In such cases, the user has the option to speed up animation by activating the Movie mode in the Animation tab or by applying the command: animation movie enable Note, that when using this option, the first passing over the states is slow � after this, any animation procedure will be faster. Remarks: - By default this speeding up option is disabled. When enabled, the speeding up option affects the performance of repeating animation options only.

- Any change of the display during animation will cause the whole procedure to restart (i.e. one slow passing over the states to store them and then animate the stored frames).

- During application of this feature, it is likely that temporary files will be created.

- Optionally, the user can select whether frames should be kept on disk or in memory by selecting the appropriate option in the drop down menu or by applying the relevant command either from the Commands list or from the command line. The default setting is for frames to be kept in Memory cache.

T T

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5.2.6.4. Locking States for animation To limit animation to a number of selected states from the list, the user may lock the selected states.

- To lock just one state, press the right mouse button on the state to be locked.

- For multiple selections, keep the CTRL key pressed and select states with the left mouse button. An alternative is to use CTRL key and Right Mouse Button in order to Lock/Unlock directly multiple states.

- After selection is finished press the Lock button.

- Locked states are presented with a padlock icon on their left.

- To unlock the locked states, press the Unlock button or the right mouse button over the Original State.

- If locked states are present, animation will take place only on them, provided that the corresponding model is Active. The user should note that interpolated states cannot be locked, but if the related state is locked then animation will be performed for all interpolated states.

For the example shown above, Mode 6 and Mode 7, regardlessAnimation in this example will c Remarks:

- To view animation on interpolrelevant state is locked. In theregardless of the status of theabove, the interpolated statesfact that the tree is collapsed.

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Ctrl

animation will be performed only for Subcases 1 - Mode 3, Mode 5 of other Subcases being selected but not locked (highlighted).

ommence from Subcase 1 - Mode 5 which is currently in view.

ated states, the corresponding tree should be expanded, unless the latter case, animation is performed for interpolated states tree (collapsed or expanded). Therefore, in the example presented under the locked Subcase 1 - Mode 5 will be animated despite the

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5.2.7. Copying States From the Copy tab of the States card the user can create a

copy of selected states. The user has the option to type a label to easily identify the copied states and also choose if the new states will contain both deformation and fringe results, from the relevant toggle boxes (by default, both activated). The copied states appear below the initially loaded states in the list.

This feature can be useful when for example loading different types of results from the same file. Normally, the initially loaded states would be overwritten.

3

2

1

5.2.8. Using the States card with Design Optimization results The cycles list in the Cycle tab is used along with design optimization results. If such results are loaded, the relevant cycles are listed corresponding to the states present in the states list above.

Cycles may be selected in the same way as states. The Lock feature is applied for cycles in the same way as for states (refer to the relevant chapter). Regarding cycles the user should keep in mind the following:

- When loading results other than design optimization, a default Cycle 0 appears in the States card. In this case, it does not affect the process and the user may ignore it.

- When design optimization results are loaded, the user views on the screen the selected state for the corresponding selected cycle. If the user selects a state not available for the selected cycle, the Original State will be viewed on the screen.

- Generating interpolated states for selected states applies, by default, to all existing cycles. If these states are not available for a number of cycles, then the corresponding interpolated states for these cycles hold zero results and coincide with the Original State.

- Animation of cycles is regulated from the Animate Cycles flag button. If this flag is off, animation is performed for all available states of the currently viewed cycle. If this flag is on, animation is performed for the currently viewed state and for all available cycles.

- Cycles may be deleted using the Delete button. Cycle 0 cannot be deleted from the list.

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5.2.9. Creating an mpeg2, avi or gif video file Within the animation control panel, there is the option to record all changes of the Active Window and produce an avi, gif or mpeg2 video. Note that the user can control the frames-per-second (fps) of the recorded video file by applying the command (for an avi video): record avi fps <frame rate>

Press the Record button and select video type.

1. In the Export animation file manager that opens, select the folder to save the video and enter a name for the file (here �example.avi�). 2. In the file type pull-down menu select the format type of the video to be saved. The available types are mpeg, avi and gif. 3. In the Options group set the quality of the video to be recorded, its speed in frames per second and the compression format. The available compression formats are jpeg, none (16 bit color), none (24 bit color), DivX, msmpegv1, msmpegv2, msmpegv3, wmv1 and wmv2. 4. Press the Image Options to open the Image Parameters window in order to set the parameters for the video image. The Image Parameters window is explained right below. 5. Enable the Export Movie flag to create the video directly without animating it according to the options selected in the Export Movie area: Loops States: Set how many times the states will be shown Duration: Set how much time the video will last. If duration is set, the states will be looped until the duration time is reached (according to the given Fps). Animate: Select if the animation is to be conducted forwards, backwards or forwards and backwards. Note that if forwards and backwards is selected, then going forwards and backwards once counts as looping the states twice.

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6. Press the save button to save the video if the Export Movie flag is enabled or to start the recording of the video if the Export Movie flag is disabled.

If the Export Movie Flag is off, all changes taking place in the Active window will be recorded. The user may select to perform animation, to move the view or to make other modifications regarding models� view on the screen.

- Move the view - Animation - Change global drawing

styles - Focus on items - Other functions

To stop recording, press the Record button again.

If mpeg format is selected µETA PostProcessor invokes automatically the encoder program to produce the mpeg2 file.

Image Parameters Window:

Through the Image Parameters card the user can define the following parameters:

- Define the Image Size by switching to the respective option from the relevant menu that appears above. The Width and Height of the selected option is written automatically in the respective fields. If the option Custom is selected, then edit the Width and Height values in these fields. The size limit is 7100 X 7100. The Width and Height values are in mm for the standard sizes (A0, A1, �, Letter, etc). For the rest options, the values correspond to pixels and can be used in combination with the flag button Scale Fonts & lines to match dpi, which is by default active.

- Define the resolution of the image. For Encapsulated PostScript this corresponds to the resolution of the bitmap. For the other image and video types this corresponds to the resolution of lines and fonts and can be used in combination with the flag button Scale Fonts & lines to match dpi, which is by default active.

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- Scale the image either by applying a Factor or by specifying its final Width and Height dimensions.

- The Resulting Image Size is always calculated and displayed within the respective fields.

- If the Save Workspace Windows flag is active, then all currently visible windows in the workspace are saved (not only the Active Window). This is necessary for saving tiled windows into one image.

- Option to define a background color that will be used only for the saved image / video.

Remarks

- Note that a video can also be recorded by applying the command

record mpeg2 start test_video.m2v

The user may either type the full absolute path name or just type a name (here "test_video"). In this case, all files will be placed in the current working directory of µETA. The path where the images or movies are saved can be also defined through the command:

opt changedir <Enter new working Directory>

and from that point all the images / videos will be saved there.

- By default, the .ppm files with the captured frames, which are created at the beginning, are deleted after the creation of the mpeg2 file. The user has the option to keep them by applying the command: record mpeg2 removeppm disable

- Overlaying cards are likely to create problems during video creation. To eliminate this possibility apply the command:

options offscreen enable

before creating a video.

- Particularly for saving in Postscript format, the following options are available: a. Save or not the background color. This is regulated from the commands:

disable (this is the default)

enable write options savebg b. Save or not the Logo at the left top corner of a Drawing Window. disable

enable (this is the default) write options savelogo

- There is the capability to export images or video with high font quality while the fonts are

displayed in normal quality when in interactive mode. The images and video however are exported in high quality and this is the default option. The relative command is:

options font quality exporthigh

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5.3. Models Synchronization & States Resampling Synchronization of 2 or more models with different time axis with respect to time can be achieved through the corresponding command:

model synchronize <Id of the "leader" Model> <Time_offset, Time_scale_factor> {all / act / <Id(s) of the follower Model(s)>}

Remarks - Application of this command results in new states being created for the "follower" models. These

states are the same in number as the states of the "leader" model participating in the synchronization. They are also locked.The time of a new state is calculated as:

Time(new,follower)=Time(corresponding state of leader)*Time_scale_factor + Time_offset The results that are assigned to each new state derive from a linear interpolation of the primary states for the time calculated for the new state. Example: Assume there are 2 models: The first one has 5 states corresponding to 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 sec. The second one has 2 states corresponding to 2.3 and 4 sec respectively. Assume also that the time axis of the 2 models is the same (time 2.3 sec of the second model corresponds actually to time 2.3 sec of the first model). In order to synchronise the first with the second model, the following command should be applied:

model synchronize 1 0,1 0 Time_offset = 0 Time_scale_factor = 1 since the time axis for the 2 models is assumed to be the same. After applying this command, 2 new states will be created for the first model at 2.3 sec and at 4 sec respectively. Resampling of states is useful in cases that the user wants to create equidistant states at specific time steps as interpolation from the existing states. This can be achieved through the corresponding command: model resample <starttime>,<endtime>,<steps> {all / act / <Model Id(s)>}

Example: Assume the model has states at the time steps of 1,2,3,� arbitrary spacing until time 10.0. In order to create equidistant states at the time steps 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.5�9.5, 10.0 as interpolation from the existing states the following command should be applied:

model resample 0,10,20 act

5.4. Fringe Options

The Fringe option is a member of the Global drawing styles group but also forms an option for the per Pid drawing styles and for Cut Sections (refer to Chapter 6). Fringes are regulated from the Fringe Options card. For all three modules, Fringe Options cards are exactly the same and they operate in the same way. Remarks:

- The user must keep in mind that although the Fringe Options cards appear to be the same for the three modules, fringes for each module are regulated only from its own Fringe Options card.

Here fringe options will be presented related to Global drawing styles.

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5.4.1. Setting Fringe drawing style

Activate the Fringe flag button from the Drawing styles group of flag buttons. The color bar appears implying that the view is in Fringe mode. Press the Fringe flag button with either the middle or the right mouse button. The Fringe Options card appears.

following:

lements

de - data or

tons to open o the Palettes dow list

ings will be

The options appearing in the card are related to the

- Fringe according to values either on nodes or on e

- The available plot styles

- The type of results to visualize (Displacement - NoFunction data)

Apart from these settings, the card also includes butthe Range Options card, the Settings card pointing tand Colors settings (refer to paragraph 5.3.4). A Winallows the user to select the windows where the settapplied on.

From the States card, select a state, holding results (anyone except the Original State). From the Fringe Options card, activate the flag button corresponding to the type of results to be viewed. Be sure that the currently viewed state holds this type of data. By now, the model should be viewed in color attributes corresponding to the relevant results according to the color palette ranges. Several viewing options deriving from the available combinations of activated flag buttons within the Fringe Options card, are depicted below:

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- Values On Node - Normal plot - Displacement type of Data

- Values On Node - Contour plot - Displacement type of Data

- Values On Node - Vector plot - Displacement type of Data (Vector plot is applicable for Displacement and Vector Functions data)

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- Values On Element

- Vector plot - Displacement type of Data

(Vector plot is applicable for Displacement data and Vector Functions data)

- Values On Element - Normal Plot - Scalar Functions type of Data (in this example it is Element Stresses)

- Values On Element - Contour Plot - Scalar Functions type of Data (in this example Element Stresses)

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- Values On Element

- Normal Plot - Scalar Functions type of

Data (in this example it is Corner Element Stresses)

- Values On Element

- Contour Plot - Scalar Functions type of

Data (in this example it is Corner Element Stresses)

Corner

Corner

Remarks on Fringes:

- In order to view Fringes in Global or per Part drawing styles, it is necessary to have activated at least one of the Wire, Features or Shade options.

- The vectors scale in vector plot coincides with the Deform scale factor when viewing Displacement data. When viewing Vector Functions data, the vectors scale can be adjusted from the Settings card (Vector - Scale field in General settings) within the Tools pull-down menu (refer to Chapter 22).

- For more accurate visibility performance regarding Scalar Functions and Vector Functions in Normal and Contour plots, the user is advised to have the Setting option Fringes max Quality active (refer to Settings card under Tools pull-down menu (Chapter 22)). When Fringes max Quality is active then the centroid element values are also considered for the contour interpolation.

- Shade and fringes to take into account the middle node on 2nd order elements when the command: options midnodes enable/disable(default) is applied.

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- In case both Top and Bottom (NASTRAN), or Inner and Outer surface (LS-Dyna, ABAQUS, PAM-CRASH and RADIOSS) values for shell element data (i.e. stresses) have been loaded, these can be identified in fringe mode. To achieve this:

# In Normal or in Contour plot, it is necessary to have the models or the individual parts shaded

Top and Bottom

BOTTOMTOP

Top and Bottom

Both sides of shell elements when viewing Top & Bottom results in Normal plot

# In case Vector plot is the current plot option, then Shade drawing style is not necessary.

BOTTOM

Top and Bottom

TOP

Top and Bottom

Both sides of shell elements when viewing Top & Bottom results in Vector plot Note:

- In case Vector plot is combined with values On Node, then both Top and Bottom vectors are viewed on any side of the model.

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5.4.2. Viewing Principal Tensor Vector Components Loading Vector Stresses results on a model there is the capability to select Principal Tensor results which displays simultaneously the Major and Minor Principals vectors. This option is quite useful for stress representation on composite materials. In the following example the results that have been loaded are Vector Stresses > Principal Tensor > Top and Bottom.

Top and Bottom Top and Bottom

BOTTOM TOP

Note

When identification of an Element that carries Principal Tensor results is performed then the values of the Element that are identified are only the Major Principal. 5.4.3. Fringes on Line Elements Line Element (Bars, Beams, PLOTEL�s, RBAR�s RROD�s etc.) results are also supported, as shown in the following picture of a space frame:

Deformed State � Fringes OnOriginal State

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5.4.4. Using different Fringe color bars Different color bars can be defined inside the META_post.defaults file (refer to Chapter 22) or in the Settings > Palettes and Colors menu. The user can define the number of color steps and the color of each step within the color bar. The colors are set in the RGB format by three numbers while an optional fourth number, governs the transparency of each fringe color - the Alpha channel number. An Alpha channel value of 255 defines a solid color while a zero value, a fully transparent one.

A full list of colorbars defined in µETA can be displayed inside the META-Post Messages window by applying the command: color fringebar list

While working in a µETA session the user may switch between different color bars by applying the command: color fringebar set<Enter Bar Name> Alternatively, the user can define a new color bar by applying the command: color fringebar rainbow / blackwhite<Enter Bar Name><Enter step Number>

Fringebars are Window dependent. That means that any change on the fringebar settings (format of values, setting of another fringebar, modifying of the range, etc) will be applied only on the Active window. In this way, fringebars can have different settings on different 3D windows.

Enter

Remarks - From Help > Save GUI settings, together with other program parameters, all available fringebars are also saved. These include the ones defined in the META_post.defaults file and in the Settings > Palettes and Colors menu. This is an easy way to create or edit fringebars without having to edit the META_post.defaults file. Such settings are saved in the META_post.xml file, which resides in the same directory as the META_post.defaults file.

- Note that for fringebars created or edited from the Graphical Interface (Settings > Palettes and Colors menu) to be saved, Help > Save GUI settings has to be selected before quitting µETA PostProcessor.

- Opening µETA PostProcessor, the program collects settings from the META_post.defaults file and then from the META_post.xml file. This means that if fringebars of the same name exist in both files, the ones in the META_post.xml file will prevail. So, if the user has edited an existing fringebar in the META_post.defaults file before starting µETA PostProcessor, the command options rereaddefaults should be applied for the edited fringebar to become available, followed by Help > Save GUI settings to have it saved in the META_post.xml file as well.

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5.4.5. Min � max values and Range of the color bar The min and max values of all or the visible entities and the entities where these values appear can be shown under the fringebar. Go to Tools > Settings, select Fringebar in the Windows Settings and enable the Show footer min-max values option. The user can control the range of the color bar from the Range Options card which may be invoked either from the Range button in the Basic Buttons group, or from the Fringe Range button within the Fringe Options card or from the Fringe Range option under Tools pull down menu. 5.4.5.1. Auto Recalculate option � Visible option

This is applicable for the whole model and for the results currently viewed as far as these are related to the Active model. The first drop-down menu includes options on which States the range of fringebar will take values from. The second drop-down menu includes options for the Entities the range of fringebar will take values from. The Recalculate button forces a fringebar range recalculation and is useful if an option other than the Current State was selected. The above can be performed automatically if the Auto Recalculate option is active - the range of the color bar is calculated automatically for each model state. The More Options button opens a menu where the user can select whether the fringebar range will be calculated from the Nodes� or the Elements� values. By default Auto is selected. This means that µETA considers the entities (Nodes or Elements) for the range values (min and max), depending on the style selected from the Fringe Options card. If it is on Nodes then nodal values will be taken into account, differently the element values will be taken into account for the contour plot.

Remarks To set as Min and Max the minimum and the maximum values of all existing states either for the whole model or for the currently visible parts, the user can also apply one of the following commands respectively:

range allstates range visstates

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In the same way, the user may set as Min and Max, the minimum and the maximum values of all currently locked states for the whole model by editing the command:

range lockstates

5.4.5.2. Setting the range manually This mode can be selected by deactivating the Auto

Recalculate flag.

The user can manually set the fringe range by typing the Max and Min Values in the respective fields.

Alternativelly, the user may pick on the model points of interest either by simple click or with box selection.In the latter case the Max or Min Value within the selection will be assigned as either fringe range Maxor Min respectively.

Enter

5.4.5.3. Scaling the Max and Min values of the color bar

There is also the option to modify the range of the color bar by editing scale factors for the Max and the Min values. These factors apply always irrespectively of the Auto Calculate flag button being active or not. The default for these scale factors is 1.

Enter

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5.4.5.4. Setting a Non-Linear Scale for the color bar The user has the ability to manually set the range limit for each fringebar color, by activating the Use non linear range field in the Range Options card.

Activate the Use non linear range flag. This opens a number of fields - the values in these fields correspond to the limit of each fringebar color.

The values in the fields can be altered to suit the user�s needs.

The new set of values can be assigned a name (�values� in this example) and be saved so that it can be recalled for future use, even for models other than the one it was created for - saved value sets appear in the drop-down list.

: saves a value set in the list

: recalls a saved value set from the list : removes a saved value set from the list

The red asterisk denotes that the fringebar rainbow in view is the one used by the set. The user has the option to switch to Log spacing by pressing the respective button. Pressing the Linear spacing button performs reset.

Enter

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5.4.6. Controlling the display of vectors according to a set range

It is possible to define a range for the visibility of vectors. In that case, only vectors with values that fall within the given range are viewed.

The commands used for this purpose are shown on the left.

a. range vectors <Enter min,max value> Vectors within the range remain visible.

b. range vectors greaterthan <Enter lower limit>

Vectors greater than a given value remain visible.

c. range vectors lessthan <Enter upper limit> Vectors less than a given value remain visible.

d. range vectors disable Disable the range for vectors. All vectors will be visible again.

e. range vectors enable Enable the last given range for vectors. This is for fast application without the need to specify the last defined range again.

In the following example only vectors above a lower limit remain visible:

2 Enter

1

The display of vectors can be controlled from the General options in the Settings card.

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5.4.7. General remarks on Fringes As a conclusion, viewing results with fringes demands that the following conditions should be met:

> The relevant results must be loaded. > The state in view should be other than the Original and should be holding the relevant

type of results. > Compatibility between data type of the currently viewed state and Fringe options set in

the relevant card. > The model must be Active. (Even non-Active models are viewed in fringe mode but the

fringe range of the color bar is defined for the Active model in the Autocalculate mode). > In case the model has second order elements and the user wants to visualize the fringes

taking into account the midnodes then the command: options midnodes enable must be applied.

The visibility of the fringebar is controlled via the command:

options fringebar on/off. There are options available to control the number of digits displayed for the values of the color bar. Also, there is capability to select between Auto, Scientific and Normal display of the digits using the following commands:

options fringebar format auto/scientific/fixed options fringebar format digits <No. of digits, e.g. 3>

5.4.8. Handling of ABAQUS Contact Results. To assist the visualization of the Contact results in Abaqus models, between the facets of the solid elements in contact surfaces of shells, carrying the contact results, are created.

Once contact results are loaded from the Load Data card, these new shells are automatically listed in the Parts list and their visibility is controlled via the F12 card (designated as Surfaces From Solids).

In order to see this new contact shells the SHELLS flag button in the F12 card must also be active.

An exploded view of a model with Contact Pressure results on the created shells from Solids is shown bellow:

Surface from Solids

Gasket

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5.5. Related Commands

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Cut Planes & Cut Sections

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Chapter 6

CUT PLANES & CUT SECTIONS

Table of Contents

6.1. General ...................................................................................................................................125 6.2. Invoking the Cut Planes card ..................................................................................................125 6.3. Functionality of the Cut Planes card .......................................................................................126

6.3.1. General ...........................................................................................................................126 6.3.2. Create tab .......................................................................................................................126 6.3.3. Edit tab............................................................................................................................127

6.3.3.1. Plane Position menu ...............................................................................................128 6.3.3.2. Cutting Settings menu .............................................................................................129 6.3.3.3. Slice menu ..............................................................................................................129

6.3.4. Styles tab ........................................................................................................................129 6.3.4.1. Grid .........................................................................................................................130 6.3.4.2. Fringe Styles ...........................................................................................................130

6.3.5. Settings tab .....................................................................................................................130 6.3.5.1. Clip Visibility menu ..................................................................................................131 6.3.5.2. Sections Drawing menu ..........................................................................................131 6.3.5.3. Sections Position menu...........................................................................................131

6.3.6. Planes list pop-up menu..................................................................................................132 6.4. Cut Planes and Cut Sections ..................................................................................................133 6.5. Working with Cut Planes � Basic features ..............................................................................134

6.5.1. Defining a new Cut Plane................................................................................................134 6.5.1.1. Creating a Default Cut Plane...................................................................................134 6.5.1.2. Creating a Custom Cut Plane..................................................................................134 6.5.1.3. Using the Fit option to create Cut Planes ................................................................135

6.5.2. Using the Cut Planes list .................................................................................................136 6.5.3. Focusing on Cut Planes and Cut Sections......................................................................137 6.5.4. Editing a Cut Plane .........................................................................................................138

6.6. Basic functions for Cut Planes and Cut Sections....................................................................140 6.6.1. Duplicate option ..............................................................................................................140 6.6.2. Slice option......................................................................................................................140 6.6.3. Flip ..................................................................................................................................141 6.6.4. Best View ........................................................................................................................141 6.6.5. Follow Origin and Follow Normal options........................................................................142

6.6.5.1. Example on Follow Origin and Follow Normal features...........................................142 Step 1...................................................................................................................................143 Step 2...................................................................................................................................143 Step 3...................................................................................................................................143

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Step 4...................................................................................................................................144 Step 5...................................................................................................................................144

6.6.6. Alter Definition of Custom planes ....................................................................................145 6.6.7. Cutting Settings...............................................................................................................145

6.6.7.1. Cut...........................................................................................................................145 6.6.7.2. Solids Cut ................................................................................................................146 6.6.7.3. Lock to Visible .........................................................................................................146

6.6.8. Clip by Plane and Clip by Section option ........................................................................147 6.6.9. Draw only Section ...........................................................................................................147 6.6.10. Sections Drawing ..........................................................................................................148

6.6.10.1. Line Width .............................................................................................................148 6.6.10.2. Scale Factor ..........................................................................................................148 6.6.10.3. Show mesh at solids .............................................................................................148

6.6.11. Sections Position...........................................................................................................149 6.6.11.1. Offset factor...........................................................................................................149 6.6.11.2. Draw in Plane option .............................................................................................149

6.7. Grid on Cut Planes..................................................................................................................150 6.7.1. General ...........................................................................................................................150 6.7.2. Example on grid on Cut Planes.......................................................................................150

Step 1: Set the Original State of the model as Undeform State ...........................................150 Step 2: Create a cut plane and arrange its settings .............................................................151 Step 3: Keep only the cut plane and the corresponding cut sections visible ........................151 Step 4: Apply grid on a cut plane .........................................................................................152 Step 5: Alter the scaling of grid axes....................................................................................153

6.7.3. Remarks on grid..............................................................................................................153 6.8. Box entity: an aspect of cut planes .........................................................................................154

6.8.1. General ...........................................................................................................................154 6.8.2. Example on boxes...........................................................................................................154

6.8.2.1. Creation of boxes ....................................................................................................155 6.8.2.2. Editing a box to move it or change its dimensions...................................................156 6.8.2.3. Box and changes of state........................................................................................156

6.9. Saving Cut Sections in NASTRAN format...............................................................................157 6.10. Related Commands ..............................................................................................................158

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6.1. General

One or more cut planes may be applied on models, in order for the user to acquire a better view of the interior of a model or to view results on the resulting cut section. Cut plane functions are regulated from Cut Planes card, but some basic functions also appear within the main interface for fast application.

Basic cut plane functions within the main interface

A full description of Cut Planes card functionality follows. The functions appearing in the main interface are exactly the same as in the Cut Planes card except that application of these functions takes place solely on selected cut planes from the screen. Visibility of cut planes is a window dependent attribute. This means that any change in the visibility of a cut plane is applied to the enabled windows (by default all windows are enabled). More information about the window dependent attributes is displayed in Chapter �Window Dependent Attributes�.

6.2. Invoking the Cut Planes card

This card may be invoked either: or g Cut Planes

ols pull down the PLANES he left mouse

By pressing button with tbutton

���

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By selectinfrom the Tomenu.

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6.3. Functionality of the Cut Planes card

6.3.1. General The features of the Cut Planes card can be categorized in the following groups:

List of all defined cut planes along with selection features. Note the �bulb� icons, denoting visible ( icon) or non-visible ( icon) cut planes, as well as the grayed fonts of the latter case.

Focusing commands to apply on selected cut planes from the list.

Buttons for deleting or creating duplicate cut planes from selected ones.

Create tab, including options for defining new cut planes

Other cut planes function and settings tabs.

� the settingsed to revert to

Customization of the cut planes settings by pressing the Set as defaults button are saved in the META_post.xml file. The Apply saved defaults button can be usthe default plane settings, in case the user at some point has changed them

6.3.2. Create tab

The buttons of the Create tab are equivalent to the options of the basic buttons menu under New. - XY, YZ and ZX options refer to the Global coordinate system. - Custom is for defining a cut plane in three ways: > By selecting one node (The created cut plane will be parallel to the screen level at this

node). > By selecting two nodes (The created cut plane will be normal to the vector defined by the

two nodes). > By selecting three non co-linear nodes. The end of nodes selection has to be confirmed by pressing the middle mouse button.

- Fit button: This creates automatically three cut planes corresponding to the three principal axes of the moments of inertia of the currently visible entities of the model. The Origin of these cut planes will coincide with the geometrical center of the currently visible entities of the Active model.

- OriginXYZ button: by selecting one node three cut planes, corresponding to the three Global Axes, are created, having as origin the selected node OriginXYZ.

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menu of buttons appears allowing you to select from the beginning if the visibility of the model will be clipped by the Plane, by the Section or if this plane will not clip the visibility of the model.

The same options exist if you select to create a cut plane from within the basic menu of buttons, by pressing the New button.

6.3.3. Edit tab

From the Edit tab the user can edit a selected cut plane.

The Edit tab is divided to 4 menus. > In the first menu there are buttons for general

handling of planes. > From the second menu the user can edit the

planes position. > In the thrid menu there settings for what the

plane will cut in order to create its section. > From the fourth menu the user can change

the selected plane to Slice. In order the content settings of the Manual Position, Cutting Settings and Slice menus to appear, the respctive check boxes must be enabled.

The buttons in the first menu are:

Creates a new section at the current planes position.

Moves the view so that the Normal Vector of a cut plane is perpendicular to the screen plane.

Switches the side of a cut plane (the cut plane acquires the opposite direction).

Opens the palettes� card, allowing altering of a cut plane�s color. Note that this button changes color accordingly to the plane selected from the list.

Opens the Select Font window, allowing altering a cut plane�s font.

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Cut Planes & Cut Sections 6.3.3.1. Plane Position menu

The user can edit the plane�s position interactively, using mouse buttons, or set the position by activating the Manual Position menu and defining its coordinates.

Moves the plane using mouse buttons.

While in the Interactive Edit function, this produces a cut section at each current cut plane position, without having to press Cut geometry.

By activating the Manual Position checkbox its contents appear.

X, Y, Z input field for defining the coordinates of cut plane�s Origin.

X, Y, Z input field for defining the Normal vector of a cut plane.

X, Y, Z input field for defining the Edge vector of a cut plane.

Applicable only for Custom cut planes. When active, the cut plane follows the node defined as the plane�s Origin.

Applicable only for Custom cut planes defined by 2 or 3 nodes. When active, the cut plane follows at all states the normal defined by the nodes used in the plane�s definition.

Applicable only for Custom cut planes defined by 3 nodes. When active, the cut plane follows at all states the edge defined by the nodes used in the plane�s definition.

Applicable only for Custom cut planes defined by 2 nodes. The default is for the 2 nodes to define the normal vector of the plane (Z-axis). Selecting the appropriate option the user selects which axis will be defined by the 2 nodes: X-axis or Y-axis.

The user has the capability to change the definition of an existing plane. By pressing this button the user can select 1, 2 or 3 nodes and change the selected plane to custom plane.

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6.3.3.2. Cutting Settings menu

By default the Cutting Settings menu is enabled and the user can define what the plane will cut.

When navigating between model states (e.g. in the States card), this produces a cut section at the cut plane position for each state automatically

When activate, the selected plane creates a cut section only for the entities that are visible.

Produce a cut section for either the Visible or All the model. If the Visible Auto is selected, a new section is created automatically for the visble entities when the user applies focus functions.

Option for solids� cut section viewing: Skin, Inside or Both.

6.3.3.3. Slice menu

From the Slice menu the user has the option to change an already created cut plane to slice plane. This plane clips the visibility of the model from its both sides, leaving a slice of the model only visible.

The Slice checkbox must be enabled in order to have the option to change a plane to slice plane. Activating the Slice Width check box the plane is changed to slice. From the Slice Width field and the button the user has the capability to define the length of the slice of the model that will be kept visible.

6.3.4. Styles tab

From the Styles tab the user can apply Grid and Fringe Styles on the plane and the cut section.

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6.3.4.1. Grid

By activating the Grid checkbox the user can apply grid style on the selected cut plane. In order to edit the grid the Manual Grid option must be enabled.

By pressing the Interactive Edit button the user can edit the grid axes and step, interactively by dragging its edges. The minimum and maximum values of the grid axes and its step can be set from the respective S-Axis (vertical axis) and T-Axis (horizontal axis) fields.

6.3.4.2. Fringe Styles

Activating the Fringe Styles for the selected plane(s) the user can visualize the results as fringe colors on the section(s).

6.3.5. Settings tab

The Settings tab is divided to 3 menus.

> The Clip Visibility menu from where the user has the option to select how the visibility of the model will be clipped.

> The Sections Drawing menu in which settings for the drawing of the section exist.

> The Sections Position menu from where the user has the capability to change the position of the section.

In order the content settings of the Sections Drawing and Sections Position menus to appear, the respective checkboxes must be enabled.

Under the 3 menus, there is the Draw only Section checkbox which displays only the section and not the cut plane, if it is activated.

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6.3.5.1. Clip Visibility menu

Hides the model part that lies on the cut plane side which is opposite to the normal vector.

Hides the model section that lies on the opposite side of the cut section to the direction of the normal vector of the cut plane.

6.3.5.2. Sections Drawing menu

Enabling the Section Drawing checkbox its content settings appear. From the Line Width field the user can change the width of the selected cut planes sections. In the Scale Factor field, if non-zero value is set, the section is presented as normal deformation relatively to the cut plane.

From this pull-down menu the user has the capability to select the color of the section (if Fringe Styles option is deactivated). The available options are: Plane, Pid Auto, Pid, Mid and Model. If the Pid Auto option is selected then the section will be colored accordingly to which Global Coloring style is selected from within the basic buttons menu.

Activate to show the mesh inside a cut section.

Visualise the deformation of a cut section. If deactivated, the cut section is shown always undeformed on the cut plane. This is useful for viewing only results on the same cut section when changing states.

6.3.5.3. Sections Position menu

Enabling the Section Position checkbox its content settings appear. From the Offset Factor field the user can translate the cut section to the specified distance from the cut plane.

Projects the cut section on the cut plane.

. When active, the section is drawn in the plane, the center of the cut section is always positioned in the plane.This is applicable for tracking the same cut section when changing states.

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6.3.6. Planes list pop-up menu

By selecting planes from within the Planes List with right mouse button a menu pops up.

From this menu the user has the options to:

> Edit interactively the planes position. > Rename the plane. > Apply focus commands or delete the planes. > Select to draw only the section and not the cut plane. > Duplicate the cut plane. > Apply Grid and Fringe Styles. > Copy the selected or all the plane names to clipboard.

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6.4. Cut Planes and Cut Sections

Prior to proceeding with the presentation of functions regarding cut planes and cut sections, the user should be familiar with the following matters:

- New cut planes are added to the list and deleted cut planes are removed from the list. - All functions are applied on selected cut planes from the list. - The user should distinguish the difference between cut planes and cut sections. The user

defines a cut plane. When a cut plane cuts a model, the face of the produced cut on the model is called a cut section. The relation chain between cut planes and cut sections is demonstrated in the following:

- Each cut section correspbe replaced by another

- The cut section is attachbecomes clear when uscorresponding cut plane

- A cut plane cuts also thegenerated for the UndefUndeform State.

Cut Section

Active Model A Cut Section is produced for the Active Model

+

1. Setting the Active model:

Cut Plane

From a:

BE A CAE Systems S.A. T

onds to a cut plane. This cut section exists until the time this will cut section. ed to the corresponding cut plane forming one entity. This

ing Focus functions on cut planes. The cut section follows the during focusing procedure. Undeform State (if this has been set) and a cut section is

orm State. Fringe options apply also on the cut section of the

• Cut Geometry • Auto Cut + Edit • State Auto Cut • Draw in Plane • Lock to Visible

2. Applying one of the functions:

Cut Section

Cut Plane

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6.5. Working with Cut Planes � Basic features

6.5.1. Defining a new Cut Plane

A cut plane can be created either from the Create tab in the Cut Planes or from the basic buttons, with left mouse button click on New - the menu with the available options appears.

6.5.1.1. Creating a Default Cut Plane

1. With the left mouse button, select NEW from the Cut Planes card and the menu appears. 2. From the menu, select one of the options to create a default cut plane (XY, YZ or ZX) and from the submenu the visibility clipping option.

The cut plane appears in the view and it is added to the cut planes list. Remarks: - The user has the option to create more than one Default cut planes on the same plane (XY, YZ or ZX)

6.5.1.2. Creating a Custom Cut Plane

1. Select NEW from the Cut Planes card. 2. From the appearing menu, select Custom and from the submenu the option for the visibility

clipping or if you want this plane to follow its origin its, normal and its edge vector. 3. An input field appears. Enter the name of the new cut plane in the field and press ENTER. 4. Using the left mouse button, select one, two or three nodes to define the cut plane. In this

example two nodes are selected. 5. Press the middle mouse button to end selection (this is not necessary, if three nodes are

selected). The cut plane appears in the view and it is added to the cut planes list.

2 1

4

2 3

Enter

1

5

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6.5.1.3. Using the Fit option to create Cut Planes

1. Within the Cut Planes basic buttons group, press the New button. 2. From the appearing menu, select the Fit option and from the submenu the visibility clipping option. 3. An input field appears. Enter the name of the new cut planes and press ENTER or OK.

Cut planes are created for the visible section of the model and they are added to the cut planes list. Remarks:

- The origin of the created cut planes coincides with the geometrical center of the visible section of the model.

- There is also the option to create only the cut plane that corresponds to the maximum principal moment of inertia by applying the command:

plane new <Name of the plane> bestfit

2

1

3

Enter

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Cut Planes & Cut Sections 6.5.2. Using the Cut Planes list

- Cut planes may be selected directly from the list using the left mouse button. While inside the list the Up and Down arrow keys can be used. - Alternatively, the user may select cut planes either:

> using the option Visible - all visible cut planes on the screen will become selected in the list > or using the option Pick - the user can pick cut planes from the screen with the left mouse button selection and the planes will become selected in the list.

- To unselect a cut plane, keep the CTRL key pressed and press the left mouse button on the cut plane in the list.

The application of Pick selection option is demonstrated below: 1. Press the Pick button within the Cut Planes card. 2. Make a box selection on a cut plane from the screen. The selected cut plane is being selected and highlighted in the list. - By pressing right mouse button on selected planes in the List a menu appears from which focus functions can be applied, the plane can be edited and settings can be changed. Remarks - All functions appearing in the Cut Planes card are applied on selected cut planes from the list. - The user is advised to select cut planes from the screen using box selection. - Cut planes are selected from the screen by their border only.

2

1

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6.5.3. Focusing on Cut Planes and Cut Sections

- Focusing procedure, performed through the Cut Planes card takes place among existing cut planes.

1. Select from the list the cut plane(s) to apply the focus command. 2. From the Cut Planes card, select the focus command. Results of focusing are viewed

on the screen. ALL command is applied without selection of cut plane(s).

- Focusing can be applied through the main interface as on any other entity. In this case focusing is performed among all entities.

3. From the main menu select a focus command to apply.

4. Select by box the cut plane to apply the focus command.

Results of focusing are viewed on the screen. Note that the cut plane and its corresponding cut section behave as one entity.

There is also the option to apply the And command in the main menu on a cut section and bring either elements or parts that are attached to the cut section. Remarks: - Identification of nodes is also applicable on a cut section without the elements that are

cut, being visible. For example, if the user selects by box a part of the cut section, this will result in identifying the nodes that belong to the elements cut by the cut plane. If, for that plane, the Clip Geometry flag button is active, then only the nodes residing on the visible part of the model are identified.

- Focusing commands can be performed also from the right mouse button menu in the Planes List

1

2

1 2

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Cut Planes & Cut Sections 6.5.4. Editing a Cut Plane

Edit a cut plane in order to change its position. - From the Cut Planes card, select the cut plane(s) from the list and then press Interactive Edit button(2).

- Alternatively, press the Edit button from the Planes group of buttons within the main menu and then select by box from the screen the cut plane(s) to be edited.

Since a cut plane is in Edit mode, the user may either:

- Translate the cut plane along the direction of its normal vector.

To do this, hold the middle mouse button pressed and move the cursor approximately along the desired direction. After the final position has been reached, the coordinates of the origin of the cut plane are updated.

- Rotate the cut plane around an axis, which is perpendicular to the mouse track and lies on the screen plane.

To do this, press and hold the left mouse button and move the cursor. The rotation pole is automatically defined on the origin of the cut plane. After the final position has been reached, the coordinates of the normal vector of the cut plane are updated.

Rotation Axis

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- Rotate the cut plane around an axis, which is normal to the screen plane.

Remarks - To exit from the Edit function, either press Esc key or select another function, which involves a

selection procedure. - Editing a Cut Plane includes also the

following options: Reset Normal

Reset Origin

Set Normal to X axis

Set Normal to Y axis

Set Normal to Z axis

Set Normal to -X axis

Set Normal to �Y axis

Set Normal to �Z axis

Flip Normal

Rotation Axis

Shift F1+

Shift +Shift +

+ F2Shift

F3Shift +F4Shift +F5Shift +F6Shift +F7Shift +

- The command: plane edit offsetorigin <Enter x,y,z values for offset origin>Ö can be used for editing the origin of a plane and moving it according to the given x, y, z values. Note that these values are relative coordinates with respect to the last plane�s position. Therefore, this command may be applied repeatedly to obtain a step movement of a plane.

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6.6. Basic functions for Cut Planes and Cut Sections

6.6.1. Duplicate option

The Duplicate option creates a new cut plane parallel to an already existing cut plane.

1. From the cut planes list select the cut plane to duplicate.

2. Press the Duplicate button within the Cut Planes card menu or from the right mouse button menu.

The new cut plane appears in the view at a small distance and parallel to the selected cut plane. By default, the normal of the new cut plane is opposite to the normal of the selected cut plane. The new cut plane is also added to the cut planes list.

6.6.2. Slice option

From the Slice menu the user has the option to change an already created cut plane to slice plane. This plane clips the visibility of the model from its both sides, leaving a slice of the model only visible.

1

2

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Cut Planes & Cut Sections 1. From the Edit tab enable the Slice menu.

2. Enable the Slice Width checkbox to change the cut-plane to a slice plane.

3. Enter in the field the value (distance from each side of the plane) that will be visible.

Remarks - The slice of the model that will be visible can be edited interactively from the +/- buttons at the right side of the Slice Width field.

- By placing the curson between the +/- buttons and holding the left mouse button pressed, the Slice Width value can be increased or decreased moving the mouse up or down. If Shift key is pressed while moving the mouse the Slice Width value changes with a larger step.

- Slice planes have one section. Only the visibility clipping is different than the other planes.

6.6.3. Flip

The Flip function assigns a normal vector of opposite direction to the cut plane. If the clipping effect is active (refer to Clip by Geometry/Plane flag buttons), the division of the model that remains visible is switched.

Press the Flip button within the Cut Planes card.

6.6.4. Best View

Moves the view so that the Normal Vector of a cut plane is perpendicular to the screen plane.

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6.6.5. Follow Origin and Follow Normal options

A constant position of a plane relatively to a model with a considerable deformation when navigating through states can be attained using these two options. Regarding these features, the user should keep in mind the following: - These features apply only on Custom cut planes. Particularly the Follow Origin feature applies on

all types of Custom cut planes while Follow Normal applies only on Custom planes defined either with 2 or with 3 nodes.

- Follow Origin is related to the first node used for the plane definition. If this option is active, the plane follows the node throughout the deformation of the model when switching from one state to the other.

- Follow Normal is related to the orientation of the plane. If this option is active and the model is deformed, when switching from one state to the other, the orientation of the plane changes so as to remain perpendicular to the direction defined from the origin and the nodes.

> For a plane defined by 2 nodes, this direction is the vector originating from the origin to the second node selected for the definition of the plane.

> For a plane defined by 3 nodes, this direction is defined as the vector product of the two vectors defined from the origin to the second and the third nodes selected for the definition of the plane.

- These options are meaningful only when navigating between states which hold Displacement data.

- If, at least one of these options is active, the user cannot edit the relevant cut plane to move it. The following example illustrates the application of these two features.

6.6.5.1. Example on Follow Origin and Follow Normal features

It is assumed that a model and the corresponding Displacement data are loaded. A 2-node Custom cut plane has been created and the settings of this cut plane are shown in the relevant Cut Planes tabs. The line that joins the two nodes, used for the definition of the plane, is drawn on the model in order to be used as a reference. The current state is the Original State of the model.

Line between the two nodes used for the definition of the cut plane

Node 1

Node 2

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Step 1

Subcase 1 is selected. The model and the cut section are deformed accordingly but the position of the cut plane remains the same since Follow Origin and Follow Normal options are inactive. The cut section remained the same since the State auto cut flag button is inactive.

Step 2

1. Activate the Follow Origin flag button. The cut plane is moved parallel to its initial position following Node 1 (the first node selected for the definition of the cut plane).

Step 3

1. Deactivate the Follow Origin flag button. 2. Activate the Follow Normal flag button. The

cut plane returns to its initial origin but now its orientation is changed so as to remain perpendicular to the direction defined by its origin and the second node.

1

1 2

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Step 4

1. Activate the State auto cut flag button. 2. Activate the Follow Origin flag button. 3. Deactivate the Follow Normal flag button. Now a cut section is created at the new position of the cut plane, since Auto cut is active.

Step 5

Activate the Follow Normal flag button. The orientation of the cut plane changes accordingly and a new cut section is created since Auto cut is active.

3 2

1

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6.6.6. Alter Definition of Custom planes

From the Alter Def. pull-down menu inside the Plane Position>Manual Position menu of the Edit tab, the user has the capability to change the definition of the normal vector, of a custom plane defined by 2 nodes.

Remarks - The definition of all the cut planes can be changed to custom, by using the Customize function from within the Plane Position>Manual Position menu of the Edit tab. By pressing this button the user can select 1,2 or 3 nodes to define the origin and the Normal and Edge vectors of the plane. New origin and vectors can be defined for already created custom planes by using Customize function.

6.6.7. Cutting Settings

6.6.7.1. Cut

From the Cut pull-down menu from within the Cutting Settings menu of the Edit tab, the user can select whether the cut plane will create a cut section for the visble parts only or for all the parts of the model.

Remarks - If the Visible Auto option is selected, then a new section will be automatically created every time the user applies focus commands (Or Not And etc).

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6.6.7.2. Solids Cut

From the Solids Cut pull-down menu from within the Cutting Settings menu of the Edit tab, the user can select whether the cut plane will create a cut section from the skin of the solids or from the inside part of the solids.

Remarks - If the Both option is selected, then a section will be created from both skin and inside part of the solids.

6.6.7.3. Lock to Visible

This option is used for limiting the creation of cut section on certain entities while keeping in the view a broader set of entities or even completely different entities. In this example the Lock to Visible was

activated when the right part was visible only. So the plane was locked to this part and creates a cut section only on this part even if Cut Geometry button is pressed again or if the user Edits the plane having the Auto Cut enabled. Remarks

- Keep in mind that each time the Lock/Unlock to Vis. flag button is activated a new cut section is being created at the current position of the cut plane and for the currently visible entities. - This function is applied only on the Active model. - By activating Lock to Visible the Cut pull-down menu inside the Cutting Settings menu is deactivated.

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6.6.8. Clip by Plane and Clip by Section option

The difference between Clip by Plane and Clip by Section is demonstrated below.

In Clip by Plane the geometry which is hidden is determined by the position of the plane, whereas in Clip by Section the hidden geometry is determined by the cut section.

6.6.9. Draw only Section

The Draw only Section option inside the Settings tab, displays only the section and not the cut plane, if it is activated.

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6.6.10. Sections Drawing

6.6.10.1. Line Width

From the Line Width field inside the Sections Drawing menu of the Settings tab, the user can change the width of the selected cut planes sections.

6.6.10.2. Scale Factor

From the Scale Factor field, if non-zero value is set, the user can present a section as normal deformation relatively to the cut plane.

6.6.10.3. Show mesh at solids

Show mesh at solids flag button, when activated, displays the projections of edges of solids which are cut by the cut plane.

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6.6.11.1. Offset factor

From the Offset Factor field the user can translate the cut section to the specified distance from the cut plane.

6.6.11.2. Draw in Plane option

This option is useful for tracking the same cut section through different states with large deformation. If this option is active, the cut section is displayed on the cut plane or with the same offset distance in case an offset has already been applied. In the following case a Clip by Section cut plane has been created.

Remarks

- Keep in mind that each time the Draw in Plane flag button is activated a new cut section is being created at the current position of the cut plane.

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6.7. Grid on Cut Planes

6.7.1. General

Optionally, a grid can be applied on cut planes to assist comparison of cut sections. Functions related to grid on cut planes can be applied by applying the relevant commands or through the functions of the Grid tab in the Cut Planes card.

6.7.2. Example on grid on Cut Planes

The following example demonstrates the application of grid related functions in a typical case where the use of grid is essential for comprehensive comparison of a cut section�s change. The user is advised to repeat this example step by step, using any available model. For this example, one model is used. It is assumed that results regarding nodes and elements have been loaded.

Step 1: Set the Original State of the model as Undeform State.

Step 2: Create a cut plane and arrange its settings.

Step 3: Keep only the cut plane and the corresponding cut sections visible.

Step 4: Apply grid on a cut plane.

Step 5: Alter the scaling of grid axes.

Step 1: Set the Original State of the model as Undeform State

1. From the Undeform tab within the States card, set the Original State as Undeform State. 2. From the States list, select Subcase 1. The Undeform State (Original State) is also presented

with the Feature style mode.

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Step 2: Create a cut plane and arrange its settings

1. Use the Planes group of basic buttons to create a cut plane (Default Plane YZ). 2. From the Cut Planes card list select the created cut plane. 3. Switch to the Edit tab and apply Solids Cut: Skin from the Cutting Settings menu. 4. Switch to the Styles tab and activate the Fringe Styles flag. 5. Switch to the Settings tab and set the Line width, from the Sections Drawing menu, of the skin cut sections to 10.

Remarks

- Both the Undeform and the current state are cut and corresponding cut sections are created.

- Since Fringe Styles is activated, the skin cut section for Subcase 1 is viewed with fringes.

Step 3: Keep only the cut plane and the corresponding cut sections visible

1. From the Focus Group of buttons, select the Not function. 2. Select the part to be excluded from the screen - now, only the cut plane with the two cut

sections can be viewed on the screen. Remarks

- Note that because a cut section is attached to the corresponding cut plane, it follows the visibility status of the cut plane and not that of the part.

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Step 4: Apply grid on a cut plane

In the Styles tab, activating the respective flag the cut plane is presented with Grid. For information on the functionality of this tab refer to the corresponding paragraph §6.3.4 Remarks

- The values appearing at the two edges of the grid correspond to the S and T coordinates of the plane and represent real lengths on the screen. However, the user should remember that if the Deformation Scale Factor is different than 1, the identified and measured deformation on the screen is equal to the real deformation multiplied by this factor.

- The user also has the option to make the cut plane not visible and just keep the cross section. This is achieved applying the command:

plane options onlysection enable/disable all/act/pick/name The image on the right shows the above cross section isolated. This result was reached after application of the command

plane options onlysection enable all The visualization of the cross section is controlled by the Solids Cut menu in the Edit tab. It can be presented either as Skin, like in this case, Interior (Solid case) or Both.

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Step 5: Alter the scaling of grid axes

In general the following steps can be followed for changing the axes settings: 1. Once the Grid flag button is activated the axes settings can be modified by pressing the

Interactive Edit button. 2. Use the Left mouse button to select an axis � the axis is highlighted. 3. Having selected the axis to edit, the following steps can be applied:

Keep the Left mouse button pressed and drag the mouse to edit the position of the edge.

Press the Right mouse button to increase the edge step.

Press the Right mouse button together with the Shift button to decrease the edge step.

Remarks - The S-T axes of the grid are displayed at the origin of the Cut Plane.

6.7.3. Remarks on grid

- When grid is used to acquire information about actual deformation, the Deformation Scale Factor must be taken into account. The values appearing at the two edges of the grid correspond to the S and T coordinates of the plane and represent real lengths on the screen. Therefore, if the Deformation Scale Factor is different than 1, then the measured deformation on the screen equals to the real deformation multiplied by this factor.

- The S and T grid axes, refer always to the origin of the cut plane. This is very important when setting the S and T axes of a Default Plane. In that case, if the orientation of such a Cut Plane is kept as when created, the axes grid values and names correspond to the respective global coordination system axes. For example, if a Default YZ Plane is created, the S and T axes are not viewed. Instead, the Y and Z global coordinates appear. For changing the axes settings, the input for the minimum and maximum values of the axes correspond to the S and T coordinates, in spite of the fact that, in this case, these are not depicted on the screen. As a conclusion, when adjusting grid axes, the user should in all cases have in mind that the input min and max values refer to the origin of the cut plane.

2 3 1

Shift

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6.8. Box entity: an aspect of cut planes 6.8.1. General

A useful feature in µETA PostProcessor is the entity box, which allows isolation and focusing of specific areas of a model. As soon as a box is defined, only the areas of the model, which reside inside the box, remain visible. The available commands for boxes include:

- Creation of new boxes: box new ...

- Focus commands on boxes: box add ..., box erase ..., box or ...

- Changing the position and the dimensions of boxes: box edit ...

- Deleting boxes: box delete ...

The key points presented here must be taken into account regarding boxes:

> Boxes are created in two ways: either by defining the coordinates of the origin or by defining a node as the origin of the box. The origin of a box is its center.

> Whichever of the two ways is used determines the box�s performance characteristics regarding:

i. Editing the position of the origin of the box. If the origin of the box is defined by its coordinates, then the values for the new position are considered with respect to the global coordinate system. If a node is defined as the origin of the box, then the values for the new position are considered with respect to this node.

ii. Whether the box will follow its origin or it will remain at its position during change of states. A box having its origin defined by coordinates does not change its position. A box having its origin defined by a node will follow this node during any change of state.

> Actually, when µETA PostProcessor creates a box, it creates six cut planes that form the box. These cut planes are listed in the Cut Planes card as common cut planes and can be treated individually.

The following example illustrates the use of boxes.

6.8.2. Example on boxes

The model beside is used in this example for demonstrating the commands regarding boxes. In this model, a node has been identified.

Identified node

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6.8.2.1. Creation of boxes

a. Origin defined by its coordinates

b. Origin defined by a node

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or

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Tab

or

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Tab

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6.8.2.2. Editing a box to move it or change its dimensions

a. Interactive mode In Interactive mode the user may edit the position and the dimensions of a box using the mouse. First apply the command:

box edit interactive <Name of the box> and then move the mouse and use its buttons considering the following table:

Move the box: Change the dimensions of the box: Along global x axis: LEFT mouse button SHIFT + LEFT mouse button

Along global y axis: MIDDLE mouse button SHIFT + MIDDLE mouse button

Along global z axis: RIGHT mouse button SHIFT + RIGHT mouse button b. Define new origin position and new dimensions from the command line

To change the dimensions of a box, apply the command: box edit dims <Name of the box> <x, y, z dimensions for the box>

To change the position of the origin of a box, apply the command:

box edit orig <Name of the box> <x, y, z values of the origin of the box> Remarks:

- For changing the position of the origin of a box, keep in mind that the way the box is created is of vital importance. For boxes created by defining the coordinates of the origin, the x, y, z values of the origin in edit mode are considered relatively to the global coordinate system. For boxes created by defining a node as the origin, the x, y, z values of the origin in edit mode are considered relatively to this node.

- In order Fkeys (F9 & F10) to be used for focusing to boxes, the command:

view default options clipfocus enable

must be applied. The default option is: disabled.

6.8.2.3. Box and changes of state

The way a box performs during changes of state is determined by the way used to create this box. In the following images we consider a change from the Original State to State 5. The two types of the already created boxes will behave to this change of state as shown below:

a. Box with origin defined by its coordinates (no moving of the box during change of state)

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b. Box with origin defined by a node (the box follows the node during any change of state)

6.9. Saving Cut Sections in NASTRAN format

Cut sections can be saved in NASTRAN Bulk Data format (file extension nas), to be used as an input file for another solving process. The command to apply is

plane write <filename path> The saved geometry is that of visible Cut Planes. Remarks:

- The saved Cut Sections are Active Model dependent.

- Additionally, the Cut Section geometry saved is the currently visible in the active 3D window. This means that it is saved with the current Deformation Scale Factor.

- If the Cut Section cuts solids, the saved geometry will depend on the options of the Solids Cut settings.

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6.10. Related Commands

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Chapter 7

ISO-FUNCTIONS

Table of Contents 7.1. General ...................................................................................................................................160 7.2. Example on Iso-functions........................................................................................................161

Step 1: Create iso-functions from the screen .......................................................................162 Step 2: Edit iso-function .......................................................................................................163 Step 3: Follow Iso value option ............................................................................................164 Step 4: Create Iso-functions for the whole Fringe Range automatically ...............................165 Step 5: View already created Iso-functions without fringes on the model ............................166

7.3. Topology optimization results visualization with iso-functions.................................................167 7.4. Functions available only through command line .....................................................................167 7.5. Related Commands ................................................................................................................168

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7.1. General

Iso-function is a feature that provides visibility of areas (�contour areas�) of the model of the same value regarding either node or element data. On solid elements, iso-functions form surfaces of the same value (�contour surfaces�). On shell elements, iso-functions form lines of the same value (�contour lines�). The following should be considered regarding iso-functions:

- To create iso-functions, it is necessary to view results, therefore, the current state should be other than the Original and FRINGE drawing style should be active. The iso-functions are created according to the current color fringe bar.

- Creation, editing and deletion of iso-functions are Active model dependent. - The focus commands NOT, ALL and OR of the main menu may be applied on iso-functions in

exactly the same way as for any other entity. - The user can create, delete or edit interactively an iso-function directly from the Basic Buttons.

- More functions regarding iso-functions can be applied from the IsoFunctions window which

opens by pressing the IsoFunctions button in the Basic Buttons.

1. The IsoFunctions list, where all the annotations�s names, visibility status, value and type (Function / Total Deformation / X,Y,Z Deformation) are shown. The buttons All, Invert, Visible and Pick and the Filter field at the bottom of the list can be used to facilitate selection of iso-functions.

2. Buttons for manipulating iso-functions� visibility and deleting iso-functions. 3. Buttons for creation of iso-functions. 4. Buttons for editing iso-functions and saving them as finite elements in nastran format. 5. Options of iso-functions:

Show Value: Defines whether the value of the iso-function will be shown in the 3d plot window. Follow Iso value: Defines whether the iso-function will be updated when navigating through states in order to show always the set value. Solids Cut: Handles the display of iso-functions in solids. When Both is selected a line will also be displayed at the skin of the solids in addition to the iso-function surface.

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The following example illustrates typical procedures when working with iso-functions. Regarding the model of this example, keep in mind the following:

- The shown model is a solid one.

- Node Total Displacements are currently viewed. - More than one states exist (here interpolated states have been created).

The user is advised to repeat this example step by step using any available model.

Step 1: Create iso-functions from the screen. Step 2: Edit iso-function. Step 3: Follow Iso value option. Step 4: Create Iso-functions for the whole Fringe Range automatically. Step 5: View a list of all existing Iso-functions � Delete Iso-functions. Step 6: View already created Iso-functions without fringes on the model.

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1. Activate fringes by pressing FRINGE button. Regulate fringes as necessary from the Fringe Options card (here fringes are set to Node Data Total).

1

2. From the States card, select a state other than the Original. 3. Press the IsoFunctions in the Basic Buttons to open the IsoFunctions window. Press Default in the Create group. Select Value� . Alternatively, press directly New > Default > Value� in the Basic Buttons. Set a name for the iso-function and select Total Deformation in the Type pull-down menu. The value can also be set by picking on the model if Pick is selected.

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Iso - Functions 4. The iso-function and its value are shown on the screen. To have a clear view of the created iso-surfaces, deactivate SHADE and WIRE global drawing styles. Now the model is viewed only with FEATURES and FRINGES.

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Remarks - The number format of isofunctions is controlled from the Tools > Settings > Identify menu, the way it is controlled for identified entities.

Step 2: Edit iso-function

1. Press the IsoFunctions in the Basic Buttons to open the IsoFunctions window. Select the iso-function in the list.

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4

2. Press Edit in the Edit group. Select Value� . Set a new value for the iso-function.

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3. To edit the iso-function interactively press Edit and select Interactive. Alternatively, press directly Edit in the Basic Buttons. Select the iso-function to edit (either point or box selection). While keeping the left mouse button pressed, move the mouse cursor upwards on the screen to increase the value and downwards to decrease it. Stop when the desired value is reached. While still in the Edit function, pressing the right mouse button resets the iso-function to its original value.

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Step 3: Follow Iso value option

In the following step the Follow Iso value option is explained. In Case A the Follow Iso value option is activated, whereas in Case B it is deactivated.

Inal

Case A Case B

B

Case A the iso-function changes so that it ways shows the area with the value 2.400E-03

In Case B the arthe same takingiso-function is cothe new state

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ea of the iso-function remains the value of the new state. The lored according to the value of

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Step 4: Create Iso-functions for the whole Fringe Range automatically

1. Press the IsoFunctions in the Basic Buttons to open the IsoFunctions window. Press Default in the Create group. Select All� . Alternatively, press directly New > Default > All� in the Basic Buttons. Set a name for the iso-function and select Total Deformation in the Type pull-down menu.

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2. An iso-function for each color of the fringebar is created. The name of the iso-function is the name defined followed by the value. The value of the iso-function corresponds to the middle of the fringebar limit values for the color.

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Step 5: View already created Iso-functions without fringes on the model

1. From the Range Options card (invoked either form the Fringe Options card or from the Tools pull-down menu), select to deactivate Auto Calculate option.

1

2. Deactivate FRINGE and activate WIRE and SHADE global drawing styles.

3. Now, the model is viewed without fringes but with its original color and only iso-functions are shown colored according to the fringebar.

Remarks - To view existing iso-functions without fringes on the model, it is necessary to deactivate the Auto Calculate option for the color bar range.

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7.3. Topology optimization results visualization with iso-functions

To view topology optimization results the Iso-surface function is used to visualize elements with material densities above a certain threshold. The Default option of iso-function shows a surface at the given level. To better visualize a topology result the user can use the Closed Upper or Closed Lower options to close faces above or below the iso-surface threshold respectively. These options can be applied either on solid (3d-elements) or shell (2d-elements) mesh. The following pictures illustrate the Closed Upper functionality.

Solid Mesh Strain Energy Plot

Closed IsoSurface

The outcome of the above procedure is a closed surface that can be output in Nastran Bulk Data format by pressing the Save� button in the IsoFunctions window. The above functionality can be used for acoustics analysis volume separation and structure optimization as illustrated above.

7.4. Functions available only through command line

The area of an iso-function can be calculated by applying the command

isofun area <Window name> <iso-function name>

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7.5. Related Commands

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Chapter 8

IDENTIFICATION OF ENTITIES & RESULTS

Table of Contents 8.1. General ...................................................................................................................................170 8.2. Identify toggle button...............................................................................................................170

8.2.1. Example on identification ................................................................................................171 Step 1: Enable display of results on the screen and set the identification settings...............171 Step 2: Identification of parts ................................................................................................172 Step 3: Identification of nodes ..............................................................................................173 Step 4: Identification of elements .........................................................................................174 Step 5: Identification of materials .........................................................................................175 Step 6: Identification of the distance between two nodes.....................................................175 Step 7: Identification of angles .............................................................................................176 Step 8: Save identified entities results in MS�Excel csv format & List identified entities......177 Step 8: Identify elements according to a user defined range................................................181 Step 9: Reset identified items...............................................................................................182

8.2.2. Identification of nodes or elements that hold the Min and Max values ............................182 8.2.2.1. Nodes holding the Min and Max Displacement values ............................................182 8.2.2.2. Elements holding the Min and Max function values.................................................183

8.2.3. Identification of trajectories .............................................................................................184 8.2.3.1. Remarks on Trajectories .........................................................................................184

8.2.4. Plot Identification Features (PlotNode, PlotElem, PlotPart).............................................184 8.2.5. Identification of Distances and Angles between selected states .....................................185 8.2.6. Identification of Roll-Pitch-Yaw angles ............................................................................186 8.2.7. General remarks on identification ...................................................................................186

8.3. Extreme button .......................................................................................................................187 8.4. Identify history.........................................................................................................................188 8.5. Identification Display Options..................................................................................................189

8.5.1. General ...........................................................................................................................189 8.5.2. Display Settings ..............................................................................................................189 8.5.3. Coloring option for identified entities ...............................................................................189

8.6. Control the visibility of failed elements ....................................................................................190 8.7. MODEL CHANGE ABAQUS Keyword ....................................................................................191 8.8. Statistics & Multi Model, States Statistics ...............................................................................192

8.8.1. General ...........................................................................................................................192 8.8.2. Functionality of the Statistics card...................................................................................193

8.8.2.1 User script functions in user defined columns ..........................................................195 8.8.3 Statistics Management.....................................................................................................196 8.8.4. Statistics for vector Results.............................................................................................196 8.8.4. Functionality of the Multi Model, State Statistics card .....................................................196

8.9. Related Commands ................................................................................................................198

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Identification of Entities & Results 8.1. General Identification in µETA PostProcessor includes the following features:

- A toggle button, which can be used to acquire information for selected nodes, elements, parts, materials, groups, defined distances and angles regarding the currently viewed state. This information is written in the META-Post Messages window but optionally can be available on the screen. Also, the iFilter option gives access to the Advanced filter interface which offers extensive filtering options on groups, parts and elements.

- A second button within the main interface, the button Extreme. This is used for identifying and isolating in the workspace parts satisfying user-set filter criteria: exactly the same as the filter function within the Pids card, but also followed by an Or focusing function.

- Identification of elements holding values that reside within a user defined range (from the Commands).

- Identification of nodes and elements holding the maximum and minimum values regarding any type of results (from the Commands).

- Representation of history results in 2Dplot, by applying the relevant commands under the identify group in the Commands list.

- Statistics tools which constitute a more comprehensive approach in Parts and Entities Identification and cover a broad range of identification applications.

8.2. Identify toggle button Using the left mouse button the user may switch the identify toggle button to one of the options:

These options can be used to identify the smallest distance between two entities

- Entities can either be picked or selected by box. - While in an identify function, unselect selected entities, if necessary, using the right mouse

button. - The options named ZoomNode and ZoomElement offer functionality based on ANSA�s

GRID>INFO>pick and ELEMENT>INFO>pick with the difference that if more than one Grid (i.e. Node) or Element is found with the same Id, a pop-up list appears prompting the user to choose the entity to zoom to.

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8.2.1. Example on identification

The following example illustrates the identification functions. A simple shell model is used. Corner element results for Top and Bottom shell surfaces have been loaded. The user is advised to repeat this example step by step using any available model.

Step 1: Enable display of results on the screen and set the identification settings.

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Step 2: Identification of parts. Step 3: Identification of nodes. Step 4: Identification of elements. Step 5: Identification of materials. Step 6: Identification of the distance between two nodes. Step 7: Identification of angles. Step 8: Save identified results in a file in MS�Excel csv format & List identified entities. Step 9: Identify entities according to a user defined range. Step 10: Reset identified items.

Step 1: Enable display of results on the screen and set the identification settings. By default, only node ids, element ids or parts ids are displayed on the screen. The user may also view the results regarding nodes, shell and solid elements on the screen by entering the command (or selecting it from the Commands list). identify showres enable

The user may alternatively activate the visibility of the results from the Identify Settings. The Identify Settings are accessed from the main pull-down menu Tools > Settings > Identify

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1. Enable / Disable the display of the results on the screen. 2. Customize the information displayed on the screen. 3. Control the format of the identified entities and the number of digits. 4. Options for the displayed results of identified Distances and Angles

The display of the information can also be customized from the command line / list through the commands identify showres and identify options

Step 2: Identification of parts

1. Switch the identification toggle button to

the IPart option. 2. Select a part from the screen.

The id and the Name of the selected part is shown in the META-Post messages window and on the screen. The Thickness, Color, Material id and the comment appear in the list. Max and Min values for displacement on x, y, z axis, total displacement and loaded functions are listed in the META-Post Messages window along with their location.

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- Since Corner data have been loaded, there is also a reference to the max and min corner values (last line in the META-Post messages window).

- When a part that is defined as a NASTRAN composite, is identified, the information regarding the number of layers is also reported in the META-Post Messages window.

- The type of the property corresponding to this part (PSHELL) is also viewed on the screen. - The user can also identify parts according to their names that have been added or modified

within µETA PostProcessor or have been output as META_post.ses from ANSA version 12.0.x and after or according to their comments. Names for parts from MEDINA files are also supported. The corresponding commands are:

identify part name <name1>,<name2>, � identify part comment <comment1>,<comment2>, �

Step 3: Identification of nodes

1. Switch the identify toggle button to the INode option.

2. Select nodes from the screen. Nodes are identified and their id and results for the current state appear in the META-Post Messages window and on the screen. In the META-Post Messages window are also shown their names and ANSA comments.

Remarks - The function value (stress in this case) has been calculated (interpolation) from the neighboring

elements and appears for both Top and Bottom values when identifying nodes. - To identify the node that is the nearest to a 3D position, the corresponding command is:

identify node {xyz/visible xyz}<Enter x,y,z coordinates> - The user can identify nodes according to their names that have been added or modified within

µETA PostProcessor or have been output as META_post.ses from ANSA version 12.1 and after or according to ANSA comments. Node names assigned through the keyword LABEL in MEDINA files are also read. The corresponding commands are:

identify node name <name1>,<name2>, � identify node comment <comment1>,<comment2>, �

- To identify the nodes that are assigned to a local coordinate system use the command: identify node coordsys <Range / act / all / name / pick>

The previous command is related only to nodes that have been assigned coordinate systems within µETA with one of the commands:

model edit system node �.model create nodecoord fixed �.

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Side A of the part Side B of the part

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1. Switch the identify toggle button to IElem . 2. Select elements from the screen. Elements are

identified and their ids and results for the current state appear in the META-Post Messages window and on the screen. In the META-Post Messages window are also shown their names and ANSA comments.

3. Change the view so as to face the other side of the part. Results of identified elements correspond to this visible side since Top and Bottom values were loaded.

Remarks - Note that since Corner data have been loaded, these also appear on the screen, at the corners of the identified elements. - Displacement data for the element have been calculated (interpolated) from its nodes. - The id and the type of linear elements can also be identified. - The user can also identify specific entities e.g. bars, shell, solid etc. through the command identify {bar / spring / rbe / ...}

- To identify elements according to their names that have been added or modified within µETA PostProcessor or have been output as META_post.ses from ANSA version 12.0.x and after or according to their comments, the corresponding commands are:

identify element name <name1>,<name2>, � identify element comment <comment1>,<comment2>, �

- To identify the elements that are assigned to a local coordinate system use the command: identify element coordsys <Range / act / all / name / pick>

The previous command is related only to elements that have been assigned coordinate systems within µETA with one of the commands: model edit system element �.model create elemcoord fixed �. - The user can identify elements according to the ANSA Comments through the command: identify <element/bar/etc> comment <comment1>,<comment2>, �

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Step 5: Identification of materials

1. Switch the identification toggle button to

the IMat option. 2. Select a material from the screen.

The id and the Name of the selected material is shown in the META-Post messages window and on the screen, while the material is outlined with the color of the material. The material type and the color appear, moreover, in the list. Max and Min values for displacement on x, y, z axis, total displacement and loaded functions are listed in the META-Post Messages window along with their location.

1

2

Step 6: Identification of the distance between two nodes

1. Switch the identify toggle button to the IDist

option. 2. Select two nodes to identify their distance. The distance between the two nodes is identified and distance values appear in the META-Post Messages window and on the screen. Distance values would have appeared on screen even if the

identify showres enable

command had not been applied.

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2

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Identification of Entities & Results Remarks - Note that the selected nodes are also identified. - The identified distance is symbolized with a line connecting the two nodes. - To identify the distance between nodes belonging to different models apply the command: ide dist <model id of 1st node>:<1st node id>/<model id of 2nd node>:<2nd node id>

- To identify the distance of an entity (Node, Element, Part or Group) from a geometrical plane defined by 3 geometrical points or 3 nodes or from a line: Line: ide dist nl/el/pl/gl pick/entity_id,id1,id2/entity_id coords "x1,y1,..,y2,z2"

Surface: ide dist ns/es/ps/gs pick/entity_id,id1,id2,id3/entity_id coords "x1,y1,..,y3,z3"

Step 7: Identification of angles 1. Select from the Identify menu button the

IAngle>Default option. Select in the Create Angle window that appears if you want to project the angle to one of the 3 global planes or select the normal option.

2. Define an angle by selecting three nodes (the second selected node corresponds to the vertex of the angle) and then press middle mouse button or by selecting four nodes (actually, defining an angle between two vectors). (The direction of the vectors is taken into account also).

3. Option to project an angle to global XY or YZ or ZX plane and indicate the angle. The corresponding command is: identify angle {xy or yz or zx} {<Enter node ids> or act or pick}

Remarks - Note that selected nodes are also identified. - The angle between the three nodes or

between the two vectors is identified and angle values appear in the META-Post Messages window and on the screen. Angle values will appear on screen even if the identify showres enable command had not been applied.

- Similarly to Nodes, angles between nodes of different models can be identified.

2 1

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Step 8: Save identified entities results in MS�Excel csv format & List identified entities

Save: The user may save the results of currently identified nodes and elements in a file in MS�Excel csv format. For that, it is necessary to edit the following commands either from the Commands list or directly from the command line:

Nodes / Elements / Parts: identify node/element/part lres <Filename> : Save the results of identified entities

all <Filename> : Save the results of all entities

append <Filename> : Save the results of identified entities in an existing file

comment <Filename> : Save the results of identified entities and adds a comment in the header of the saved file

<Range> <Filename> : Save the results of entities specified by id

visible <Filename> : Save the results of the visible nodes

Angles: identify angle lres <Filename> : Save the results of identified angles

append <Filename> : Save the results of identified angles in an existing file comment <Filename> : Save the results of identified angles and adds a comment in the header of the saved file

Distances: identify distance lres <Filename> : Save the results of identified distances

append <Filename> : Save the results of identified distances in an existing file comment <Filename> : Save the results of identified distances and adds a comment in the header of the saved file

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Output Control:

a) Nodes identify node outopts ...

provide options for controlling the output format of identified nodes in an ASCII file, when the command:

identify node lres ... is used. The following output parameters that appear in the Tools>Settings Global Settings > Identified Output Options card can be controlled:

- Node ids. - Node Names - Node Comments - Part Ids - Node results that will be output. In case nodes have transformed results in terms of a Local

Coordinate system, then both Global and Local results will be output. This is also controlled through the output options.

- The format of the output file (csv format or strict format). For the strict format, each Integer value occupies 8 digits and each float value occupies 16 digits. All entries are right justified.

Remark - Use the command: identify node outopts print to have a list of all available options

along with their current status (on / off) written in the META-Post Messages window.

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b) Parts To control the format of data for parts output to an ASCII file, the following options should be used:

Parts: identify part outopts . . . Parameters that can be controlled:

- Part (property) Ids. - Part (property) Names. - Part (property) Comments. - The Material id of the part. - The Min and Max values of the part for the components and the magnitude of the loaded

nodal vector results and the node ids where these values appear. - The Min and Max nodal function values and the node ids where these values appear. - The Min and Max element centroid function values and the element ids where these values

appear. - The Min and Max element corner function values and the element ids where these values

appear. - The format of the output file (csv format or strict format). For the strict format, each integer

value occupies 8 digits and each float value occupies 16 digits. All entries are right justified.

Remark

- Use the command: identify part outopts print to have a list of all available options with their current status (on / off) printed in the META-Post Messages window.

c) Elements identify element outopts ...

are added to provide options for controlling the output format of identified elements in an ASCII file, when the command:

identify element lres ...

is used. The following output parameters that appear in the Tools>Settings Identified Output Options card can be controlled:

- Element ids. - Element Names. - Element Comments. - The Pid of the elements. - The Pid name of an element. - Element results that will be output - The format of the output file (csv format or strict format). For the strict format, each integer

value occupies 8 digits and each float value occupies 16 digits. All entries are right justified. Remark

- Use the command: identify element outopts print to have a list of all available options with their current status (on / off) printed in the META-Post Messages window.

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d) Angles Angles: identify angle outopts �

Parameters that can be controlled: - The id of the angle as defined in µETA. - The nodes that are used for the angle definition - The format of the output file (csv format or strict format). For the strict format, each integer

value occupies 8 digits and each float value occupies 16 digits. All entries are right justified.

Remark - Use the command: identify {angle / distance} outopts print to have a list of all

available options with their current status (on / off) printed in the META-Post Messages window.

e) Distances Distances: identify distance outopts �.

Parameters that can be controlled: - The id of the distance as defined in µETA. - The values of the x, y, z components of the distance as well as the magnitude. - The nodes that are used for the distance definition. - The format of the output file (csv format or strict format). For the strict format, each integer

value occupies 8 digits and each float value occupies 16 digits. All entries are right justified.

List: In order to list identified entities the user has many options through the command list. The following listing commands are applicable:

Command Description

a. identify node list Lists only the ids of currently identified nodes in the META-Post Messages window.

b. identify element list Lists the ids of currently identified elements and parts in the META-Post Messages window. This applies also on identified linear elements.

c. identify distance list Lists all currently identified distances and their values in the META-Post Messages window.

d. identify angle list Lists all currently identified angles and their values in the META-Post Messages window.

e. identify part list Lists all currently identified parts and their values in the META-Post Messages window.

Remark

- All the above options regarding the output are Active Model dependent and apply only for visible Parts (regarding identified nodes).

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Step 8: Identify elements according to a user defined range

1. From the Commands list select: identify function and press TAB.

2. Enter the range <min, max> for function data which will be used as the criterion for the identification of elements: -0.9,-0.6 and press ENTER.

Alternatively, type directly the command: identify function -0.9,-0.6

Only elements with function values, which fall within the given range, remain visible.

1

2 Enter

Remarks - Note that information regarding previously identified visible entities remains visible. - The following types of data can be used as filter criterion, by applying the respective command:

Type of Data Command

Displacement data on x axis: xnode identify xnode <min,max>

Displacement data on y axis: ynode identify ynode <min,max>

Displacement data on z axis: znode identify znode <min,max>

Total displacement data: dnode identify dnode <min,max>

Function data: function identify function <min,max>

Function Nodal: fnode identify fnode <min,max>

- The user can apply focusing functions on element level depending on the entities� results. As an example the command:

or element function range <min>,<max> leaves visible on the screen only elements of the active model that fall within the specified range. Other options include filtering by Nodal function and Nodal Displacement data (X, Y, Z and Total).

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Identification of Entities & Results Step 9: Reset identified items

Switch the identify toggle button to IReset option. All identified entities disappear from the screen.

8.2.2. Identification of nodes or elements that hold the Min and Max values

8.2.2.1. Nodes holding the Min and Max Displacement values

Nodes holding the Min and Max values either for X, Y, Z or Total displacement can be identified by using the command:

displ info all / visible / pick

For this example, the identification takes place for picked nodes and Z displacement data. The nodes are identified on the model and relevant information appears in the META-Post Messages window.

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2

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8.2.2.2. Elements holding the Min and Max function values

Elements holding Min and Max values for data loaded as Scalar Functions or Vector Functions can be identified through the command: function info all / visible / pick

This type of identification can be applied also on a Part level through the command: function info part <id of part(s)> all

/ visible / pick

Additionally, the identification of elements holding the Min and Max function values can be limited only to particular types of elements, by setting the following command � switches accordingly:

function info filter

max

min

hexa

penta

tetra

quad

tria

partviselems

on / off

Identify or not the max values. Identify or not the min values. Consider or not values on hexas. Consider or not values on pentas. Consider or not values on tetras. Consider or not values on quads. Consider or not values on trias. Consider only the visible elements of parts or all elements of visible parts. This option is valid only for the function info part ..command.

The following examples illustrate few cases of identification of function values: Few elements not visibleFew elements not visible

PART 1PART 1 PART 1 PART 1

PART 2 PART 2PART 2 PART 2

function info visible function info part visible

part viselems on part viselems off

Remarks - It is not mandatory to have fringe drawing style on, in order to use the displ info ... and function info ... commands.

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8.2.3. Identification of trajectories 1. Switch the identify toggle button to the Itraj option. 2. Select nodes from the screen.

The trajectory of each selected node throughout all or locked states (if present), appears either with fringes or with a unique color depending on whether the Fringe flag button is active or not. The trajectory itself represents the Displacement data of the node while the fringes correspond to the Function data.

8.2.3.1. Remarks on Trajectories

- The trajectories can also be displayed as solids after applying the command: identify trajectory style solid

- The width of the trajectories may be changed through the command: identify trajectory width <Enter width value>

- In order to change the trajectories so as to correspond to specified states, the user should: a. Lock the particular states. b. Apply the command: identify trajectory refresh.

- In case Top and Bottom Scalar Functions have been loaded, the fringes of the trajectories correspond at each state to the maximum value between Top and Bottom.

- The current DEFORM scale factor is taken into account when identifying trajectories.

- Trajectories can also be identified for generated states & cycles.

Line Trajectory Identification of the brick � Fringes On

Solid Trajectory Identification of the brick � Fringes On

8.2.4. Plot Identification Features (PlotNode, PlotElem, PlotPart)

These three options provide identification of the curves (by becoming highlighted in the Curve List of the 2D plot window) that are associated with the identified entities on the main drawing window.

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8.2.5. Identification of Distances and Angles between selected states

There is the option to identify distances and angles between entities in different states. - Distances:

Using the command:

identify distance state2state <Distance option> pick/<Entity Id> pick/<Entity Id> <State id>

you have the option to identify distance between:

Element& Element Distance: <ee>

Element Group Distance: <eg>

Element Pid Distance: <ep>

Group Group Distance: <gg>

Node Element Distance: <ne>

Node Group Distance: <ng>

Node Distance: <nn>

Node Pid Distance: <np>

Pid Group Distance: <pg>

Pid Pid Distance: <pp>

Remarks:

- Setting the same node id for example you can identify the distance of the same node between two different states

- Angles

Using the State2State option from in the identify angle command an angle can be identified between 3 nodes or 2 vectors, specified by 2 nodes each, in different states.

The respective command is:

identify angle state2state 3nodes/4nodes <1st node id> <State of 1st node> <2nd node id> <State of 2nd node> <3rd node id> <State of 3rd node> <4th node id> <State of 4th node>

Remarks:

- Using the same pair of nodes (same vector) in two different states each, you can identify the angle that this vector forms between two states

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8.2.6. Identification of Roll-Pitch-Yaw angles The Roll-Pitch-Yaw rotation angles of a plane, defined by 3 nodes in µETA, can be identified and curves for these angles can be plotted by applying the commands: identify angle rollpitchyaw <1stNodeId> <2ndNodeId> <3rdNodeId> <StateId> identify history angle rollpitchyaw <1stNodeId> <2ndNodeId> <3rdNodeId>

By applying the first command information about these angles will be printed in the messages window.

8.2.7. General remarks on identification

- Pick identified entities with the right mouse button to reset them, while the relevant identification function is active.

- Identification is Active model dependent. - Identified entities remain identified during navigation from one state to another. Moreover, the

results that are shown on the screen are updated. - Corner element data can be identified. - In case Top and Bottom results are loaded, identification of elements presents element results

for each side of the element. - In order to control the label depth of identified items the following command can be applied:

options labeldepth disable or enable The default is disable. - Using the command: identify printnumber the number of identified entities (nodes, elements,

parts) is reported in the META-Post Messages.window. - The user through the ZoomNode and ZoomElement identification options can enter an id and µETA will automatically zoom in the respective node or element. The functionallity is based on ansa's GRID>INFO>pick and ELEMENT>INFO>pick with the difference that whenever happens that more than one grid or element are found with the same id a popup list will be shown so that they can choose which entity to zoom in.

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8.3. Extreme button

Using this function, only parts, which satisfy a given criterion, for the currently viewed state, remain visible.

1. Press the Extreme button. A field appears, prompting for the input of the filter criterion.

2. Type an expression and press ENTER. In the depicted example, the expression corresponds to selecting Parts with maximum Total Displacement value in the range

0.45, 0.63.

After pressing the Enter key, only parts satisfying the input criterion remain visible.

1

2 Enter

Remarks: - It is not mandatory to have fringe drawing style on, in order to use the Extreme function. - The filtering feature in the Parts card followed by OR function does the same as Extreme. - All 44 variables listed in Appendix A can be used with the Extreme function. Moreover, a

complete list of all supported conventions, operators, constants and built-in functions used with EXTREME is presented in Appendix B. Pressing the all 44 variables are listed. - identify part hideextreme <expression> command is used in the same way for

hiding the parts that satisfy the given criterion.

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8.4. Identify history

The user may acquire a 2Dplot representation of history results (all states) of nodes and/or elements automatically by applying the command identify history .... The types of results that can be visualized are summarized below:

Types of data Refer to <Command option> Function values element element

Function values node node

Displacement values on x axis node xdis

Displacement values on y axis node ydis

Displacement values on z axis node zdis

Displacement values total node tdis

x coordinate node xnode

y coordinate node ynode

z coordinate node znode

In the following example, a model is loaded along with the Displacement and Scalar Functions data.

1

3

2

1. Switch the identify toggle button to the INode option. 2. Pick a node on the model. 3. Apply the command

identify history node ident.

The 2Dplot is automatically invoked and the curve, corresponding to the Functions vof the identified node in all states, is drawn.

alues

Similarly instead of the ident command option, the user may apply the pick option

(and then select nodes from the screen) or directly enter the node ids.

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8.5. Identification Display Options

8.5.1. General

The user is provided with the options through µETA PostProcessor to define the display of identified entities either for presentation reasons or for clearer identification of �hot spots� on a model. The user can Edit the Element/Part borderline in terms of width and highlighted colors. Also, the point size of identified nodes and middle points of Elements can be controlled. A characteristic example follows:

8.5.2. Display Settings

The borderline of identified elements is highlighted. Also, the borderline of highlighted entities can be visible even if it is behind other shaded parts (it remains always on the foreground by default). If the user wants to cancel this setting, has to apply the command:

options labeldepth enable (by default is disable).

The following commands allow the user to edit the display settings:

identify options drawid {enable / disable}

Controls the visibility of the ids of the identified entities.

identify options linewidth <Enter width of the border line>

Value 0 shows no borderline in this case. The line width ranges from 1-10.

identify options pointsize <Enter size for the point used for identified nodes and middle points of identified elements>

The point size ranges from 1 � 10.

8.5.3. Coloring option for identified entities

It is possible to highlight identified elements, parts and materials with different colors. The following commands are available: identify color {part / element / mid} <Enter color name> {<Enter the ids> / act / all / identified / pick} Apply this command and select entities to change the color of their borderline.

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8.6. Control the visibility of failed elements

With this command, the user can control the visibility of failed elements that may exist in LS-Dyna and PAMCRASH results file. The default option is hide.

Enter

The following commands can also be used for the identification of failed elements. identify elements failed

To identify the failed elements in the current state. This command can be applied in combination with the:

states {postexec/preexec}... for recursive application after any change of state

identify color failed <color name>

To highlight identified failed elements of the current state with a user-specified color. To apply it recursively after any change of state use it with one of the commands:

states {postexec/preexec}.... Note:

- The identify color ... command does not identify elements.

- For identification, the command: identify elements failed has to be used.

identify color failed palette <Name of a fringebar>

This command applies on all failed elements. When the failed elements are identified, they are highlighted with the colors of the specified fringebar according to the state they became failed. Therefore, the elements that failed first are highlighted with the first bottom color of the fringebar, the next with the second color and so on. If the colors of the fringebar are exhausted, all remaining failed elements are highlighted with the top color of the fringebar. If both the: identify color failed <color name> and the identify color failed palette <Name of a fringebar> commands have been used, then the first of the above commands takes precedence for the failed elements that this command has been defined. For the rest failed elements, the status of the command identify color failed palette <Name of a fringebar> is .active.

Note: - The identify color failed palette...

command does not identify elements. - For identification, the command:

identify elements failed has to be used. Example:

Apply the commands identify color failed Red and identify elements failed

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8.7. MODEL CHANGE ABAQUS Keyword

The keyword *MODEL CHANGE is supported. The following commands are used for the handling of added / removed entities at each step:

options modelchange {enable / disable} Option "enable": the entities specified with the *MODEL CHANGE keyword are displayed only if they actually exist in the current Step. Option "disable": all entities are displayed irrespectively of their *MODEL CHANGE status for the current Step.

options modelchange identify add Use the above command to identify the entities that have been added to the current Step with the *MODEL CHANGE definition.

options modelchange identify remove Use the above command to identify entities that have been removed from the current Step with the *MODEL CHANGE definition.

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8.8. Statistics & Multi Model, States Statistics

8.8.1. General

Two tools are available within µETA PostProcessor for detailed recording statistics for models. The first one, called Statistics, includes detailed information regarding the selected model and the current state. However, the user has the option to open as many Statistics tables he/she wants. Each Statistics table can have different properties and the last selected Statistics table is the Active Statistics where all the commands will be applied. The second one, called Multi Model, State Statistics, is a table displaying information on Maximum and Minimum values of results at All entities (Parts, Nodes, Elements, Materials and Groups) level, for every state, every cycle (in case of Design Optimization results) and for every available model. Both recording tables comprise comprehensive, completely configurable, spreadsheets, for all available results of models, offering the option to save data in HTML and csv format. Moreover, Statistics table can be synchronized with the States for automatically updating values according to the current state. Both tables are invoked from Tools pull-down menu.

Statistics:

Multi Model, State Statistics:

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Identification of Entities & Results 8.8.2. Functionality of the Statistics card

An overview of the Part Statistics card follows:

1. Table of parts and results. This section of the Parts Statistics card can be subdivided to the following: - The heading that displays the relevant state�s information and all available categories of data

within the Parts Statistics tool. The Table�s items can be sorted according to each of the columns by pressing the left mouse button on the name of the column (category of data). An arrow next to the sorting column indicates the sorting order (ascending or descending).

- Through the button the user has the capability to configure the display of the Statistics table columns by un- or checking them from the relevant menu that appears on the card.

- The main table where entitiess are listed. Selection of items within this list follows all µETA PostProcessor general rules for lists (refer to Chap. 2).

- Features for assisting parts selection from the table including: All, Invert, Visible and Pick functions and a Filtering (selection) field. This field provides filtering by part name (as in any other field � see Chapter 2, par. 2.8.4), filtering by ids and types of entities (PShell etc.), (see Chapter 2, par. 2.8.5 for available syntax forms). After selection is finished, selected entities become highlighted in the list.

- Through the button in the Statistics and Multi Model, State, Part Statistics card the user can define the number of decimal digits that will be output in a file.

- Loaded models. Switch the Model 0 toggle button to one of the loaded models. - Type of results currently presented in the Statistics. This is regulated from the Function: toggle

button. Available options are: Function data (centroid values), Nodal Function (Functions values calculated for nodes), Corner Function (if Corner data are available), Function Visible, Corner Function Visible, T-displ (Total Displacement), X-displ, Y-displ, Z-displ. The options Function Visible and Corner Function Visible take into account only the visible elements.

- Visibility of entities in the Drawing window from the All toggle button. - Options for corresponding results with the current state or cycle. Update button refreshes

the Table results so as to correspond to the current state or cycle. If Synchronize flag button is active then the Table is updated automatically every time the States or Cycles change.

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Identification of Entities & Results 2. User defined Range for the currently presented type of results. This is regulated from the flag

button and the field next to it. If the flag button is active, then the field is active and the user may enter a criterion for the current type of results which is set under Stat: toggle button. The expression entered in the relevant field can accept all supported conventions, operators, constants and built-in functions presented in Appendix B and the current type of results is always

designated as var. After typing the expression criterion in the field, press ENTER and the number of elements or nodes (depending whether the current type of results refers to nodes or elements) fulfilling this criterion is calculated for each part as well as their fraction (Range%). The strings fmax and fmin, denoting the maximum and the minimum value respectively of the current type of results for each part, can be used within this field. As an example, using these strings it is possible to find the range of entities that exhibit a value higher than the average value of each part: var>(fmax+fmin)/2

3. Saving Statistics table in HTML or EXCEL (csv) format . When saving in .csv format, optionally, a first column is written where the label Sum is placed. The user can select not to create this column by deactivating the Print Sum Label button in the Save File window. Furthermore, there is the option to save all entities in the list or just the selected. In sessions automation of the selection is achieved through the commands: - stats save {elements / nodes / pids / mids} <Enter Range> for selecting elements, nodes, pids and mids by their id - stats save groups <Enter group names> for selecting groups by their names - stats selrow all or stats selrow <Enter Range> (e.g 1-5-2, 3-10) for selecting specific rows after the entities have been sorted in the list, as explained in 1.

4. Pop-up menu in the table. By pressing the right mouse button within the table�s area, a pop-up menu appears with options for identification and focusing on entities. Focusing is realized in the Drawing window where the model lies. When the list displays a part or a material, the identification function identifies the selected parts and its node or element (depending whether the current type of results refers to nodes or elements) that exhibits the max value. Moreover, deletion from inserted entities can be performed. Specifically, if the user presses RMB on top of the NAME ::C11 Column the option Rename appears that allows the user to change the listed names of each loaded entity on the spreadsheet.

5. Option to add Parts, Elements, Nodes, Materials and Groups in the table, to be able to output statistical information from the model. Particularly for selecting a group that will enter the Statistics list, the user may press (?) inside the respective field and a list with all currently available groups pops-up to allow for a quick selection.

Remarks - Options 2 and 5 of the above list appear only if the button is pressed. - Using the button the Drawing Styles and Fringe Styles become available to apply them on

parts. This is the same functionality existed in the PIDs Tool. Also all the filtering options existed in the PIDs tool , exist also in the Statistics tool and appear when the user leaves the cursor over the Filtering line for a couple of seconds. In order the Drawing Styles to become active the user has to activate the per Pid flag button.

- Using the button the Drawing Styles and Fringe Styles become available to apply them on materials. This is the same functionality existed in the MIDs Tool. Also all the filtering options existed in the MIDs tool , exist also in the Statistics tool. In order the Drawing Styles to become active the user has to activate the per Mid flag button.

- Custom columns can be created and existing columns can be copied. Press the Right Mouse button on top of a column header and a menu with the available options appear.

- In order to create custom columns the user should enter an expression by combining existing columns through mathematical operations. The existing columns are referenced by their Code Order name eg: the expression (C1+C3)/2 means that the new column will include the average values of column C1 and column C3. The standard columns are named C1 to C12, while user defined columns are named U1, U2, etc. The Copy / Paste functionality allows for displaying within the spreadsheet different types of results (eg: Displacement and Stresses) at the same time. The user has also the option to use META variables inside the

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user defined columns (e.g. $CUR_TIME). The variables that can be used can return float or text if User Defined Column (String) is selected.

- The sum result for each column, which is displayed in the last line, can be calculated considering only one type of entities (parts, nodes, elements, materials, groups) and not necessarily all listed entities.

- The Filtering field accepts the Code Order name of columns. For example the filtering expression: C1>C12/2 forces the selection of listed entities for which the result in column C1 is higher than the half value of column C12.

- A flag button Show is added. This flag button can be activated only if the Range flag button is active. When the Show flag button is active, only the entities that exhibit a calculated Range other than 0 remain listed.

8.8.2.1 User script functions in user defined columns

In the Statistics table the user has the capability to add a user script function within a user defined column. To run a script as inside the statistics tool, create a user defined column and in the expression for the column type <path>\<script filename>::<function name>(<arguments>) This way the specified function inside the defined filename will be executed with the arguments given and the return value of the function will be displayed in the column. In each column only one user script can be inserted. The values of other columns can be given as arguments to the function. The following example shows how the part thickness can be added in a user defined column. Create a user defined column and type �Part Thickness� as name and as expresssion <path>/partThickness.bs::thickness(0,C10,C0) where partThickness is the following script: #include "meta_structs" def thickness(int model_id, string part_type,int part_id) { part p; meta_type = MetaTypeOfPart(model_id,part_type); p = PartById(model_id, meta_type, part_id); return p.shell_thick; } The above script will return the thickness of each part and list them in a user defined column named �Part Thickness�.

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Identification of Entities & Results 8.8.3 Statistics Management

As mentioned above, the user has the option to create multiple Statistics tables and each one of these to carry different properties. This can be done through the Tools>Statistics>New Statistics where the user can assign a name to each table. The commands are always applied to the last selected table (Active). The visibility of each table can be controlled through the Tools>Statistics>Show/Hide Statistics.

8.8.4. Statistics for vector Results

When vector results are loaded, the statistics tool shows: - the magnitude - the components at each axis of the unit vector defining the direction.

8.8.4. Functionality of the Multi Model, State Statistics card

The functionality of the Multi Model, State Statistics card is similar to that of the Statistics card. The differences lie in the following:

- Available options under the Stat: toggle button are related to maximum values of results at Pid, Nodes, Elements, Mid and Group level.

- Toggle buttons for the control of States and Cycles that appear in the list. - The Models: field for the control of models that appear in the list. Available options are: all, act (for the Active model) and <model ids> (Multiple input separated by commas and range input eg: 1-3 is also allowed as in other fields).

- The right mouse button pop-up menu has the similar functionality to the Statistics Table, plus the capability to plot results of the selected Entities for each model, having on the x-axis the States and on the y-axis the results.

- Filtering listed entities according to their results. When the Range is active, the following filtering actions apply on listed entities:

> For the Shells (corresponding to states and listed entities) that the Range criterion is not satisfied, nothing is written.

> In case the results of a listed entity for all states do not satisfy the Range criterion, this entity is excluded from the list.

> In case the results of all available entities in the list do not satisfy the Range criterion for one state, then this state is excluded from the list.

> Through the Select States button that becomes active only if the Range is active the user can select in the States Card the states that satisfy the range criterion.

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- The format for the expressions entered in the Range field is the same as the one for the Statistics tool. The only difference is that the variables fmax and fmin cannot be used.

- Two columns exist at the end of the Table, indicating the states where the Max and Min value occurs. Four rows exist at the bottom of the Table indicating the Part/Element/Node/Material/Group Ids where the Max and Min values appear and the rest two rows show the values.

- It possible to highlight the greatest and lowest value entries by applying the command: multistats color enable

Note: Two variables within the Statistics and the Multi Model, States Statistics allow the user to see the following: - Sum Function: Sum up the function values of all elements of each part. - Sum Function Visible: Sum up the function values of visible elements of each part.

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√ √

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Chapter 9

GROUPS

Table of Contents

9.1. General ...................................................................................................................................200 9.2. Functionality of the Groups card .............................................................................................200 9.3. Working with groups ...............................................................................................................201

9.3.1. Example on Groups ........................................................................................................201 Step 1: Automatic creation of groups corresponding to sets of a NASTRAN Bulk Data file, an

ABAQUS results .fil or .fin file, an ABAQUS database .odb, an LS-Dyna input keyword file, a Pam-Crash .pc file or to subsets of a D00 or A000 RADIOSS files. 202

Step 2: Create groups by Material........................................................................................203 Step 3: Create groups by Pid ...............................................................................................203 Step 4: Change Parts settings of a group.............................................................................204 Step 5: Update Group Styles button.....................................................................................204 Step 6: Display Group Styles flag button inactive.................................................................205 Step 7: Display Group Styles flag button active. ..................................................................205 Step 8: Focus on parts and sections of the model. ..............................................................206 Step 9: Create from Visible. .................................................................................................206 Step 10: Create groups that correspond to the hierarchy of an ANSA database. ................207 Step 11: Select other groups................................................................................................208 Step 12: Select groups using the filtering tool ......................................................................208 Step 13: Focusing functions on groups � Selection of groups from the screen....................209 Step 14: Save groups...........................................................................................................209

9.4. Detection of collision between groups throughout all states of a model..................................210 9.4.1. Remarks on collision .......................................................................................................211

9.5. Generation of separating distance state between groups .......................................................212 9.6. Mapping nodal results from a Group of a Model to a Group of another ..................................213 9.7. Related to the CONNECTION and DATA MANAGER............................................................214

9.7.1. Connection Manager.......................................................................................................214 9.7.2. Data Manager .................................................................................................................214

9.8. General Remarks on Groups ..................................................................................................215 9.9. Related Commands ................................................................................................................216

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9.1. General

In µETA PostProcessor, the user may place parts of a model into groups, therefore, obtaining fast handling of particular sections of a model. Groups are created and handled from the Groups card, which may be invoked either from the Tools pull-down menu or from the GROUPS button within the main interface area.

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9.2. Functionality of the Groups card

The main tasks of the Groups card may be categorized in the following:

1. List of all existing groups along with selection feature. All common list-handling functions apply to this list as well (refer to Chap.2, par. 7).

2. Focusing commands to apply on selected Groups from the list.

3. Create/Modify tab, with options for defining new groups and saving or deleting groups selected in the list.

4. Settings tab, with display options, while handling groups. These options can be saved in the Defaults.

5. Styles tab, with options for the visualization of groups.

List of existing Groups

or

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9.3. Working with groups 9.3.1. Example on Groups

The following example demonstrates features used when working with groups: A NASTRAN model is used for this example. The user is advised to repeat this example step by step using any available model.

Step 1: Automatic creation of groups corresponding to sets of a NASTRAN Bulk data, .op2 file (incase of .op2 whenever is output by NASTRAN), an ABAQUS results .fil or .fin file, an ABAQUS database .odb, an LS-Dyna input keyword file, a Pam-Crash .pc file or to subsets of a D00 or A000 RADIOSS files.

Step 2: Create groups by Material. Step 3: Create groups by PID. Step 4: Change Parts settings of a group. Step 5: Update Group Styles button. Step 6: Copy Styles flag button inactive. Step 7: Copy Styles flag button active. Step 8: Focus on parts and sections of the model. Step 9: Create from Visible. Step 10: Create groups that correspond to the hierarchy of an ANSA database. Step 11: Create groups from Queries. Step 12: Select other groups. Step 13: Select groups using the filtering tool. Step 14: Focusing functions on groups � Selection of groups from the screen. Step 15: Save groups.

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Step 1: Automatic creation of groups corresponding to sets of a NASTRAN Bulk Data file, an ABAQUS results .fil or .fin file, an ABAQUS database .odb, an LS-Dyna input keyword file, a Pam-Crash .pc file or to subsets of a D00 or A000 RADIOSS files.

PAM-CRASH: Groups defined in a .pc file are identified and corresponding groups are created automatically in µETA. RADIOSS: D00 and A000 file Subsets containing more than one part are identified and the corresponding groups are created automatically in µETA. The same applies to RBODYs groups that are output in A000 file.

NASTRAN: µETA PostProcessor automatically creates groups of nodes corresponding to each set of nodes output in an .op2 or Bulk data file. ABAQUS: For ABAQUS .inp, .fil or .fin results files, a group is formed, during loading of the model, for each node set, element set, surface and rigid body referenced in the file. For ABAQUS .odb databases a group is automatically created for each node and element set referenced in the file. Moreover, groups are created for sets of items (nodes and/or elements) surpassing standard criteria (warping, etc), which are output by ABAQUS to the .odb, .fil or .fin files. LS-Dyna: For LS-Dyna keyword files a group is formed during loading of the model for each node, element or part set referenced in the file. Additionally, all parts assigned a MAT_NUL material are identified and placed in one group in µETA.

Remarks - In the depicted example, a NASTRAN .op2 file has been loaded and one set of nodes is referenced

in this file. Therefore, a respective group was created and placed in the list. - Due to the new group not being visible, it appears with a gray background in the list. - ANSA Hierarchy is supported. The hierarchy of the model, as this is represented in ANSA Part

Manager, the color of each part as defined in ANSA, as well as the names of entities as defined in ANSA, is passed to µETA through the ANSA Comments. This is valid for NASTRAN, ABAQUS, LS-DYNA, PAMCRASH and RADIOSS. Another way to obtain the ANSA Parts Manager Hierarchy is to OUTPUT from ANSA a META-POST session. This session when imported in µETA will automatically create the ANSA Hierarchy as this is represented in ANSA Part Manager, the color of each part as defined in ANSA, as well as the names of entities as defined in ANSA. Obviously, in both cases, to pass this information to µETA, it is necessary to load the model geometry from the respective input file.

- Upon reading the geometry of a NASTRAN model from the NASTRAN Bulk data file, one group is created for each SUBCASE definition. This group includes all boundary conditions as well as the Node Sets and Element Sets that are used for the output requests of the Subcase. A group named COMMON is also created and includes all boundary conditions that are not assigned to a particular subcase. The boundary conditions included in the COMMON group are also linked to all SUBCASE groups since the common boundary conditions are also in effect for all subcases.

- Importing a NASTRAN bulk data file in Meta that contains the Ansa Part Structure, the part structure is available as similar group structure. But the elements that do not have PIDs cannot be controlled through the groups functionality. The proper handling of MPCs, SPCs, FORCES, TEMP, PLOAD, MOMENT prerequisites the reading of ANSA_COMMENT-> $ANSA_ID because sets of these "elements" have the same id. µETA reads $ANSA_ID in order to handle these elements.

- If PANEL definitions are included in a NASTRAN bulk data file, groups are created for each PANEL keyword.

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Step 2: Create groups by Material

Within the Groups card, press the From Material button. This function arranges all parts of a model with the same material in one group. In this way the user can distinguish different materials. This is valid for NASTRAN Bulk Data and output files (.op2), ABAQUS .inp file, LS-Dyna input keyword file, PAM-CRASH .pc file and RADIOSS D00 and A000 files, which carry material information.

Remarks - In this particular example two different

materials exist, therefore, two different groups are created and registered in the Groups list.

Step 3: Create groups by Pid

Press the From Pid button. Each different part of the model forms a different group. In this example, the model includes five parts. All new created groups are added to the groups list. The Parts ids appear in the names of the new groups.

Remarks - The Neighbours option can be used for modifying existing groups by adding to the group�s

existing elements: > Connected elements (particularly useful for adding to rigid body element groups e.g. the shell

elements connected to them). > Near elements, i.e. elements within a default distance. - The To Model from Create/Modify tab of the Groups card allows copying selected groups to other

models. This option lies within the Copy Selected > To Model button.

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Step 4: Change Parts settings of a group

1. Select a group from the list. Since the Auto Redraw flag button in the Settings tab is active (by default), visibility changes so as to keep only the selected group visible. However, there are two groups, which are not selected but appear as visible in the list (their name is not grayed). This happens because these groups also include the currently visible Pids.

2. With the left mouse button, press the per Pid button within the main menu or switch to the Styles tab of the Groups card.

3. From the Per Pid Styles card which appears select Set Color, or press the palette button in the Colors field of the Styles tab.

4. From the Colors card select a new color (here, Orange).

5. Select from the screen, the parts to apply the new color.

2

3

4

1

3

5

2

Step 5: Update Group Styles button

The new color is now applied on the parts. Press the Update Group Styles from Model button in the Styles tab. Now the new color is saved as a style setting for the parts of the selected group.

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Step 6: Display Group Styles flag button inactive

From the Groups list, select other groups that include the currently visible parts (all selection and navigation features applied to other lists are also applicable here). These parts are now viewed with the current color, since the Display Group Styles flag button is inactive. Ctrl

Step 7: Display Group Styles flag button active.

1. Activate Copy Styles flag button. 2. Re-select the previously selected

groups. Now the parts are viewed with their default color (this was the color viewed before the new one was applied in Step 4). The two selected groups are carrying this information for their parts. Therefore, since Copy Styles flag button is active, the styles of these groups prevail and are applied on their parts.

2 Ctrl

1

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Step 8: Focus on parts and sections of the model.

1. Select again the group that had its styles updated (Step 5). Since the Display Group Styles flag button is activated, the parts are viewed now with the color assigned to them in this group.

2. From the focus group of commands within the main menu, select All. All parts now become visible.

3. Switch the toggle button within the main menu, to Entities.

4. Select the Or focusing function. 5. Select, by box, a section of the

model.

1

5

2 3

4

Step 9: Create from Visible.

Only the selected section is visible. 1. From the Create/Modify tab, press

the From Visible button. 2. In the field that appears, type a

name for the new group (here it is NeswGroup) and press ENTER.

The currently visible section forms a new group, which is added to the Groups list.

1

2 Enter

Remarks - Note that apart from elements, identified nodes will also be included in the defined group.

- Groups of nodes can be created through the command:

groups create idnodes <group name> for identified nodes, or through the command:

groups create picknodes <group name> for nodes picked from the model.

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Step 10: Create groups that correspond to the hierarchy of an ANSA database.

Remarks - The new groups are named after the names of the

corresponding ANSA Parts and ANSA Groups. - The parts of the new groups are assigned the same

colors they had in the ANSA database.

If a model is preprocessed in ANSA, the hierarchy of the ANSA database can be output with ANSA comments.

If this file, containing ANSA comments, is read in µETA, groups reflecting the ANSA hierarchy are created - a group is created for each ANSA Part and Group of the ANSA database. These groups become automatically visible, irrespectively of what is selected within the Groups list. Also, upon reading geometry, certain groups created by µETA are automatically grouped according to their type. This involves groups of type _NSET, _ELSET and _SURFACE which are automatically grouped into categories. Groups of type WSPOT_ are also categorized, in two levels: first according to the ANSA CONNECTION type and then, within this group-category, further categorized according to part.

- The user can retrieve the original colors by clicking the Default Color button in the Pids card or the Styles tab of the Groups card.

- The user should not confuse the terms parts and groups in µETA PostProcessor with the terms ANSA Parts and ANSA Groups.

- Capability to create groups in multiple levels, therefore, to form a tree structure representation of the model. This is achieved by dragging-dropping groups with the Right Mouse button into other groups by means of Move and Link functions like in ANSA's Part Manager. The example bellow demonstrates this functionality:

1

2

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Step 11: Select other groups.

Select to view other groups from the Groups list. Since the Auto Redraw option in the Settings tab is active, the selected groups are automatically displayed on the screen.

Ctrl

Step 12: Select groups using the filtering tool

Filter groups according to a given string. Type a string inside the Filter field and press ENTER (in this example PAR is typed). All group names that contain the given string are selected and highlighted in the list. Filtering by name follows the common filtering rules described in Chapter 2, par. 2.7.4. Remarks - The function stops with the selection of the groups in the list. The current display does not change in

spite of the Auto Redraw flag button being active.

Enter

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Step 13: Focusing functions on groups � Selection of groups from the screen

1. Press the Or focusing button in the Groups card. The selected groups, and only these, become

now visible. 2. Press the Pick button to select groups from the screen. 3. From the screen select a part using the left mouse button. All groups which include the picked part

are selected in the Groups list and highlighted in the Groups list. Remarks

- Application of list-selection functions (All, Invert, Visible and Pick) affects only the group-selection status in the list. The current display does not change even if the Auto Redraw flag button is active.

1

En

3

Step 14: Save groups

1. From the Create/Modify tab, press the Save button. The Save Groups card appears.

2. Groups can be saved either in a µETA PostProcessor session file or in ABAQUS input file format. Switch the Select File type button accordingly.

3. Type the name for the new file and press the Save button.

All selected groups in the list are saved in this file. In case of a session file, this may be read in µETA PostProcessor provided that the relevant model is already loaded.

3 Enter 2

1

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9.4. Detection of collision between groups throughout all states of a model

Collided groups can be automatically identified. By applying the command: groups collide <Enter First group name> <Enter Second group name>

a group containing the collided parts for each state is created automatically. Note that the First referenced group appears as a whole in the new groups, while from the Second group only the collided elements appear. The following example shows step by step the functionality of the groups collide.. command. Step 1: Isolate the parts that will form the two different groups. Step 2: Create the two different groups. Step 3: Apply the command groups collide ... for the two groups. Step 4: View the results on the screen for a selected state.

The groups are created via the Groups card using the From Visible option.

Apply the command: groups collide ... in order to generate the new collision groups for each state.

For this particular example the following groups are generated in the Groups card:

collision group

6 of the example.

Pick one of the new groups and select the corresponding state from the States card. The collided group appears in the Drawing window.

Group 2 �g2� Group 1 �g1�

Step 2

Step 3

Step 1

Enter

Step 4

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9.4.1. Remarks on collision

- Regarding the groups collide command: The criteria used for the detection of collision are the contact thickness and the thickness, in that order of importance (that means that if both exist then only the contact thickness is considered). If none of these exist then the criterion is a physical penetration (one shell passing through the other).

- Alternatively, the command: groups discollide <Search distance> <First group> <Second group> may be used. Using this command the user may specify a search distance which will be used as the criterion for detecting collision.

- When applying the groups collide ... command, the order of the groups entered in the command determines the creation of the new groups.

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9.5. Generation of separating distance state between groups

The user is able to have the separating distance between two Groups (also from different models) in a state calculated and presented as a new state by applying the commands:

groups separation <set of states> / current <name of 1st group> < name of 2nd group >

groups modelseparation <id of 1st model> <id of 2nd model> <states of 1st model> <states of 2nd

model> <name of 1st model�s group> < name of 2nd model�s group >

whole model

Group:cabin

Group: dummy

the results of between the tes card,

Enter

The new States holdingthe separation distancegroups appear in the stabelow the initial states.

Note that the Fringe Options should be set to Function Data.

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9.6. Mapping nodal results from a Group of a Model to a Group of another

It is possible to map nodal results from one model to another, based on results on Groups, irrespective of whether the meshes of the two Models are compatible or not. This can be done with the command: groups modelmparesults nodal <model_id_to_be_mapped> <model_id_used_for_mapping> <group_of_mapped> <group_of_mapping> <projection_distance> In the following example, two plates, Model 0 with results and quad-mesh and Model 1 with no results and tria-mesh, spaced 41.2mm apart, will be used:

Enter

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9.7. Related to the CONNECTION and DATA MANAGER

9.7.1. Connection Manager

The connections created in ANS A are read though the ANSA comments. A group is created automatically in µETA for each ANSA_CONNECTION.

The user can also use the commands groups neighboor connected <group name> to fill the groups with node connected elements to the group and groups neighboor near <group name> to fill the groups with elements near to the group

9.7.2. Data Manager

The Module id, the Version id and the Representation of a part are supported in µETA through the ANSA comments of the input file of a model. This information appears in the Groups list. Moreover, for each ANSA group or ANSA part that is an instance of another, one group is created in µETA with a name that follows the following convention:

<name>_M1 for the first instance<name>_M2 for the second instance, etc Filtering for Module id, Version id and Representation is also provided along with the Name filtering which was already available from older versions. Filtering can also be applied from the command line or the command list through the commands groups filtcrit [name/mid/repr/version] groups filter <matching String >

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9.8. General Remarks on Groups

- Both creation and visibility of groups is Active model dependent.

- To delete a group(s), simply select the group(s) from the list and press Delete, in the Create/Modify tab, with the left mouse button.

- If the Auto Fit(F9) flag button is activated, the selected groups are viewed fit to the screen.

- Focus commands within the Groups card are applied on groups selected from the list.

- Selection of groups is performed in three different ways: a) From the list using the mouse and applying any available option for item selection from a list

(navigation using the Up and Down arrow keys is also applicable). b) Using Filtering field. c) Using list-selection functions: All, Invert, Visible and Pick.

For case a) if the Auto Redraw flag button is active, the selected groups, and only these, become visible. For cases b) and c), selection is limited only to the list without changing the current display even when Auto Redraw flag button is active.

- Especially for reading PAMCRASH files, µETA automatically creates groups for all includes.

- For model geometry read from a NASTRAN bulk data file, for each SET definition a corresponding group is created in µETA.

- The user can set a safety margin on a group allowing easy definition of Spider connection groups, through the command

options safety group <value> <group name>/all/pick

- The user can calculate the separation of groups between two different models, through the groups modelseparation ... group of commands.

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Groups

9.9. Related Commands

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Chapter 10

CAMERA CONTROL, VIEWS MANAGEMENT &

EXPLODE VIEW Table of Contents

10.1. General .................................................................................................................................218 10.2. Camera tool ..........................................................................................................................219

10.2.1. Camera tool general......................................................................................................219 10.2.2. Perspective mode .........................................................................................................220

10.2.2.1. General description and Functionality ...................................................................220 10.2.2.2. Fly through the model............................................................................................223

10.2.3. Parallel mode ................................................................................................................224 10.2.4. Follow Node Feature.....................................................................................................225 10.2.5. Multiple Lock Camera Feature ......................................................................................228

10.3. Views ....................................................................................................................................229 10.3.1. General on views ..........................................................................................................229 10.3.2. Views card.....................................................................................................................229 10.3.3. Creating and copying a view from one drawing window to another...............................230 10.3.4. View control options ......................................................................................................230 10.3.5. Deleting a view from the list ..........................................................................................230 10.3.6. Follow Node feature ......................................................................................................231 10.3.7. Import and Export views................................................................................................232

10.4. Stereoscopic view mode .......................................................................................................232 10.5. Explode auto and Explode center .........................................................................................233 10.6. Explode line ..........................................................................................................................233 10.7. Explode: Place parts or materials anywhere in the view.......................................................234 10.8. Explode Plane.......................................................................................................................235 10.9. Explode: Apply transformation matrix on parts or materials..................................................235 10.10. Explode: Offset a whole model ...........................................................................................237 10.11. Explode: Symmetry Explode...............................................................................................238 10.12. Explode: Groups center ......................................................................................................239 10.13. Explode: Elements center ...................................................................................................239 10.14. Models, Pids and Mids rotation and tranformation..............................................................240 10.15. Saving positions of exploded Parts or Materials .................................................................240 10.16. Related commands .............................................................................................................241

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10.1. General

µETA PostProcessor contains tools for efficient handling and processing of Views. These tools offer the capability to the user to calibrate, view and compare model results with physical results. These tools are located at the Tools menu, which activate the corresponding card.

VIEWS:

Two modules are used in µETA PostProcessor for handling the view of a model: - A camera tool that provides the means for accurate adjustment of a model�s view either in parallel or in perspective mode along with enhanced features for lens definition. Also another functionality integrated in this card is the Mul-T-Lock, which allows the user to fix the camera in specific points of the model and follow the animation (especially useful for rollover simulations).

- A Views card for the management of default and created views (described later on this Chapter).

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10.2. Camera tool 10.2.1. Camera tool general

Through the Camera card the exact position and the optical settings of the Camera can be defined in two ways:

- By entering numerically the respective parameters. - By manipulating the Camera on the screen.

This card has four view-ports. The Camera view-port is what the camera �sees� whereas Top, Side and Front are orthographic views including the model and the camera. In all views, the model is displayed in feature lines.

Zoom in and out the Top, Front and Side viewports. Parallel-Perspective view toggle button. Moves the model to the center of all view-ports. For the drawing window this is the same as F9 key. Pick Micro flag button to switch to fine tuning mode of the sliders. Specify a name for the view and save it. The saved view appears in the list of the Views card with the specified name. Manipulation of the Camera. See paragraph 10.2.2.1. (The Look At toggle button and its options are available only in perspective mode.) Offset pulldown menu. See par. 10.3.2 for Follow node feature (available only in perspective mode). Multiple Lock feature: Lock Camera�s position and orientation by selecting 3 nodes.

Remarks - Space Mouse is supported. - The handling of the sliders can be done in any of the following ways:

1. Placing the Mouse cursor between the , the cursor will change to , and then having the Left Mouse Button pressed and moving the cursor upwards / downwards will increase / decrease the selected field values respectively. The same process in combination with the SHIFT key pressed will increase the step of changing the values for faster - larger amounts of change.

2. In a similar way the, the user can place the mouse cursor inside any field and using the !Up or "Down arrow keys will change the field values. The same process in combination with the SHIFT key pressed will increase the step of changing the values for faster - larger amounts of change.

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Camera Control, Views Management and Explode View 10.2.2. Perspective mode

10.2.2.1. General description and Functionality

To activate the Perspective mode select the Perspective option from the Parallel / Perspective toggle button. A detailed description of the Perspective mode follows.

- The LookAt point is the position to which the Camera is focused.

- The LookAt length is the distance between the Camera point and the LookAt point. The plane which is offset from the Camera by this distance (plane with the red cross) has no distortion when the user changes between parallel and perspective projection.

- The Near and Far Clip limits the viewing volume of the Camera.

- Field Of View (FOV) is the angle which derives from the vertical plane of the view and the camera point.

- View volume is defined from the Near and Far Clip and the FOV angle. Only the part of the model, which lies in the View volume, is visible.

- The View Area (yellow rectangle) represents the Active window. It has the same aspect ratio as the Active window and it is updated every time this is modified.

- The Video Frame (green corners) represents the dimensional characteristics of the film for an analog camera or the CCD data for a digital one. It is controlled from the Lenses card (see Lens setup paragraph) and it is visible only if the entries of this card have been defined. In this area a video frame (imported image) will be centered.

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Use the manipulation entries and sliders to define the exact position and the camera's optical settings. The first row of manipulation entries is changing according to the selection of the pull-down menu presented on the left. Selecting the LookAt option allows the adjustment of the global coordinates of the LookAt point.

- The X, Y, Z LookAt entries indicate the current coordinates of LookAt point according to the model coordinate system. Enter new values to modify them or use the sliders underneath instead.

- The X, Y, Z Camera entries indicate the current coordinates of Camera point according to the model coordinate system. Enter new values to modify them or use the sliders underneath instead.

- Use the �Pick� flag buttons to select an existing position of the model as the Camera point or the LookAt point. The Camera and LookAt entries will be updated accordingly.

- Define the Far Clip value.

- Define the Field Of View angle.

- Define the LookAt length value. The �Lock� flag button can be used to freeze the LookAt length in order to use the Camera to fly through the model (see paragraph �Fly through the model�).

- Define the Near Clip value. In some cases when the Near Clip value is very small (relative to the Far Clip value) the accuracy of picking from the screen may be decreased. In this case a warning message appears on the screen. The Fix button can be used to fix this problem by increasing the Near Clip value.

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Options other than the LookAt under the relevant toggle button are described below:

Screen Rot.: Rotate the camera view around the LookAt point (center of screen) and according to the X, Y, Z axes of the camera. The values in fields indicate the degrees of rotation of the camera relatively to the axes at Top Standard view (F1 Button).

Model Rot.: Rotate the camera view around the LookAt point (center of screen) and according to the X, Y, Z axes of the model. The values in the fields indicate the degrees of rotation of the camera relatively to the axes at Top Standard view (F1 Button).

Vector : Set the direction of the camera in line with the vector orientation so as this to be maintained while using Camera Follow Node feature during animation (refer to par. 10.3.2).

There is also the option to define the position and the optical settings of the Camera by using Ctrl, Shift keys and the mouse buttons. In the Camera view, pan and zoom are the same as in the Main View. However, there is difference in rotation depending on which option has been selected from the above described toggle button:

creen Rot.: rotation around the X, Y axes of the screen. ookAt: rotation around the X, Y axes of the screen. odel Rot.: rotation around the X, Y axes of the model. ector: rotation around the X, Y axes of the screen.

SLMV

{The Orthographic views are handled in the same way as in the Main View except that rotation is not available. Additionally there are the following controls only for the perspective mode (not for parallel mode):

Camera View: rotation of the Camera around its X, Y axes. Orthographic Views: move the Camera point on the respective plane of each viewport.

Orthographic Views (only): move the LookAt point on the respective plane of each viewport.

Orthographic Views (only): move the Camera and LookAt point on the respective plane of each viewport.

Camera View (only): change the Field of View of the Camera while retaining the size of the View.

+ Ctrl

+ Shift

Shift +

Shift +

+ Ctrl

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10.2.2.2. Fly through the model

Navigation through the model can also be realized using control keys. The following picture describes the control keys.

Shift

Alt

Alt Alt

Shift Alt Alt

Alt

Shift

Alt Alt

Shift Alt

Alt

Remarks

- It is very important to lock the LookAt length by the Lock button on the right of the LookAt Length entry to avoid conjunction of LookAt and Camera points.

- Control keys are active only in the perspective mode and are used in combination with the mouse controls.

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10.2.3. Parallel mode

The Parallel mode is the default mode of the Camera. A description of the parallel mode follows.

- The Near and Far Clip limits the field of the camera. - The View area represents the Active window. It has the same aspect ratio as the Active window

and it is updated each time the window is modified. - The View volume is defined from the Near and Far clip and the View area. Only the parts of the

model that lie in the View volume are visible. The above parameters can be defined either through typing the appropriate values to the respective entries in the Camera card or by using the sliders underneath. If Micro button is active the sliders are switched to fine-tuning mode.

- Move the Camera position according to the X, Y, Z axes of the model.

- Rotate the Camera around the center of the View volume and according to the X, Y, Z axes of the Camera.

- Scaling the View area.

- Define the Near Clip value.

- Define the Far Clip value.

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Camera Control, Views Management and Explode View 10.2.4. Follow Node Feature It is possible to fix:

- The position of the Camera on a node (Lock the Camera). - The view direction of the Camera on a node. (Lock the Look At point).

In this way the camera will follow, during animation, the nodes used for locking. Either of the locking options or both can be applied on a model.

There are three ways to achieve locking of the Camera. These are controlled from the Offset toggle button within the Camera card and are described below.

No Offset option In this case the Camera and the LookAt point follows two selected nodes respectively.

1. Activate the Fnode button of the LookAt bar.

2. Pick a node of the model to be the LookAt point.

3. & 4. Repeat the same action to specify the Camera point.

5. After completing selection, pick the Lock buttons of the LookAt and Camera bars to lock the Camera view according to the previously specified points.

The view is changed, and now only the rotation around the Z axis of the Camera and the FOV are allowed to be modified.

During animation the camera view will follow the locked nodes.

3 5

2

1

Camera point LookAt point

4

Camera view

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LookAt Offset option In this case the position of the Camera is defined as an offset distance with respect to the LookAt point. 1. Activate the Fnode button of the

LookAt bar. 2. Pick a node of the model to be

the LookAt point. 3. Choose Lookat Offset from the

pull down menu and specify an offset vector for the Camera from the LookAt Point by entering the required values to the respective entries.

4. Pick the Lock button of the LookAt bar and the view will change accordingly.

The view is changed, and now

Camera point Loo

Offset distance

1

3

4

Camera view

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kAt point

2

only the rotation around the Z axis of the Camera and the FOV are allowed to be modified. During animation the camera view will follow the locked node retaining the offset position.

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Camera offset option This case is similar to the first one but the Camera point can reside away from the selected node by an offset vector.

1. Activate the Fnode button of the LookAt bar.

2. Pick a node of the model to be the LookAt point.

3. & 4. Repeat the same action to specify the Camera point.

5. Choose Camera Offset from the pull down menu and specify an LookAt point

amera position

2

4

Offset distance

6

3

1

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offset vector for the Camera from the Camera Position by entering the required values to the respective entries.

6. Pick the Lock buttons of the LookAt and Camera bars to lock the Camera view.

The view is changed, and now only the rotation around the Z axis of the Camera and the FOV are allowed to be modified. During animation the camera view will follow the locked nodes.

5

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10.2.5. Multiple Lock Camera Feature

The Multiple Lock card is invoked through the MultiLock button within the Camera card. From the Multiple Lock card, the user may lock the Camera by selecting three (3) nodes. This can be thought of as a triangular rig confined to 3 points on the model and the camera being positioned at the first selected node. The three nodes define the camera positioning in the following way:

- The vector defined from the first to the second node corresponds to the positive Y-axis (looking direction of the Camera).

- The projection of the third node on the axis that is normal to the Y-axis, defines the positive X-axis.

- The remaining Z-axis (Up Vector of the Camera) is defined from the right hand rule (anticlockwise coordinate system).

- Originally, the camera is placed at the first selected node. (Origin of the coordinate system). However, the Camera�s position may be offset from the original by a vector specified through the Multiple Lock card. In the same way, the camera�s orientation can be regulated through the definition of angles for rotation around its X, Y, Z axes (Pitch around X axis, Yaw around Z axis and Roll around Y axis).

First activate the Pick flag button for Node 1 and pick a node on the model. After the selection, the second Pick flag button is activated in order to enable sequential selection of nodes. Once all three (3) nodes have been defined, press Lock in order to place the camera on its defined position.

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the original w keys can 5).

d through the camera�s g sliding ing using a

and rotations.

elected node s.

Y-AXISCamera Positio

Z-AX

X-AXIS

Sequential identification of the three nodePick flag buttons.

Option to reset the identified nodes.

The Camera�s position can be offset fromusing the corresponding sliding bars (arrobe used for finer tuning using a step of 0.

The Camera�s orientation can be regulatedefinition of angles of rotation around thecoordinate system using the correspondinbars (arrow keys can be used for finer tunstep of 0.5).

Option to reset the Offset displacements

Option for locking the camera at the first sof the triangle defined from the three node

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2nd Node

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10.3. Views

10.3.1. General on views

The Views card located in the Tools > Views Management provides control regarding the following features:

- A list with the default and created views per existing Drawing window. The existing views (default and created) may be applied on the Main Drawing window or any other window at any time. The user should note that views are defined through the Camera card and are related to the orientation of a Drawing window and not with the model(s) which is (are) currently in view.

- From the Views card the user can import predefined views or export defined views.

- Follow node feature. The user may constrain one, two or three nodes on a model. Deformation of the model is realized now relatively to that constrain. For that, it is necessary that Displacement type of data have been loaded and DEFORM is activated.

10.3.2. Views card

For the example shown below, an extra Drawing window has been created and two models are loaded. One is viewed in the Main window and the other in Window 1.

Invoke the Views card from the Tools pull-down menu.

Default views are listed in the Views card under each existing windows.

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10.3.3. Creating and copying a view from one drawing window to another

A view can be defined by pressing the Add button in the Views card or through the Camera card by pressing Save and then typing the name in the respective field (in this example the name is ViewWindow1). The new view is registered in the views list as shown below. Once the new view is defined the user can copy the defined view and paste it to another Drawing window list as shown above, following the next steps:

1. Press the right mouse button over the created view in the list. 2. Select Copy. 3. Then, press the right mouse button over the destination window. 4. Select Paste. The created view is now available for both windows.

4

1

3

2

10.3.4. View control options

Option for the view control through the command:

view best element/node/pick {<element Id>/<node Id>}

Application of this command rotates the view so as to bring the normal of a picked/specified element/node parallel to the normal of the screen.

10.3.5. Deleting a view from the list

- To delete a view, select it from the list and press the Delete button.

- Multiple selection is supported using either the SHIFT or CONTROL key as in other lists.

- Default views cannot be deleted.

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10.3.6. Follow Node feature

The images on the left correspond to the case where the Follow Node feature is not active, while for images on the right Follow Two Nodes is used.

Without Follow Node Follow Two Nodes

Original State of the model is viewed. 1. Original State of the model is viewed. Press Follow Node.

2. Select the option Follow 2 Nodes. 3. From the screen select the nodes to be

followed. The id numbers of the selected nodes appear on the screen.

Select Subcase 1. The model is viewed deformed.

Select Subcase 1. The model is viewed deformed but relatively to the selected nodes. (The first selected node remains still as well as the axis defined by the two selected nodes).

Remarks - To cancel the current Follow Node mode, select Off option from the Follow Node pull-down menu - If the Follow Node function is switched off, it can be enabled again for the last defined nodes

through the option Reapply Follow.

3 2

1

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Camera Control, Views Management and Explode View Remarks on Follow Node feature

- The Follow Node feature does not transform the results into local coordinate systems, it subtracts displacements, i.e. it shows the relative motion to the entities (node, axis, plane) defined with the selected Follow Nodes.

- Selection of nodes for Follow Node feature is Active model dependent. - The user can apply the command view fomodel <model id> so that the closest follow nodes of <model id> are applied to the active model

- When in Follow Node mode, Displacement Data values are updated accordingly (relatively to the follow nodes).

- If Follow Node feature has been applied and Displacement data are viewed in fringe mode, then if and only if the range is switched to All Entities in order to autocalculate the range of the color bar, it is necessary to apply the following command either from the Commands list or from the command line:

range followcalc enable

10.3.7. Import and Export views

From the Named Views card the user may export selected views to a file and or import saved views as required.

1

2

In the same way, when importing a view, a Load Views window opens and the user must select the desired view to load.

10.4. Stereoscopic view mode

- Stereoscopic view mode based on quad buffers is available if µETA PostProcessor is launched using the running option -stereo quadbuffer. Assuming that the alias name for running µETA PostProcessor is meta_post then the program should be launched using the following command:

meta_post -stereo quadbuffer - If µETA PostProcessor is launched with the stereo running option, the stereoscopic view mode

can be controlled (switched on and off) through the command: view stereo {on / off}

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Camera Control, Views Management and Explode View - The user may also adjust the parameter of the stereoscopic view mode that refers to the distance

between the eyes, through the command: view stereo eyedist <Specify the distance> (default is 60 mm).

- The stereoscopic view is automatically switched off when a function that includes selection from the screen is applied. It is switched on again as soon as this function is exited.

- It is recommended to be in the perspective view mode along with the stereoscopic display option.

10.5. Explode auto and Explode center

Explode auto takes place relatively to a point which is user defined whereas explode center is performed relatively to the center of the model. Coordinates of the center and the scale factor should be separated with commas.

Remarks:

- To reset to the original position, apply the command with 0 scale factor. Alternatively, if explode is performed through the pick option, select parts of the model with the right mouse button, while still in the function, to reset them to their original position.

10.6. Explode line

Explode is performed relatively to the centerline of the model.

Enter

Enter

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Camera Control, Views Management and Explode View Remarks:

- To reset to the original position, apply the command with 0 scale factor. Alternatively, if explode is performed through the pick option, select parts of the model with the right mouse button, while still in the function, to reset them to their original position.

10.7. Explode: Place parts or materials anywhere in the view

Using this function the user may drag any part(s) / material(s) of a model and place it anywhere on the screen.

1. First apply the command. 2. Then pick the part(s) / material(s) with the left

mouse button. 3. Confirm the selection with middle mouse button. 4. Move the picked part(s) / material(s) to another

position using once more the left mouse button. 5. Finally press middle mouse button to confirm the

new position of the part(s) / material(s).

5

4 3

2

1

Remarks:

- To reset to the original position, apply one of the: explode auto or explode center or explode line with 0 scale factor or use the right mouse button while still in the function.

- The command explode material pick was used to explode parts until version v6.3.2. It is executed by µETA correctly in order to keep compatibility with old sessions, but is now obsolete.

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10.8. Explode Plane

The command: explode plane <Edit ids> / all / act / pick explodes the selected ids / all / visible / picked parts respectively on the viewing plane so as no part overlaps another respecting the proximity between parts. There are two remarks regarding this particular explode option:

a. The pick option offers enhanced functionality with respect to other explode options in the following manner:

Step 1: Activate the command. Step 2: Pick the parts to be exploded with the left mouse button. The picked parts are

highlighted. Step 3: Press the middle mouse button once and the parts are exploded. Step 4: At this stage, pressing the right mouse button results in resetting the exploded

parts. Still in this step, the picked parts can be dragged and moved anywhere on the plane screen using the left mouse button.

Step 5: Press the middle mouse button once more. Now, the command status returns to Step 2 and a new set of parts may be selected for �plane explode�.

To exit the function, press Esc key. b. To reset the �plane exploded� parts, either use the explode plane pick option, or any

other explode command that provides resetting (i.e. explode center 0 all).

10.9. Explode: Apply transformation matrix on parts or materials With this function the user may define a transformation matrix (4X4) to be applied on specified part(s) / material(s). The matrix values must be inserted row by row and must be separated with commas.

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Camera Control, Views Management and Explode View By using a transformation matrix the user can apply local or overall scaling, translation, rotation, shearing, reflection, perspective transformation or a combination of the above. The attributes of the members of the 4x4 transformation matrix are presented below

a b c p1 d e f p2 g h i p3 tx ty tz 1/s

1. The upper left 3x3 submatrix produces a linear transformation in the form of scaling, shearing, reflection and rotation. 2. The lower left 1x3 submatrix produces translation tx in x direction, ty in y direction and tz in z direction. 3. The upper right 3x1 submatrix produces perspective transformation. 4. The lower right 1x1 submatrix produces overall scaling with factor the inverse value of the value in this submatrix. However, scaling should NOT be applied through this member, but through the diagonal members, as shown below.

Examples of 4x4 Matrices Scaling to the three directions can be applied by using the following matrix

Sx 0 0 0 0 Sy 0 0 0 0 Sz 0 0 0 0 1

Translation can be applied by using the following matrix

1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 tx ty tz 1

Rotation angle a around the x-axis can be applied by using the following matrix

1 0 0 0 0 Cos(a) -Sin(a) 0 0 Sin(a) Cos(a) 0 0 0 0 1

Rotation angle a around the y-axis can be applied by using the following matrix Cos(a) 0 Sin(a) 0

0 1 0 0 -Sin(a) 0 Cos(a) 0

0 0 0 1 Rotation angle a around the z-axis can be applied by using the following matrix Cos(a) -Sin(a) 0 0 Sin(a) Cos(a) 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1

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Camera Control, Views Management and Explode View Remarks: - To apply offset from the origin position to a part, use the command: explode mid / pid setmat offset dx,dy,dz <one of the selection options>

- To apply relative offset from the current position to a part, use the command: explode mid / pid setmat relativeoffset dx,dy,dz <one of the selection options>

- To reset to the original position, apply one of the: explode auto explode center explode line with 0 scale factor choose the pick option of the command and pick the parts with the right mouse button.

- The command explode material setmat was used to explode parts until version v6.3.2. It is executed by µETA correctly in order to keep compatibility with old sessions, but is now obsolete.

10.10. Explode: Offset a whole model Using this function, the user may offset the whole model from its original position. Offset values for the three coordinates should be separated with commas. The model�s id number, which is requested at the last step of the command, is the one that is attributed to the model when the latter is being loaded. Offset of a model can also be performed interactively by dragging and moving the model with the left mouse button. For this case, the command option interactive must be used.

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Enter

Remark: To reset the position of a Model to the original position either: - apply the command

explode model reset <model range>/act/all or - set the offset values equal to 0 or pick the model with the right mouse button if the option interactive is being used.

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10.11. Explode: Symmetry Explode Either selected parts or materials or whole models may be exploded symmetrically with respect to one of the global axes. The following commands are available: For parts: explode pid/mid setmat xsymmetry <one of the selection options> explode pid/mid setmat ysymmetry <one of the selection options> explode pid/mid setmat zsymmetry <one of the selection options> For whole models: explode model nosymmetry <Model id> explode model xsymmetry < Model id > explode model ysymmetry < Model id > explode model zsymmetry < Model id > Example of the application of explode pid setmat zsymmetry pick command.

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. Original State 2

1

nd Application

3 3. Symmetry Explode

Remarks: - To reset to the original position, in case of thethe pick option of the command and pick the

- To reset to the original position, in case of thecommand: explode model nosymmetry

2

1. Comma

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4. Reset to Original position

explode pid/mid... command, then choose parts and with the right mouse button. explode model .. command, apply the

<Model id>

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10.12. Explode: Groups center Using this command, the user may explode the defined Groups from their original position by a given scale factor from the center of the Groups. For the following example, two groups have already been created.

Right Group

Left Group

10.13. Explode: Elements center The user can scale the size of specified elements with this command. This can be very useful when the user wants to view the results on elements of small size, eg. Hexa elements used in Connections.

Write the following command explode element center <scale factor> act/all/ide/name/pick/<Element ids> or choose the relevant command from the Command List.

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Camera Control, Views Management and Explode View The element is scaled with its center as base point.

10.14. Models, Pids and Mids rotation and tranformation

It is possible to translate and at the same time rotate a model, a Part (Pid), or a material (Mid):

- around the Global axes. The corresponding commands are: explode model settransrot <Enter the coordinates for the Translation vector (tx, ty, tz) and the origin of rotation (rorigx, rorigy, rorigz) and the angles of rotation (in degrees) around the X, Y, Z axes (rx, ry, rz)> {act / all / <Enter Model ids>} explode pid/mid setmat settransrot <Enter the coordinates for the Translation vector (tx, ty, tz) and the origin of rotation (rorigx, rorigy, rorigz) and the angles of rotation (in degrees) around the X, Y, Z axes (rx, ry, rz)> {act / all / pick / <Enter Pids>}

- around a specified vector. The corresponding commands are: explode model settransvectrot <Enter the coordinates for the Translation vector (tx, ty, tz) and the origin of rotation (rorigx, rorigy, rorigz), the angle of rotation (in degrees) around the vector and the coordinates of the vector (dx, dy, dz)> {act / all / <Enter Model ids>}

explode pid/mid setmat settransvectrot <Enter the coordinates for the Translation vector (tx, ty, tz) and the origin of rotation (rorigx, rorigy, rorigz), the angle of rotation (in degrees) around the vector and the coordinates of the vector (dx, dy, dz)>{act / all / pick / <Enter Pids>}

- It is possible to apply a transformation matrix for a whole model. The command is: explode model setmat <Exter a 4X4 transformation matrix> {act / all / <Enter Model ids>}

10.15. Saving positions of exploded Parts or Materials

The exploded positions of pids can be saved as a session file, so they can be retrieved when necessary, by applying the command:

explode save <pids range>/act/all <session filename> The exploded positions of mids can be saved as a session file, so they can be retrieved when necessary, by applying the command:

explode save mid <mids range>/act/all <session filename>

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10.16. Related commands

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Chapter 11

VIDEO & IMAGE HANDLING

Table of Contents

11.1. General .................................................................................................................................245 11.2. Visual Assets ........................................................................................................................246

11.2.1. Importing a Video / Image file........................................................................................246 11.2.2. Listing imported video or image files .............................................................................247 11.2.3. Visual Assets processing ..............................................................................................248

11.2.3.1. Common functionality within the Visual Assets .....................................................248 11.2.4. Editing videos and Images ............................................................................................249 11.2.5. More options available for videos and images ..............................................................250

11.3. Video Position.......................................................................................................................251 11.3.1. Lens setup.....................................................................................................................252

11.4. Advanced Visual features .....................................................................................................253 11.4.1. Match feature ................................................................................................................253

11.4.1.1. Example on Matching procedure...........................................................................253 11.4.1.2. Handling features within the Match Calibration card .............................................255 11.4.1.3. General Remarks on Matching and hints for better matching results ....................255

11.5. Video synchronization...........................................................................................................256 11.5.1. General on synchronization...........................................................................................256 11.5.2. Case 1: Video synchronization with frames...................................................................256 11.5.3. Case 2: Synchronization of a video with time................................................................257 11.5.4. Remarks on Synchronization ........................................................................................257

11.6. Video tracking .......................................................................................................................258 11.6.1. General .........................................................................................................................258 11.6.2. Video Tracking Procedure.............................................................................................258 11.6.3. Graphical 2Dplot presentation of the tracking results....................................................261 11.6.4. Tracking Distances and Angles.....................................................................................262

Example Steps: ....................................................................................................................262 Step 1: Creation and Tracking of three (3) points.................................................................262 Step 2: Switch to Distances & Angles tab and press Add Distance .....................................262 Step 3: The New Distance card appears, where the user defines the name of the Distance and the distance between the preferred tracking points. ......................................................262 Step 4: The user switches the Show menu to min distance in order to visualize the minimum distance between the tracking points. ..................................................................................263 Step 5: The user switches the Show menu to max distance in order to visualize the minimum distance between the tracking points. ..................................................................................263

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Step 6: The user can visualize the distance variation throughout the entire Track Range using the Viewer Slider. .................................................................................................................263 Step 7: By pressing the Add Angle button the New Angle card appears where the user defines the angle by selecting the three points. Always the vertex of the angle will be the tracking point that is defined at the position Point O and the angle is always measured from vector OA towards vector OB always and this is shown from the arc drawn on the video. ..264 Step 8: The user switches the Show menu to min angle in order to visualize the minimum angle among the tracking points. .........................................................................................264 Step 9: The user switches the Show menu to max angle in order to visualize the maximum angle among the tracking points. .........................................................................................265

11.6.5. The Autoadd command.................................................................................................265 11.7. Related commands...............................................................................................................266

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11.1. General µETA PostProcessor contains numerous tools for efficient handling Videos and Images. These tools offer the capability to the user to calibrate, view and compare model results with physical results. These tools are located at the Tools>Visual Resources, which activate the corresponding card.

VISUAL ASSETS:

- µETA PostProcessor supports reading videos in MPEG1, MPEG2, AVI and AMF format as well as images in tif. jpg, bmp, png, ppm or gif format.

- The user may pass through all frames of a loaded video file using the Viewer tab.

- Through the Match tab the user may match the view of a model with that of an image and follow selected points during animation.

- A video can also be synchronized with the model so as to follow the states of the model. That means that any change from one state of the model to the other (either by animation or by navigation in the States list) will be followed by a change of the video frame respectively.

- Moreover, a video-tracking tool is available. This tool enables the user to watch the trace of a point of interest in a video and even create curves from x and y tracking results.

- A list of all available image and video image filters exists in the Filters tab.

- The handling of the sliders can be done in any of the following ways:

1. Placing the Mouse cursor between the , the cursor will change to , and then having the Left Mouse Button pressed and moving the cursor upwards / downwards will increase / decrease the selected field values respectively. The same process in combination with the SHIFT key pressed will increase the step of changing the values for faster - larger amounts of change.

2. In a similar way, the user can place the mouse cursor inside any field and using the !Up or "Down arrow keys will change the field values. The same process in combination with the SHIFT key pressed will increase the step of changing the values for faster - larger amounts of change.

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11.2. Visual Assets

11.2.1. Importing a Video / Image file Acceptable formats for imported videos are: MPEG1, MPEG2, AVI and AMF and for imported images: tif, jpg, bmp, png, ppm and gif, as mentioned above. As soon as a video or an image is read, this appears inside the Active window as an image. A video or an image file can be loaded via the Open Video or Open Image options respectively under the File pull down menu.

1 1

2 2

3 3

Remarks: - AVI and AMF video files can be read for the following codecs:

JPEG MJPG DIB RGB (16 bit and 24 bit color) YUY2 YV12 I420 Y41P V422 VYUY RLE8 h264 h263 h263i h261 mpeg4 divx msmpeg4v1

msmpeg4v2 msmpeg4v3 wmv1 wmv2 flv rv10 rv20 svq1 svq3 mpeg1 mpeg2 xvmc dvvideo mjpeg sp5x ljpeg huffyuv

ffv1 cyuv vp3 vcr1 cljr 4xm rpza cinepak msrle msvideo1 vqavideo idcin mszh zlib qtrle iv31 iv32

On Windows platforms are supported all the above codecs plus all additional codecs that may exist on each Windows platform.

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Video and Image Handling - A series of images either in ppm, tiff, bmp, png or jpeg format can be converted to AVI files

using the command: video convert image2avi ...

- MPEG files can be converted to AVI files using the command: video convert mpeg2avi ...

- AVI video files in unsupported codecs can be converted to supported codecs through the command:

video convert avi2avi...

this command allows the user to convert unsupported avi formats into supported. - Use the command: video swaprgb <Video name> enable to obtain the correct colors in

case in some AVI files the RGB colors are defined swapped. - If more than one videos or images are loaded then the files are placed on screen in alphabetical

order (a � z with z letter being on top in the hierarchy). Also two or more video can be played simultaneously even if they are placed on different windows the only prerequisite is to be selected.

- The avi video files, created by µETA PostProcessor with jpeg compression, are supported in MS-Office 2000 if the extension of these files is changed to ".mpg".

- To playback an animated gif video in µETA, first convert it to avi format through the following command:

video convert gif2avi <Enter animated gif filename> <Enter filename of target avi file> and then playback the resulted avi file.

11.2.2. Listing imported video or image files By applying the command video list, all imported videos are listed in the META-Post Messages window along with their names and the current frame.

Apart from the name of each video, other useful information such as the number of video frames, the total time of the video and the size in pixels also appear in the META-Post Messages window.

Similarly, by applying the command:

image list all imported images are listed in the META-Post Messages window along with their names and their size in pixels.

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Video and Image Handling 11.2.3. Visual Assets processing From the Tools pull down menu the Visual Resources Management option can be selected, which activates the Visual Resources Management card. This card contains a number of tools for image, video and Views processing.

Visual Assets contains: Image / Video Position, Video Synchronization, Camera Match and Video Tracking. The Metapost list within Visual Assets contains all the Image and Video entries and is combined with the focus and New menu at the bottom of the card. Selection commands applicable to the loaded video/images. New command for faster loading of video/images. Boolean focus functions. Video/Image align options combined with the Autoscale option. Edit commands for interactive editing and control of the video/images z-order through the Back � Fore buttons.

11.2.3.1. Common functionality within the Visual Assets

Selection commands for the loaded video/images. Loading � Deleting � Focusing commands.

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Video and Image Handling 11.2.4. Editing videos and Images

The user may edit the video image so as to change its position inside the window or scale it. The user can edit a video, in order to move it, using the left mouse button or scale it using the right mouse button. The user may select to Edit a video/image either from the pop up menu on the video/image entry or by pressing the Edit button located in the Position tab.

The user may directly delete a video using the Delete option either from the pop up menu on the video entry or from the DEL button. Also there are options to Hide/Show an imported video/image from the pop up menu. When the video/image is hidden the light bulb of the video/image entry appears gray, which is a common µETA PostProcessor list behavior.

1

2

Alternatively, the user may also edit and move an imported video or image by defining the x and y relative coordinates of the bottom left corner of the video image or its center in the commands:

video edit setxy <video position x,y> <video name> image edit setxy <image position x,y> <image name>

video or image edit setcenter <video or image position x,y> <video or image name name> Sets the center of the image or video to the defined x,y coordinates. The positioning of the image or video center is relative to the center of the drawing window. Similarly, a video or image may be scaled relatively to its original size by applying the command:

video edit scale <video zoomx, zoomy> <video name> image edit scale <image zoomx, zoomy> <image name>

Scaling factors for x and y dimensions, which are equal to unity (1), correspond to the original size.

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Video and Image Handling 11.2.5. More options available for videos and images

video center <video name> image center <video name>

This is to place an image or a video image at the center of the window at the maximum possible size without altering the original aspect ratio.

video pixelAspect <video name> <Enter pixel aspect ratio> image pixelAspect <video name> <Enter pixel aspect ratio>

This is to define a Horizontal dimension / Vertical dimension aspect ratio for pixels in case a camera creates images or videos with pixel aspect ratio different than 1.

ON or OFF in the viewer tab

Controls whether the size of a video or an image will follow window resizing. Reset option is also available.

video halign <video name> offset video valign <video name> offset

image halign <image name> offset image valign <image name> offset

These commands are used to set the horizontal and vertical alignment of an image, during window resizing. The offset option is used for defining an offset distance from the edges of the window. If an offset is set, then this takes effect along with any of the rest available options (left, right, etc). This can also be combined with the command Autoscale On or Off regarding the image resize.

video zorder <video name> <video order> image zorder <video name> <video order>

To control the display order of videos and images. Available values for the order lie between �32000 and 32000. Negative values imply that the video or the image will be placed behind the model. The lower the value, the further back the image or the video appears. Positive values imply that the image or the video will reside in front of the model. In this case, the higher the value, the further front the video or the image appears.

All available filters for images and video images exist in the list of the Filters tab. By applying the Transparency filter a video can be overlaid over the model. Example 1: User defined kernel convolution filter. Takes as an extra parameter a series of 9 or 25 integers which define a 3x3 or 5x5 matrix of the filter convolution kernel (e.g. try 1,2,1,0,0,0,-1,-2,-1 Its the Y direction sobel convolution mask (soften)).

Viewer alignment options, for horizontal and vertical alignment of an imported video/image.

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Example 2:

Soft Edge Detect Filter

11.3. Video Position

Right Mouse button menu for video / image management

Position and scaling options

- List with all loaded videos. - Sliding bar for manually navigating through the video frames. - Control panel for playing a video. - Spin-box for adjustment of the video playing speed. - Control of the Video / Image Z-order.

Remarks - The commands:

video previousframe <Name of video> video nextframe <Name of video>

can also be used for the control of the displayed video frame. - The video entries can be deleted using right mouse button on the video and selecting Video

delete or by pressing the Del button on the menu under the list. - Option to Edit the size and position of the video directly from the interface or via the Right

Mouse button menu. - You can control the z-order of the loaded video from the Up � Down buttons on the menu under

the list.

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Video and Image Handling 11.3.1. Lens setup

The optical settings of the Camera can be set through the Lenses window, which can be invoked by pressing the Lens Properties button at the top-right corner of the Match Tab. To set a Camera lens, it is necessary to define the following:

1. The dimensions of the medium (film or CCD (Charge Coupled Device)) through either:

# Entering values for the two of the three CCD entries (first three entries in the card).

# Entering values for the number of the pixels (Pixels X and Pixels Y entries).

# Setting one of the three CCD entries and the Aspect ratio. # Setting one of the two Pixels numbers (X or Y) and the Aspect ratio.

2. The size of the pixels through the Pxl width and Pxl height entry fields.

3. The Focal Length of the lens through the Focal Len entry field.

If parameters are set as required, press OK button to apply these settings on the model. Moreover, the fields, that were left empty, are automatically filled with the calculated values.

Alternatively, the user may edit a name for the current settings in the relevant field and press Save button. The current settings are applied on the model and are also registered in the list underneath. In addition, these settings are saved in an ASCII file named META_post.lenses. This file lies in the directory that is set via the META_VIEWS_DIR environment variable (refer to the Set Up Guide for more information on environment variables related to µETA PostProcessor). Each time the Lenses card is invoked the program looks for the META_post.lenses file in the directory set as the META_VIEWS_DIR. If such a file exists, the included lenses are read and placed in the list. To delete saved lenses, select them from the list and delete them from the right mouse-button menu. The selected lenses are deleted both from the list and from the META_post.lenses file.

Remarks

- If the META_VIEWS_DIR environment variable has not been defined, then the program searches for a META_post.lenses file in the following directories and in that order:

1. Current working directory: This is where the program is called from. 2. The home directory of the user. 3. The Project Directory. This is the directory defined either with the -d running option or by

setting the POST_DIR environment variable. 4. The Group directory. This is the directory defined either with the -groupdir running option

or by setting the META_GROUP_DIR environment variable. 5. The default directory. This is the $META_POST_HOME/config directory.

If no META_post.lenses file exists in any of the above directories, then the saving procedure results in creating a META_post.lenses file in the home directory of the user.

- The aspect ratio is the ratio of the CCD width to the CCD height of a medium. If the pixels are defined as rectangles (pxl width equals pxl height), then the aspect ratio is equal to the ratio of Pixels X to Pixels Y.

- The Horizontal FOV and the Diagonal FOV are considered in accordance with the Vertical FOV which has been defined in par. 11.2.2.1. These values are calculated for each defined lens.

- As soon as a lens is used for the current perspective view of a model, the Vertical FOV entry field in the Camera card turns into a Focal Length entry field.

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11.4. Advanced Visual features

11.4.1. Match feature

11.4.1.1. Example on Matching procedure

In order to match the camera specifications and position of a model with an existing image or a video image, the Match function can be used. The following example describes this procedure step by step.

The model used for the matching is shown on the left.

Step 1: Import the image Import an image through the Load Image card invoked by selecting the option Open Image under the File pull-down menu. Or directly from the Open button at the bottom of the Visual Resources Management card. For more information on image and video handling see the following paragraphs of this chapter.

Step 2: Turn to the Match tab. All imported images appear in this list along with information regarding their name, their size and the visibility status for their Calibration Points.

Note: All general rules followed in µETA PostProcessor for selection of listed items may also be applied in this list.

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Step 3: Define the lenses It is not necessary to edit the values for the Camera Lens for the matching procedure. By default, the new Use default values button within the Lens Properties card is active. In this case, the pixel size of the image, which is selected for the matching, will be taken into account for the lens properties. In special cases the lenses can be set as follows. 1. Press the Lens Properties button from the Match Tab (Visual) and

the Lenses Properties card appears. 2. Fill in only the fields that it is necessary to be filled in for the

definition of a lens (refer to par. 11.2.2.3). In this example the following parameters are defined:

Size in Pixels: Pixels X and Pixels Y fields. This information appears in the Calibration card list. Pixel size: Pxl width and Pxl height fields. Focal Length.

3. Press Apply button to apply the current lens settings on the perspective view of the model. All the fields within the Lenses card are now filled in accordingly.

Step 4: Add and Set Calibration Points 1. From the Calibration card, select the image

that will be matched. 2. Press the Add Point button. Seven

Calibration Point entries appear in the list. 3. Select Calibration Points from the list. 4. Press the Set button. 5. For each selected Calibration Point, select

from the screen first a point on the model (5.1) and then its corresponding point on the image (5.2) to be coincident. Respective symbols appear on the screen to indicate the selected points.

Proceed with all Calibration Points, one by one. It is required to set at least seven Calibration Points. To add more than seven points, press the Add button and for the new Calibration Point that appears press the Set button to set it. For each Calibration Point that is set, the X, Y, Z model�s coordinates of the corresponding model point and the X, Y pixel coordinates of the relevant image point appear in the list.

Enter 2

1

3

5.2

5.1

2 4

3

1

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Video and Image Handling Step 5: Matching

Press the Match button to calculate the camera position and settings and apply the results on the perspective view of the model. The position and the Focal Length of the camera are changed and the model is fitted on the image.Moreover, the Error is calculated and printed under the list with the Calibration Points. Matching is performed only if Error value is lower than 15. The matching outcome can be improved, if necessary, by adding more Calibration Points to the procedure or by modifying the existing ones.

11.4.1.2. Handling features within the Match Calibration card

- Del Point button deletes selected points from the list.

- Reset button resets the data of selected points. Activating the Use node coordinates option, only nodes can be selected as matching points for the model. If the Use node coordinates option is inactive, points are defined from the picked point position (i.e. anywhere on the model). In this case, the lower the Far Clip / Near Clip ratio is, the higher the picking precision becomes.

11.4.1.3. General Remarks on Matching and hints for better matching results

- Although the Focal Length is recalculated after matching has been applied, an initial value is required for setting the camera lens.

- At least seven points have to be set for the matching. - The user is advised to define more than seven matching points for higher accuracy. - For higher accuracy, apply center view on both the model (F9 key) and the image (apply the command image center .. or video center ..).

- In case, after a successful matching, the relevant image is zoomed in and out or its position is changed, matching can be re-applied for the same matching points by just pressing Match button again.

- It is advisable that the selection of points does not lie on the same plane, in order to achieve better matching.

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11.5. Video synchronization

11.5.1. General on synchronization

Synchronization of one or more videos with a model can be realized using one of the two criteria: frames or time.

Necessary information for the video can be viewed in META-Post Messages window, after applying video list command. Information for the model lies in the States card. The association between the video and the model is that frames correspond to variable v0 of states and time corresponds to variable v1 (refer to Chapter 5), which could be Time, Mode etc. The two criteria for video synchronization with model animation are demonstrated below.

11.5.2. Case 1: Video synchronization with frames

Considering that the video and the model with its results are already loaded, the user activates the Sync tab.

The user may select to either view the video frames, which are out of bounds or not by just activating the Show Bounds button or deactivating it respectively. For the last case, the video image is not displayed if the currently visible state is not correlated with a video frame. By default, the Show Bounds button is inactive.

From the Video Sync card, select the model and the video that will be synchronized. Regulate the start and the end synchronization position for the model and the video through the corresponding tuning bars. At the end, press Sync button to establish synchronization. To synchronize the model with another video as well, select the other video and the model and follow the above steps once more. In order to cancel the synchronization between the model and a video, select the video and the model and press the Reset Sync button.

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Video and Image Handling 11.5.3. Case 2: Synchronization of a video with time

Synchronization of a video with time isachieved by activating the Time Sync flagbutton and automatically the sliders switchfrom states (model) and frames (video) intime as can be seen in the next figure.

11.5.4. Remarks on Synchronization

- Once synchronization has been applied, the association between model states and video frames is established. Therefore, selecting to view a state of the model will result in viewing also the corresponding frame of the video.

- Two more commands used:

video frameset ... and video timeset ...

These commands may be used to display a frame of the video other than the first one. The frame may be specified either by its number or by its video time. Note that both the total number of frames and the total video time are printed in the META-post Messages window through the video list command.

- If the following command is enabled, then during video synchronization, frame time of AMF video files is taken into account. By default, this command is enabled.

video sync filetime <Video name> enable or disable

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11.6. Video tracking

11.6.1. General

Video Tracking visualizes the path of areas of concern on a video (tracking points). The tracking points leave a trace behind them that varies in color regarding the kind of results the user selects to display. The tracking results regarding displacement can be graphically presented in 2D plot window automatically.

11.6.2. Video Tracking Procedure

The Video Tracking card opens through the Tools pull �down menu:

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Video and Image Handling Steps: Firstly import a video. This appears now in the Video Track card. Select the video and then create a tracking point through the Add Point button. Define via the Track Start/End Position tuning bars the frame range within which tracking will take place. When the frame range is defined, the tracking point can be selected on the video image, once the flag Set from Screen is active. The tracking point must be selected by box. The size of the box is controlled from the Feature Size tuning bar.

Enter

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Once the above steps have been performed the video tracking may commence, by pressing the Track Point button. The user has the option to select among different visualization options for tracking results. These options are controlled through the Normal toggle button and are shown below.

After Tracking is terminated, the user has the option to create a 2Dplot by pressing the Plot Curve button. Curves corresponding to the X and Y tracking results are automatically created.

Track Point

Track BorderVideo Tr

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ace

The options Model � bitmap Ratio are related to a special feature where the user can set the correspondence between bitmap dimensions on the video and real model dimensions. This ratio correspondence is reflected to the 2DPlot representation of tracking results (Plot curve � see next paragraph), where the axes scale adapts to the real model�s dimension units.

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Video and Image Handling To do that the user must choose either:

- two points on the bitmap and then two points on the model (Pick � bitmap Ratio option). - two points on the bitmap and then define the distance between these two points through the input

window that appears (Numeric � Bitmap Ratio User Input option).

11.6.3. Graphical 2Dplot presentation of the tracking results

By pressing the Plot Curve button the tracking results are viewed as curves in a 2Dplot window.

Remarks: - The blue curve refers to the displacement of the track point in the x-direction, while the red in the

y-direction. The abscissa values of the plot correspond to the frame range used for tracking. Also the axes are named according to the video scale defined or not. In case of performing a Tracking after a video Match and Sync then the axes will be adjusted to the model�s dimensions and time only if the selected tracking frame range lies within the Sync frame range.

- Visualization of tracking results through the Display toggle button: Normal - Draws the trace of the tracking point in green color. Onion Skin � Draws ten points back and front of the current position in different color in order to provide an impression regarding the point�s speed. Velocity � The trace color changes according to velocity changes. The more orange the faster, the more blue the slower (visualize the speed). Displacement � The trace color changes from green to red the bigger the displacement becomes from the original position. Display Off - no trace, just track point.

Remarks: - For satisfactory video tracking results throughout the defined frame range, it is important that the selected points are areas of high contrast.

- The user has the option to stop the video tracking anytime just by pressing the Pause/Break button from the keyboard.

- The tracking point can be edited via the Set from Screen flag button and the tuning bars Track Start/End Position.

- If more than one Tracking Points exist then the selected one has thicker trace than the others. - The track border depends on video size and defines the tracking borders of a point. Outside the tracking borders no tracking takes place.

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Video and Image Handling - Reading external results is possible through the command video tracking <videoname> results read <filename>. These measurements are displayed as lines on 3d model. If standard deviation is included in each measurement, (eg sdx, sdy, sdz) an ellipsoid is drawn having sdx,sdy,sdz as axes. You can change color, display mode, visibility, size and standard deviation ellipsoid scale and manipulate and list the measurements (Refer to Chapter 18 paragraph 6, page 18-5, for more details).

11.6.4. Tracking Distances and Angles

In order to track distances and angles the user must create and track beforehand two (2) and three (3) tracking points respectively. Then, switches to Distances & Angles tab in order to select the points for the distance and the angle definition. See the following example:

Example Steps:

Step 1: Creation and Tracking of three (3) points

Step 2: Switch to Distances & Angles tab and press Add Distance

Step 3: The New Distance card appears, where the user defines the name of the Distance and the distance between the preferred tracking points.

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Video and Image Handling Step 4: The user switches the Show menu to min distance in order to visualize the minimum distance between the tracking points.

Step 5: The user switches the Show menu to max distance in order to visualize the minimum distance between the tracking points.

Step 6: The user can visualize the distance variation throughout the entire Track Range using the Viewer Slider.

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Step 7: By pressing the Add Angle button the New Angle card appears where the user defines the angle by selecting the three points. Always the vertex of the angle will be the tracking point that is defined at the position Point O and the angle is always measured from vector OA towards vector OB always and this is shown from the arc drawn on the video.

Step 8: The user switches the Show menu to min angle in order to visualize the minimum angle among the tracking points.

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Video and Image Handling Step 9: The user switches the Show menu to max angle in order to visualize the maximum angle among the tracking points.

Remark - The user at any time can Edit the Distances or Angles by selecting them (one at a time) from the

list and pressing the Edit button or by Double clicking on them. The respective card will appear and the user can modify the sequence of the tracking points that the Distance / Angle consists of or even add new points.

- By pressing the Plot button the user has the capability to plot the Distance / Angle variation. - Model Bitmap ratio has the same effect as in single tracking points, mentioned before.

11.6.5. The Autoadd command

The command autoadd provides the option to automatically identify the best track points on the video image using as a criterion the area contrast. The user must define the number of points to be identified, the start frame, the minimum distance between features and the feature size.

video tracking <video name> feature autoadd <number of feature points> <start frame> <min. distance between features> <feature size>

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11.7. Related commands

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Chapter 12

2D-PLOT TOOL Table of Contents

12.1. General .................................................................................................................................269 12.2. The use of mouse buttons in 2d plot windows ......................................................................270 12.3. Function keys in 2d plot windows .........................................................................................270 12.4. View control of the plots using the mouse.............................................................................271 12.5. Reading curves data in the 2d plot window...........................................................................272

12.5.1. Loading of time histories ...............................................................................................273 12.5.1.1. General .................................................................................................................273 12.5.1.2. Combining results to define new variables and Template curves..........................274 12.5.1.3. Reading several time history files simultaneously .................................................278 12.5.1.4. Creating Template curves for several time history files in one step.......................279 12.5.1.5. Reading RADIOSS T0x Restart Files....................................................................279 12.5.1.6. Reading Results according to Follow Node transformation...................................280 12.5.1.7. Creating curves with a User Defined Abscissa......................................................281

12.5.2. Loading data from ASCII files........................................................................................282 12.5.3. Viewing results regarding entities picked from a model ................................................283 12.5.4. Creating Curves by pasting data from clipboard ...........................................................286 12.5.5. Viewing Design Variables, Design Responses and Objective Function of an Optimization Solution .....................................................................................................................................287

12.6. Plot functionality....................................................................................................................288 12.6.1. Curve identification / selection in a plot .........................................................................288 12.6.2. Point identification / selection in a plot ..........................................................................288 12.6.3. Curve / point identification / selection in plots using Advanced Filter. ...........................289 12.6.4. Calculation of the Y value difference and the X value difference between successive curves at any X and Y points respectively.................................................................................290 12.6.5. Reset identification / selection of curves / points...........................................................290 12.6.6. Modify the titles of a plot ...............................................................................................290 12.6.7. Resize a plot interactively .............................................................................................290 12.6.8. Multiple axes in a single plot .........................................................................................291

12.7. Curve List functionality..........................................................................................................292 12.7.1. General .........................................................................................................................292 12.7.2. Plot pop-up menu..........................................................................................................293 12.7.3. Curve pop-up menu ......................................................................................................293 12.7.4. Group of curves.............................................................................................................294 12.7.5. Synchronized visualization of curves among plots ........................................................295

12.8. 2D and 3D Association .........................................................................................................296 12.8.1. Show on model option...................................................................................................296 12.8.2. Controlling the connection between 3D model entities and curves ...............................297 12.8.3. Displaying LS-Dyna SECFORC and PAM-CRASH SECFO results on corresponding cross sections ...........................................................................................................................298 12.8.4. Synchronize Curve with 3D Model ................................................................................301

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12.8.5. Identification of current state of a model on a curve......................................................301 12.9. The Focusing functions.........................................................................................................302

12.9.1. General .........................................................................................................................302 12.9.2. Example on application of focusing commands ............................................................303

12.10. Functions ............................................................................................................................304 12.10.1. Example on the use of Functions ................................................................................306 12.10.2. User Defined functions................................................................................................307

12.10.2.1. General ...............................................................................................................307 12.10.2.2. Syntax methods for retrieving a selected curve value .........................................307 12.10.2.3. Example on User Defined functions ....................................................................309 12.10.2.4. Example on the use of a loop for large-scale creation of curves .........................310

12.10.3. Modify Curve points function .......................................................................................311 12.10.4. Modify Curves function................................................................................................313

12.11. Settings for curves and plots...............................................................................................314 12.11.1. General .......................................................................................................................314 12.11.2. Hints regarding settings for plots and curves ..............................................................314

12.11.2.1. Legends ..............................................................................................................314 12.11.2.2. Show the X and Y axis that pass from the 0, 0 point in a plot .............................314 12.11.2.3. Lock the titles of a plot.........................................................................................314 12.11.2.4. Lock axes values.................................................................................................314 12.11.2.5. Lock axes of one plot with axes from another plot to assist comparison .............314 12.11.2.6. 2D-Bar graphs .....................................................................................................315 12.11.2.7. Editing the curves command line and axes formulas of user defined curves ......315

12.12. Complex Results Plots........................................................................................................316 12.12.1. Creating Complex Results...........................................................................................316 12.12.2. Selecting Plot Type .....................................................................................................316

12.13. Saving curve data ...............................................................................................................318 12.13.1. Printing curve data in META-Post Messages window .................................................318 12.13.2. Saving curve data to a file ...........................................................................................318

12.14 Saving 2d plot window settings............................................................................................320 12.15. Related Commands ............................................................................................................321

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12.1. General

The 2d plot window in µETA PostProcessor is a comprehensive tool for viewing results in 2D graph form, offering enhanced functionality. The user can create as many 2d plot windows as necessary from the Windows pull-down menu, by selecting the Create 2d plot option. Within the 2d plot windows themselves, up to four different plots can be opened. Opening a 2d plot window and focusing on it switches the Basic Buttons to the 2d plot functions buttons. Thus, the following sections can be identified:

List with all currently visible plots along with all their curves.

Controls the curves and plots that will accept the new settings.

Focus Group of buttons and

Curve Filtering field

Settings.

Tabs for Sub-groups of settings.

Tabs for Groups of settings.

Saves selected curves of

selected plots in an ASCII file.

Read in data from NASTRAN, LS-

Dyna, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS,

ABAQUS and MADYMO time history files,

NASTRAN X-Y PUNCH, PAMVIEW

Pick nodes or elements from the model to show their

results in the 2Dplot window.

Mathematical functions and

filters that could be

applied on selected

curves are located under

this tab.

Selects and identifies

curves, points of curves,

differences between

curves and resets the

identification.

as

DATAheot

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cii and ISO files or from r ASCII files.

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12.2. The use of mouse buttons in 2d plot windows

The left mouse button is mainly used to:

- activate menu buttons or deactivate menu buttons

- select or deselect plots

- select or deselect curves or other items from lists

- select a position on either of the axis of a plot to present a �difference measuring line� for the curves

- edit titles and axes within a plot

The middle mouse button is mainly used to:

- declare the end of a selection process

- select points on curves to show their coordinates (simple selection or box selection)

- in the Curve List, to drag-and-drop curves to another plot or sort in the same plot.

The right mouse button is mainly used to:

- show pop-up menus

- reset all present �difference measuring lines� in a plot

- deselect selected points on curves

- �zoom-all curves� pressing CTRL and right mouse-button anywhere in the plot area

- The mouse buttons are also used in combination with the Control (Ctrl) key for view control.

12.3. Function keys in 2d plot windows

Cancels the currently activated function or closes a card if the mouse cursor is inside the card area.

Zooms in at mouse cursor position.

Zooms out at mouse cursor position.

Zooms all.

Necessary to accept an input in a field or in an input card.

Esc

F7

F8

F9

Enter

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12.4. View control of the plots using the mouse

- The view translates along the mouse track. Axes values are updated accordingly.

Ctrl

ZOOM OUT ZOOM IN

- The view Zooms IN and OUT according to the mouse movemto the left causes the view to Zoom IN. By transposing the mothe view to Zoom OUT. Axes values are updated accordingly

- View an area of the plot Zoomed IN by selecting it with a boxkeeping the Control key pressed. Axes values are updated ac

- To reset to the original view (Zoom all), press Control key andplot (this has the same effect as pressing the F9 key).

- Single left mouse button click on a curve opens a window with

Ctrl

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ent. Shifting the mouse downwards or use upwards or to the right, causes

.

using the left mouse button while cordingly.

the right mouse button inside a

the name of the curve.

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2D-Plot Tool 12.5. Reading curves data in the 2d plot window Data that can be viewed in the 2d plot window are:

- Results from LS-Dyna D3THDT and BINOUT binary files, LS-Dyna ASCII databases (for supported LS-Dyna files refer to the concise Table 12.2. at the end of this Chapter), PAMCRASH THP and gzipped *.THP.gz files, RADIOSS T0x, ABAQUS .odb files, MADYMO Time history files, NASTRAN PUNCH *.pch and xy PUNCH files and PAMVIEW files in ascii format.

- Data included in any ASCII file in the form of columns even curves containing complex results. The user can define the columns that should be used for abscissa and for ordinate values. The curve data from the LS-Dyna input .key file, which are defined under the DEFINE_CURVE keyword, as well as the results from a NASTRAN XY-Punch file, fall in this category.

- Data included in *.ISO or .mme files with their corresponding *.00i files. - Data included in *.unv files of Universal 58 file format. - Results from loaded models regarding either picked nodes or elements (solid or shell).

In all cases, prior to reading in curves data, the user must select the plot(s) where data will be displayed.

Ctrl

- Up to 16 different plots are available within each 2d plot window. These plots can be arranged according to the available layouts in the Plot Options > General options settings tab.

- A plot may be selected and deselected by pressing the left mouse button either on the plot itself or on the plot�s name in the list. Multiple selections are possible by pressing the Control key along with picking the plot with the left mouse button. Selected plots become red highlighted in the list and their borderline becomes thicker.

- When a layout with less than sixteen plots is chosen, the visible plots will be among the selected plots. Remarks - Especially for RADIOSS T0x files, note that they must be of the filenameTxx type, where xx is a

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12.5.1.1. General

Switch to the Read Tab, within the 2d plot window: 1. If required, switch the Solver type toggle button from Auto Detect to the appropriate option. 2. Locate a file consistent with the selected option either by typing in the filepath field, or calling a

previously loaded file from the history drop down menu, or using the file manager. Press the ENTER key after completing the file path to accept the selected file: all results included in the file, are listed in the two lists on the right.

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Ctrl

8

4

1 2 5

4. If a Select type toggle button exists (this depends on the type of file that is read), switch it to

one of the available options and optionally specify a User Defined Abscissa (available for LS-DYNA, PAMCRASH and RADIOSS time histories).

5. Select from the lists on the right the variables and the entities to plot values for. Selection follows the general selection functionality in µETA PostProcessor.

6. For faster selection the all and inv buttons at the bottom of each list can be used. The vis and ide buttons below the list on the right automatically select all currently visible / identified entities of the 3D model. Filtering can also be applied, leaving selected entities that contain in their displayed name a string matching the given one.

7. For PAMCRASH, RADIOSS and ABAQUS time histories, an extra toggle button below the list on the right (the list with the model�s entities), offers various sorting options of selected entities.

8. Press the Plot Selected button. A wizard named Read curve properties pops-up offering, among others, settings for the created curves such as specifying the X and Y axes where the new curves will be assigned to, the Unit system of the created curves, and same color but different line / point � style optionally. Press OK for the creation of the relevant curves in the selected plots.

8

Remarks - It is possible to manually specify the ids of the curves to be plotted if the following command is

applied beforehand: xyplot ids reserved <window name> <curve ids range>

- The curve colors follow the pattern of the Palette chosen in the Plot Options tab.

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2D-Plot Tool - Especially for plotting curves through command from PAMCRASH and RADIOSS time histories it

is possible to use the names of entities � and for RADIOSS, also the time history name � and not only the ids. So, in the example above, the command:

xyplot <Window name> /RADIOSS/ExampleT01 Parts Part ke will plot the Kinetic Energy for all Parts, since the keyword Part was used - Filtering of the curves to be created can be done upon loading from the respective radio buttons.

12.5.1.2. Combining results to define new variables and Template curves

It is possible to define new variables and template curves by combining results (appearing in the left list of the Read Tab menu) from LS-Dyna ASCII or binary D3THDT or BINOUT files, from PAMCRASH THP, RADIOSS T0x and ABAQUS .odb. These new Template curves can then be used to create curves. The following cases for defining new variables exist:

- Using results from the same file and the same type of results. - Using results from different result types within the same file (refer to Table 12.1). - Using results from different LS-Dyna files in the same directory (refer to Table 12.1).

A detailed description of the different cases for the definition of new variables is included in Table 12.1 in the next page. The new Template curves are defined in the Add Variable card. The following example illustrates the definition of a variable: 1. Press the Add button to open the Add variable card.

2. Define the name and the x and y axes for the new variable by editing the relevant fields. For the definition of axes any of the functions listed in this card and in the Appendix B may be used. Moreover, for the definition of x and y axes values, any available results can be used. Note the drop-down menus that can be opened from the buttons on the right of the fields - they include all available results options to be used in the user-defined formulas as well as their abbreviations in brackets ( ).

3. After typing the formulas press the Insert button or the ENTER key. The message �User defined variable ��� inserted successfully� appears in the messages window and the new variable is registered in the list on the left. An asterisk on the left denotes that this formula is user-defined.

4. Select the new variable and press Plot Selected Results. The corresponding curve is plotted. 5. To edit or delete a created variable, press the right mouse button on the variable and select the

relevant option.

Remarks: - Use the Save button to save all variables defined throughout a µETA PostProcessor session in a file. - Use the Load button to load previously saved variables from a file.

Buttons used for User Defined Variables

1

5 4

2

3

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Table 12.1. Different cases when defining new variables (Template curves)

Case 1: Using results from the same file and the same type of results.

Applicability: Applicable for D3THDT or BINOUT files and any supported LS-Dyna ASCII file. Also for PAMCRASH THP, RADIOSS T0x and ABAQUS .odb files.

Syntax: <variable�s identification abbreviation (displayed in brackets in the list) >.x or .y

Example: Definition of curve for magnitude of velocity versus magnitude of displacement in a NODOUT file:

x = mag(xd.y,yd.y,zd.y) y = mag(xv.y,yv.y,zv.y)

where mag is the built-in function for calculating magnitudes (refer also to Appendix B) xd, yd, zd are the displacement components and xv, yv, zv the velocity components.

Case 2: Using results from different types of results within the same file:

Applicability: Applicable for D3THDT, BINOUT, ELOUT, RBDOUT, NCFORC and RCFORC databases and only for compatible types of results. Also, applicable for PAMCRASH THP, RADIOSS T0x and ABAQUS .odb files. Compatibility necessitates that the defined curve concerns only one type of entities. For example a new curve for shell stress as a function of shell strain can be defined but this is not the case for shell stress and solid strain. For D3THDT it is allowed to combine any type of results only with Global type of results. Moreover, the definition of the new variable should not take place inside the list of the Global type of results (the Select type of results toggle button should not be switched to Global).

Syntax: <Type of results (exactly as named in the relevant toggle button)>.<variable�s identification abbreviation (in brackets in the list)>.x or .y

Example: - Definition of curve for shell stress in y axis as a function of shell strain in x axis (abbreviation �xs�) in an

LS-DYNA ELOUT file. The Select type of results toggle button is switched to Shell Strain and the shell element has id = 1:

Select type field Variable Entries of list on right Syntax

Shell 1 aver x = shellstrain.xs.y.1.aver Shell 1 min x = shellstrain.xs.y.1.min Shell 1 max x = shellstrain.xs.y.1.max Shell 1 (lower surf) x = shellstrain.xs.y.1.1

elout Shell Strain X strain (xs)

Shell 1 (upper surf) x = shellstrain.xs.y.1.2 y = xs.y

- Definition of curve for material kinetic energy as a function of the global kinetic energy in a D3THDT file. The Select type of results toggle button is switched to Material:

x = global.ke.y y = ke.y

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Case 3: Using results from different LS-Dyna files lying in the same directory.

Applicability: Applicability should respect the following rules:

a. Combined results must be compatible. Therefore, the combined results should refer either to the same type of entities (e.g. Nodes) or not refer to entities at all (e.g. Kinetic energy from a GLSTAT database). In the case that only one file holds results referring to entities, then this file must be the �host� file (the file where the new variable is defined in).

b. Only one file holding multiple types of results is allowed for the definition of a new variable. (For these files an extra toggle button appears in the Read Curve from File card for switching between the different types of results eg. ELOUT with Shell and Solid element results). Moreover, this file must be the �host� file.

c. All associated files should lie in the same directory. d. D3THDT file cannot be used at all for the definition of a new variable with other files.

Syntax: <Name of database>.<variable�s identification abbreviation (in brackets in the list)>.x or .y

Example: - Definition of curves for magnitude of node forces from a NODFOR file (y values for the new curve) as a function of displacement values in x axis from a NODOUT file (x values for the new curve). Assume that the current file is the NODFOR:

x = nodout.xd.y y = mf.y

Case 4: Using single curve values for further calculation

Applicability: Applicable for D3THDT or BINOUT files and any supported LS-Dyna ASCII file. Also for PAMCRASH THP, RADIOSS T0x and ABAQUS .odb files.

Syntax: <variable�s identification abbreviation (in brackets in the list) >.x[<user input>] or .y[<user input>]

Allowable options for [<user input>]:

<variable>.x[p=55] The x value of the 56th point of the curve (numbering for points of curves starts from 0).

<variable>.y[p=22] The y value of the 23rd point of the curve (numbering for points of curves starts from 0).

<variable>.x[p=0] The x value of the first curve point.

<variable>.y[p=last] The y value of the last curve point.

<variable>.x[y=23.33] The x value where y=23.33 of the curve (if more than one values exist, then the first one is considered).

<variable>.y[x=12.123] The y value where x=12.123 of the curve ((if more than one values exist, then the first one is considered).

<variable>.y[max] The maximum y value of the curve.

<variable>.y[min] The minimum y value of the curve.

<variable>.x[max] The maximum x value of the curve.

<variable>.x[min] The minimum x value of the curve.

<variable>.x[num] The number of points of the curve (same as ) <variable>.y[num].

Example: - Definition of a curve for the x displacement as a percentage of the maximum x displacement in a

NODOUT file: x = xd.x y = (xd.y/xd.y[max])*100, where xd is the x displacement.

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Case 5: Variables for Specified Entities included within the Template Curve Definition

Applicability:

Applicable for for LS-DYNA ASCII Time History files and BINOUT, PAMCRASH THP, ABAQUS odb and RADIOSS T0x files. Syntax: <variable�s identification abbreviation (in brackets in the list) >.x[<user input>] or .y[<user input>] <Entity id>

Allowable options for [<user input>]: Example: xs.y.100 : The .100 denotes the id of the element that is referenced. Apart from this general rule, there are specific cases encountered for each solver. These cases are described in detail below: LS-DYNA:

• ELOUT ASCII file and elout group of BINOUT: Optionally, for the Shell Strain and Shell Stress subgroups, the id of the Integration Point (ip) can be used as well as the strings min, max and aver. The syntax in this case is:

<variable abbreviation>.{x / y}.<id of the element>.{<ip> / min / max / aver} Example: xs.y.1.1: Denotes the X strain or X stress of shell 1 at ip 1 (denoted as lower surface for the Shell Strain subgroup). xs.y.1.aver : Denotes the average of the integration points of X strain or X stress of shell 1.

• NCFORC ASCII file and ncforc group of BINOUT: Optionally, for the Master Contact and Slave Contact subgroups, the node id can be specified. The syntax in this case is:

<variable abbreviation>.{x / y}.<contact id>.<node id> Example:

xf.y.1.8 : Denotes the X force of Master or Contact surface of contact 1 at node 8. PAMCRASH:

• Multi-Plinks Optionally for the Plinks subgroup and in case of multi-plinks, the id of the branch of the multi-plink may be provided. The syntax in this case is:

<variable abbreviation>.{x / y}.<multi-plink id>.<id of the branch of the multi plink> Example:

nf.y.153.1 : Denotes the Normal force of branch 1 of the plink 153. Remarks

- These types of template variables can be defined for LS-DYNA ASCII Databases, for LS-DYNA BINOUT files, for PAMCRASH THP files and for RADIOSS T0x files.

- The LS-DYNA d3thdt file is not supported for the creation of such template curves.

- Using these variables for specified entities it is possible to create a template curve by mixing variables from different groups as far as the definition is meaningful (can be realized).

Example: Definition of a template variable: Node Coordinate vs Section forces for the Section subgroup of a PAMCRASH THP file:

X: node.xc.y.880 Y: fx.y

If this variable is plotted for any available section force, the created curve will have as abscissa values the X coordinate values of node 880 and as ordinate values the X force of the selected section.

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2D-Plot Tool 12.5.1.3. Reading several time history files simultaneously

For ABAQUS, LS-Dyna, NASTRAN pch, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS and ASCII time histories, µETA allows reading different files simultaneously. The functionality is similar to loading multiple models in the 3D windows and is controlled by the Action drop down menu in the Read tab. An example of loading two PAMCRASH THP files follows. Locate a time history file and hit ENTER. The available options appear in the lists on the right.

From the Action field, select Create New - the Multi Files window opens. Locate another file in the Read tab.

The Multi Files window lists the loaded files - select both filenames. The Compressed Filename option forces displaying of the filename only and not the full filepath. If the loaded files lie in different directories, then directory name that differs at the files will be displayed also. The compressed filename will be part of the curves name. The Unload Selected button removes the selected files from the list. Finally, choose the appropriate options to plot and press the Plot Selected button. The curve names, as they appear in the Curve List, include reference to the respective file.

Remarks: - If an *.iso or .mme header file is selected to be read, all the channel files are identified and loaded. If an *.00i file is selected to be read then a window pops-up that allows either to load only the selected file or to load all the iso files that include data of channels. - If an LS-Dyna binary or ascii file is selected to be read and there are more binary or ascii time history files in the same directory, a window pops-up allowing you to load al the files at the same time.

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12.5.1.4. Creating Template curves for several time history files in one step

Combining the functionality described in the last two paragraphs, the user can use variables from different Models (i.e. time history files) to define Template curves, which can be plot in one step. As an example, for 4 different time history files loaded simultaneously, their Kinetic energies expressed in relation to that of Model 2 can be defined as:

x = time y = kine.y – m2.kine.y

Notice that �m2.kine.y� refers to the Kinetic energy of Model 2, while �kine.y� to the Kinetic energy of the selected Model. So, selecting for example the 1st and 4th Model in the Multi Files card and pressing the Plot Selected button will only produce plots for these two Models. The way this works is the following:

> The time variable will be the corresponding one of each Model. > For the expression kine.y used, META will search for this variable

in the folder of each Model file and take its y-values. > For the expression m2.kine.y used, META will search in the

Multi Files list for the Kinetic Energy (kine) variable of the 2nd file.

Remarks - LS-DYNA binout files cannot be used to define variables for Multi Files.

12.5.1.5. Reading RADIOSS T0x Restart Files Especially for RADIOSS, µETA supports reading of restart files in one step, just by locating an initial time history file. Additional T0x files in the same folder are recognized and loaded automatically, so curves are created for the total time-range of the restart files. The guiding parameter for the time-range that will be plotted is the ascending number of the T0x file (T01, T02, T03 etc). For example, assuming that the available restart files within a directory are: T01, T03 and T06, the following cases are distinguished:

1. Select to load the T01 file: Curves will be created for the total time-range T01+T03+T06. 2. Select to load the T03 file: Curves will be created for the time-range T03+T06 3. Select to load the T06 file: Curves will be created only for the time-range of T06 file.

Note that, as depicted in the example above, gaps in numbering of the restart files are allowed.

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12.5.1.6. Reading Results according to Follow Node transformation µETA supports reading node data directly as relative motion to entities (a node � defined by one Follow Node, an axis � defined by 2 Follow Nodes, a plane � defined by 3 Follow Nodes) specified with the Follow Node feature.

The nodes selected for the Follow Node transformation must be defined in the 2D plot window and NOT in the Views window; therefore they must be included in the Time History file. Click with the right mouse button on a node from the list of the nodes with available results in the loaded Time History file and set it as the first, the second or the third point of the Follow Node feature. If only one node is to be set (correspondingly to Follow 1 pt in the Views window for 3D), only Follow Node 1 must be set. If two nodes are to be set (correspondingly to Follow 2 pts in the Views window for 3D), only Follow Node 1 and Follow Node 2 must be set. For LS-DYNA, if there is the file noderel.ref in the same folder, Follow Node is applied automatically relatively to the nodes in this file.

The selected nodes appear red with the corresponding selection next to them. The user can now plot one of the available Follow node variables in the list. The user can deselect one of the set nodes by choosing Remove Follow Nodes, or directly set another node.

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12.5.1.7. Creating curves with a User Defined Abscissa µETA allows the direct creation of curves having as Abscissa values the y values of other curves that exist in the same Time History file - this is supported for LS-Dyna, PAMCRASH and RADIOSS time history results. In the Read tab press the New button next to the Abscissa field

The Set Abscissa Curve window appears. From Select Type pull-down menu the user can select any of the available type of results. From the variables and the entities list select the curve that will be the Abscissa Curve and press the Insert button.

Select from the lists the variables and the entities to plot values for and press the Plot Selected button to create the curve.

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2D-Plot Tool Remarks - By selecting the None option in the entities list of the Set Abscissa Curve window you can create

curves that will have as abscissa values another result of the same entities. For example plot the X velocity of nodes over the X displacement of the same nodes.

- You can create more User Defined Abscissa curves by pressing again the New button. The abscissa curves can be found in Abscissa pull-down menu.

- You can delete selected User Defined Abscissa curves by pressing the Delete button

12.5.2. Loading data from ASCII files

Curves can be created from ASCII files with data listed in columns, from LS-Dyna .key input file which includes curves definition (DEFINE_CURVE keyword), or from NASTRAN X-Y punch file. From the Read Tab, within the 2d plot window switch the Solver toggle button from Auto Detect to ASCII columns format, if required, and navigate to select the ascii file.

Select from the x axis pull-down menu which column�s data to be used as abscissa values From Datablocs list select blocks of data to plot curves from. Select from the Y magn columns list the columns that will be used for ordinate values. Press Plot Selected button and the corresponding curves are plotted in the selected plots.

Remarks

- Blocks of data are identified as different if they are separated with at least one line that contains characters other than numbers and �e� or �E�.

- Multiple curves can be created from an ASCII columns format file, for the same x axis values.

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12.5.3. Viewing results regarding entities picked from a model

Node and element data may be plotted in 2 ways: a. Create a curve for each selected entity (nodes, elements, distances or angles) and for each

selected type of results as a function of either the simulation variable (e.g. time, modes, subcases) or the number of states (option Counter).

b. Create a curve for results along a path line defined by a series of selected entities (nodes or elements).

The user may control the way of plotting curves from the Select X axis type toggle button within the Pick Tab (items (nodes, elements etc) must be present in the list for the Select X axis type toggle button to appear). Available options under this button include:

Both cases are illustrated in the following example: 1. From the Pick from model Tab

select either Nodes or Elements. 2. From the model, pick the entities of

interest. Alternatively, type the respective ids in the input field (all range selection options are available � see Chapter 2, par. 2.12.2). Deselect entities using the right mouse button.

3. If necessary, switch from the Pick menu to another type of entities.

4. Pick current type entities from the model.

5. View the selected entities and the corresponding types of results in the two lists of the Pick Tab by switching the toggle button to the appropriate entity type.

Sorting the items of the left list: Sorting affects the creation of curves particularly in Case b. In Case a, it affects only the order that the new curves appear in the Curves List. In Case b, the points of the created curves correspond to the order that the entities appear in the list. To modify sorting of items, the user may apply one of the options under the Sort Items by toggle button or use the UP and DOWN arrow keys. In both cases sorting takes place on selected items.

Case b: Used for creating a curve for results along a path line.

Case a: Used for creating a curve for each selected entity.

3

5

1

4

2

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2D-Plot Tool Application of the Shortest Path option considers as the start of the chain the first item that appears in the list

For this example, the nodes are sorted according to the Shortest path starting from the Node 2193. The procedure followed is depicted below:

6. Select the node to become first in the list. 7. Move it to the top position using the UP arrow key. 8. Select the nodes to be sorted. 9. Switch the Sort Items by toggle button to one of the sorting options. Listed items are

sorted accordingly. To proceed with Case a:

10.a. Set the Select x axis type toggle button to one of the options suitable for Case a.

11.a. Select the results to display.

12.a. Select from the corresponding toggle button the states (subcases) to participate in the creation of curves. In case a model with design optimization results has been loaded, select also the cycles that curves will be created from.

13.a. When selection is finished, press the Create button. The created curves data are displayed in the selected plots and appear in the CurveList.

Available sorting options

7 6

9

8

11.a

13.a

10.a

12.a

Case a

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To proceed with Case b:

10.b. Set the Select x axis type toggle button to an option suitable for Case 2.

11.b. Select the results to display.

12.b. Select from the corresponding toggle button the subcases (states) that curves will be created for. In case a model carrying design optimization results has been loaded, select also the cycles that curves will be created for.

13.b. When selection is finished, press the Create button. The created curves data are displayed in the selected plots and appear in the list.

Remarks - To clear the picked entities on the model and from the list, either switch to the IReset option

under Identify menu or, while still inside the function, select the entities (box selection or pick) with the right mouse.

- The Pick procedure is Active model dependent. - Providing directly the ids of nodes or element ids, in the respective field, follows the common

rules regarding range selection (see Chaper 2, par. 2.12.2). Since, in this case, the listed entities are not identified on the model, pressing the refresh button results in erasing these entities from the list. Selecting entities by their ids is Active model dependent.

- Additionally, the Advanced Filter card can be used � pressing the adv.filter button - for populating the list with nodes that comply with the specified filter criteria.

- In the case of very small displacements (nodal vector data), to avoid round-off errors when plotting results in 2D, a suitable scale factor must be defined. An appriopriate scale factor can be calculated by activating the Auto calculate option when loading the results (Results>Defomation> Defomation scale factor tab). Alternatively, round-off errors can be completely avoided if the results are loaded as function data and plots are created from these function data.

11.b

13.b

10.b

12.b

Case b

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2D-Plot Tool 12.5.4. Creating Curves by pasting data from clipboard

Curves can be created by pasting data from clipboard directly in a plot.

Data can be copied:

- From ascii files

- From other curves by selecting them with right mouse button and select Copy data to clipboard from the menu that appears.

- From tables inside µETA like Statistics.

By pressing right mouse button inside a plot, a menu appears. Select from this menu the Paste from clipboard option.

The Paste options window appears.

The user hast to select: - The type of the separator. - The type of data. The available options are: X Y, X Y1 Y2 Y3� , Complex (x,real, imaginary), Complex (x, magnitude, phase). - The Number of Curves to be created, if the X Y1 Y2 Y3� data type is selected. And press OK.

The curves are created.

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12.5.5. Viewing Design Variables, Design Responses and Objective Function of an Optimization Solution

In µETA the results regarding the Design Variables, the Design Responses and the Objective Function can be plotted, if the geometry is read from the .op2 file, or from the Bulk file as long as the .op2 file exists in the same directory.

Press the right mouse button on a plot in the Curve List window. Select Design Variables & Responses.

The Design Variables, the Design Responses and the Objective Function are inserted in the selected plot. The Objective function and the Design Responses are assigned to secondary y-axes. Remarks: - Normally, the Design Responses are not output to the .op2 file. However, it is possible to output

them through the use of an MSC �alter� program. Further details can be found in http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb/results_kb.cfm?S_ID=1-80560961

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2D-Plot Tool 12.6. Plot functionality

12.6.1. Curve identification / selection in a plot

- Select ICurve in the Curve List window. The cursor is changed to a cross. When the cross is

over a curve, the curve information is displayed. The user can select / deselect curves with the left / right mouse button respectively. Box selection can also be used.

- The user can also select /deselect a curve from a plot by pressing Shift � left / right mouse button respectively at a point on the curve, or with box selection.

- In normal mode (when the cursor is not a cross), picking a curve from a plot using only the left mouse button results in the automatic switch of the settings panel to the Curve Options tab. (Switching does not occur if the current active tab is the Functions tab).

- The user can rename a curve by selecting the curve with left mouse button. - Curves can also be selected in the curve list with the usual list selection buttons (Ctrl � left,

Shift � left mouse buttons).

12.6.2. Point identification / selection in a plot

- Points on curves can also be identified using the middle mouse button with selection close to

the point or with box selection or cleared directly with the right mouse button. - Select IPoint in the Curve List window. The cursor is changed to a cross. The user can select /

deselect points with the left / right mouse button respectively. Box selection can also be used.

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2D-Plot Tool When the cross is near a point or a point is selected, the point ID, the X and Y values are displayed on the plot.

- To clear all identified points of selected curves in one step select the iReset option in the Curve List window (see paragraph 12.6.5) or select the option Clear Points from the �Curves pop-up menu� (see paragraph 12.7.3).

- The user has also the option to Hide the points id by activating the flag button Hide points id in the Plot Options > General options.

12.6.3. Curve / point identification / selection in plots using Advanced Filter.

- Select the iFilter option in the Curve List window.

- The Advanced Filter window appears - By applying the appropriate filters the user

can select / identify curves or curve points

- Capability to define in which plot the selected filters will be applied. The available options are

Active Plots, All Plots or specific plots

- By activating the Range check box the user has the capability to specify a range were the filtering will be applied

- Capability to define what will be selected / identified, Curves or Points. Having the Auto Detect option selected in the Output menu, the smallest entity that takes part in the filtering will be selected / identified.

- For more information about the Advanced Filter functionality you can refer to Chapter 18

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2D-Plot Tool 12.6.4. Calculation of the Y value difference and the X value difference between successive

curves at any X and Y points respectively.

- Select iDiff in the Curve List window. The cursor is changed to a cross. Now, if the left mouse button is pressed at a point under the X axis, a �measuring difference line� appears at that point. The Y difference of two successive curves at that X value is depicted on the plot, while the X value appears under the X axis. In exactly the same way, this may be applied on Y axis to measure X differences of curves (press the left mouse button at a point on the left of the Y axis). Practically, there is no limit to the number of generated �measuring difference lines�.

- By keeping the left mouse button pressed on a �measuring difference line� outside the plot, the user can move this line along the respective axis. Values change accordingly.

- To clear �measuring difference lines� from a plot, click with the right mouse button outside the plot and close to the respective axis.

- To exit from DIFF mode, press Esc.

12.6.5. Reset identification / selection of curves / points Select iReset in the Curves List window to clear all the selected curves, all the identified points and all the �measuring difference lines�.

12.6.6. Modify the titles of a plot By double clicking a plot title the user have the option to rename it. If the left mouse button is pressed once on the corresponding text (either an axis title, axis labels or the title of the plot), the tabs panel is automatically switched to the relevant option for editing the corresponding text. There is also a flag button Hide for the Axis title and the Axis Values, so that the user can hide the corresponding entity of the axis.

12.6.7. Resize a plot interactively To resize a plot interactively, drag and move one of its edges or corners with the left mouse button.

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12.6.8. Multiple axes in a single plot

Up to four extra axes can be defined for abscissa (X) values for each plot and the same applies for ordinate (Y) values - curves can be assigned to these axes. The functionality is controlled from the Axis Options tab where the user can define the new axes. The procedure in order to assign curves to a secondary axis is the following: First create the secondary axis (secondary axes are the ones that are created by the user) and then, having selected the curves, switch to the Curve Options>Assign Axes tab and assign the selected curves to the defined secondary axis. The following picture shows three different curves each of which is assigned to different axes.

Notice that with left-click on an axis, it becomes highlighted in cyan in the plot window, while the 2d plot buttons switch to the Axis Options tab. This includes a section on the left, for defining new axes, and three tabs on the right (notice that the selected axis is highlighted in the Y axes list): 1. The Title � Settings tab: it controls the axes title, grids and the position of the axes on the plot. 2. The Scale tab: it controls the axes� limits and scaling and the style of the axes titles. Using the lock button the current scaling of an axis can be locked so that Zoom All (pressing F9 or pressing Ctrl + right mouse button) will bring back the locked scaling. From the Lock to axis drop-down field, the selected primary axis can be locked to the primary axis of another plot so that any change in the scaling of the other plot�s axis will be reflected to this axis accordingly (helpful for comparing curves of different plots). Multiplier can be used to display the axis values with respect to the power of 10 - the relevant indication will appear in the Axis title. The Log will apply logarithmic values to the axis, with the option of selecting db, db(A), db(B) or db(C) filters. 3. The Curve Control tab: logical operations can be performed on curves that use one of the selected axes. 4. The Axis Labels tab: The user can set custom labels for each axis step after double-clicking on the list entry and typing a new name.

Remarks - Features and functionality such as DIFF , Lock axis with and the function Area of curves are

valid only for the Primary axes. Information about the Lock axis with appears in the second column of the Axes List, the Lock to Plot column.

- To identify the axes that a curve is using, simply select the curve from the plot. The tab is switched to Curve Options. Select then Assign Axes sub-tab and the axes that the curve currently uses appear on the corresponding fields.

- An Axis can be renamed if it is double-clicked.

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12.7. Curve List functionality

12.7.1. General

- As soon as curves are created, they are listed in the Curve List under the corresponding plots. - Each curve is ascribed a unique id number which appears in the Curve List. If this curve is

copied and pasted in the same or in other plots, the new curve will hold a different id. - Selection among curves in the Curve List follows all general rules for selection in lists in mETA

PostProcessor (refer to Chapter 2, par. 7). - The Filter field is used for selection of curves of selected plots either by name (see Chapter 2,

par. 2.7.4 can be applied here) or by curve ids (see Chapter 2, par. 2.7.5). - Selected curves are highlighted in the Curve List and are presented with a thicker line in the plot

window. - A curve can be renamed if it is selected in the List and the F2 key is pressed. - By pressing the right mouse button on a curve name in the Curve List, a "Curve pop-up menu"

appears. Options from the "Curve pop-up menu" apply on all selected curves under the respective plot. As an example, the process of moving a curve to another plot follows:

- By pressing the right mappears. Options from Paste option, curve #3

Selected Curve

- The same procedure camiddle mouse-button

- Copy, Cut and Paste opshortcuts. Ctrl-C and Cpresses after the plots aplot or in the curve list.

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ouse button on a plot name in the Curve List, a �Plot pop-up menu� the pop-up menu apply only on that particular plot. Here, selecting the is pasted to the selected plot.

n be performed by simple drag-and-drop in the Curve List using the . Curves can thus be easily sorted in the list or moved to another plot.

erations can also be realized using the Ctrl-C, Ctrl-X and Ctrl-V trl-X must be pressed after the curves are selected and Ctrl-V must be re selected. The curves and the plots can be selected either inside the

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Remarks - Pasting curves is also supported between different 2d plot windows. - The Sort by > Model number applies both for curves created by picking entities from different

models and for curves created from different time histories.

12.7.3. Curve pop-up menu

All options of the �Curve pop-up menu� apply on all selected curves of the current plot.

- Copy image of the plot to clipboard

- Copy all curves or selected curves data to clipboard

- Copy all curves or selected curves text (names) to clipboard

- Paste data from clipboard

Remarks - Cut and Copy functions are also supported between different 2d plot windows.

12.7.2. Plot pop-up menu

Copy / Paste plot properties to / from other plots.

Include or Exclude selected curves in Legend

Options for copying data to clipboard

Creates an annotation for each selected curve of the current plot.

Focusing commands for the selected curves in the same plot.

Pastes copied curves to the current plot.

Quick selection / deselection of curves.

Delete all curves in the plot irrespectively of these being selected or not.

Holds the pop-up menu with the available sorting options.

Options for copying / pasting data from clipboard

Copy, delete and cut functions for selected curves of the current plot.

Clears all identified points of the selected curves of the current plot.

Identifies on the model the entities that are related with the selected curves of the current plot.

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2D-Plot Tool 12.7.4. Group of curves

The user has the capability to create groups of curves in the Curve List

From the pop-up menu that appears after selecting a plot with right mouse button there is the option to create groups of curves in the plot. The name of the group must be specified and then curves can be moved into the group. Curves can be moved in a group by drag and drop with middle mouse button or by using Copy/Cut and Paste functionality.

By selecting a group with right mouse button: -Focus commands can be applied on the group. -The groups can be copied in the same or to other plots. - Can be excluded/included in Legend - Annotations for every curve of the group can be created Groups can be also created inside other groups.

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12.7.5. Synchronized visualization of curves among plots

The user has the capability to navigate through curves in the Curve List, leaving visible only the selected curves in every plot.

- In order to select curves from the same entities, from the same sections in this example, the Filter in the Curves List can be used. - Type the name of the section in the Filter field and press Enter. - The respective curves will be selected in the Curves List. - Taking the focus out of the Filter field and pressing Ctrl+arrow keys the selection in Curve List will change and only the selected curves will be visible in plots.

1 Enter

2 Ctrl

1

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12.8. 2D and 3D Association

12.8.1. Show on model option

This feature identifies on the model the entities that are connected with selected curves. It can be applied either on a curve created by picking entities from a model or on a curve created from LS-Dyna time history databases, PAMCRASH THP, RADIOSS T0x and ABAQUS .odb files. Refer to Table 12.2 at the end of this chapter to check the availability of this feature with respect to LS-Dyna entities and databases. For PAMCRASH this feature is available for NODES, PARTS, SHELLS, SOLIDS, BEAM, BEAM_200, JOINT_FT, JOINT_S, JOINT_K, SPRING,BAR, PLINKS. For RADIOSS this feature is available for NODES, PARTS, SHELLS, SOLIDS, BEAMS, SPRINGS, RBODYS, CJOINTS, TRUSS.

a. Select a curve from the list, for which this feature can be applied. On top of this curve, press the right mouse button and the menu appears.

b. Select the Show on model option. The relevant entities are identified on the model (obviously curve data and the loaded model must be relevant).

For the example depicted below, the selected curve refers to a joint revolute which is identified on the model (shown as a green line connecting two nodes).

Remarks

- Particularly for the DEFORC, JNTFORC, RBDOUT, SBTOUT, SECFORC and SWFORC LS-Dyna ASCII databases it is necessary to have loaded the geometry of the model from the relevant .key file first (see to Table 12.2, at the end of this Chapter).

- The Show on model function for SECFORC curves applies the OR function among cut planes.

- The default names assigned on curves during reading are important for the Show on model function. Therefore, the user should not modify these names unless Show on model feature is not an issue.

- It is not necessary to select the plot that hosts the relevant curve. - Show on model is also available from the Curve Options > Name-Command tab.

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12.8.2. Controlling the connection between 3D model entities and curves

The connection between 3D model entities and curves can be controlled in the Curve Options menu, from the Entity connection tab. This can be done on a Primary and on a Secondary Entity Type level and is applied for the curves selected.

A Primary curve connection between a curve and an entity in the 3D window may exist, by default, if the curve is created: - from a time history file. - through the Pick from Model functionality. - through the Identify History (IHistory) functionality. - from the Multi Model State Statistics tool through the Plot Entity functionality. To manually apply or edit an existing connection, after selecting one or more curves from the Curves List, select the Primary or, if required, the Secondary Entity Type. The Type can be one of the following:

- node - joint - sph/mass - part - beam - plink - element - bar - jstiff - shell - elas - seatbelt - solid - gap - cweld - section - rbe - global

Note that the option element is a generalised option, which will create a connection between the selected curve and any element (shell, solid, bar, seatbelt, etc) of the specified Id. After having selected the Entity Type specify its Id and the Ip (Integration Point) id, where applicable.

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12.8.3. Displaying LS-Dyna SECFORC and PAM-CRASH SECFO results on corresponding cross sections

It is possible to ascribe coordinates, force and moment results from a SECFORC / SECFO database to a cross section.

- Coordinate results (only from LS-Dyna SECFORC) are materialized as a movement of the relevant cut plane following the deformation.

- Forces and moments appear as vectors having their starting point on the cut plane. The following example illustrates the procedure for assigning results on a cut plane.

Step 1

a. Read model�s geometry from an LS-Dyna or PAM-CRASH keyword input file in order to identify the defined cross sections. Proceed with reading in Displacements results from the relevant d3plot file and, if necessary, with Scalar or Vector Functions results.

b. All defined cross sections are listed in the Cut Planes card list. In this example, one cut plane is isolated and remains visible.

c. Create a 2d plot window and read in the relevant SECFORC or PAM-CRASH time history (.THP) database. All defined cross sections along with the available types of results are listed in the lists of the Read tab.

d. Select the types of results and the cross sections to plot curves for. For this example, curves for the three components of force and the three coordinates for the visible cross section (cross section id 20) are plotted in separate plots.

Step 2

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e. Select curves that correspond to the coordinates values of the cross section. Press the right mouse button on top of the selected curves. From the menu that appears, select the option Add Coordinates to Plane (for LS-Dyna SECFORC only). Now the cut plane can follow the corresponding cross section during states deformation.

f. Similarly, select curves that correspond to force/moment components of the cross section, press the right mouse button on top of them and choose Add Forces to Plane or Add Moments to Plane. The components of force/moment values are assigned to the cut plane.

g. Select a state other than the

Original. The cut plane follows the cut section throughout the deformation and an arrow corresponding to the resultant force appears, having its starting point on the cut plane.

h. In order to acquire information regarding the data that have been assigned on existing cut planes,

e-f

e-f

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

apply the command:

plane data list <act/all/pick/{Cut plane selection}>

Data names

Cut planes and the data assigned to them are listed in META-Post Messages window. For each set of data, there is the name, the Scale factor and the Offset value. The Scale factor is multiplied with the real value while the Offset is added to the real value. Therefore, for vector components the Scale factor and the Offset affect the size of the displayed arrow while for coordinates data these affect the position of the corresponding cut plane. The default value for the Scale factor and the Offset is 1 and 0 respectively. The user may define a Scale factor and an Offset value for each set of data by applying the commands: plane data options scale <Enter value for Scale> <Enter data name> {Cut plane selection} plane data options offset <Enter value for Offset> <Enter data name> {Cut plane selection}

By applying the command: plane data fringe plane/section/vector disable/enable

fringe color, according to the current section force/moment value, can be assigned to the plane, to the section or to the vector.

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i. The user may switch off the origin data (coordinates) and/or the vector data that have been assigned on a cut plane by applying the commands:

plane data origin disable <act/all/pick/{Cut plane selection}>

plane data vector disable <act/all/pick/{Cut plane selection}>

For this example, the vector data are disabled. Therefore, the arrow disappears from the screen.

Note: Keep in mind that applying the command data are just disabled and not deleted. j. In continuation to the disable option of Step 6, the user

may also control which origin and/or vector data to ascribe on a cut plane by applying the commands:

plane data origin <Enter data name for X> <Enter data name for Y> <Enter data name for Z> <act/all/pick/ {Cut plane selection}> plane data vector <Enter data name for X> <Enter data name for Y> <Enter data name for Z> <act/all/pick/ {Cut plane selection}>

For this example, only X component of force (data name is fx) is re-assigned on the visible cut plane

Note: There is the capability to reassign only one component. In this case, it is necessary to type a dash (-) for the other components, to denote that these are not assigned.

Step 7

Step 6

Tab

Remarks - Moment results may be applied in exactly the same way as force results. - The Add <results> to Plane function from the curves list operates only for selected curves. - As soon as results have been ascribed on a cut plane, these are attached to the plane even if

the relevant curves are deleted. - The weight of the drawn arrow is controlled through the Line Width field in the Settings tab of the

Cut Planes card. - The default names assigned on curves during reading are important for assigning data on a cut

plane. Therefore, the user should not modify these names unless assigning data on a cut plane is not considered.

- To delete a data set, apply the command: plane data delete <Enter data name> {Cut plane selection}

- The display of the magnitude and the force components is controlled from the Settings > Identify menu, from the Displacements options and from the command line, from the command:

planes data identify enable/disable

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12.8.4. Synchronize Curve with 3D Model

A curve can be synchronized with a 3D model. This can be set from the Curve Options > Synchronise tab where the user defines the model and the parameter (e.g. Time, Subcase, Subcase-Range, Time-Range) for the synchronization of the curve.

The �Range� options (i.e. Subcase-Range) can be used for User Defined curves with X axis values (abscissa) other than the available parameters for synchronization (e.g. a curve where X-axis is the displacement and Y-axis is the force). For the �Range� options two fields appear for the definition of start and end values of the range. By default these fields are filled with the starting and ending values of the selected model. Optionally, new values may be typed to define another range. At the end, it is necessary to press the Apply Range button to apply synchronization for the range (even if the default start and end values were not changed).

12.8.5. Identification of current state of a model on a curve

To identify the curve point that corresponds to the current state of a model two conditions should be met: > The curve must be synchronized with the 3D

model > In the 3D sync pull-down menu under the Plot

Options > General Options settings tab, an option other than nothing must be selected.

point & value , point & value

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Remarks - For curves created with Pick mode from a model, synchronization is automatic. - Specifically for PAMCRASH and RADIOSS if the base name of the Time History is the same as

the loaded geometry or results file and for LS-DYNA if the Time History file is in the same folder with the loaded geometry or results file, then synchronization is performed automatically (e.g. Test_Mod.DSY or Test_Mod.pc will be automatically synchronized with the Test_Mod.THP).

- Exclusively for curves created from results along a path line, if the current only option in the 3d sync pull-down menu under the Plot Options > General Options settings tab is selected, then only the curve that corresponds to the current state remains visible.

12.9. The Focusing functions

12.9.1. General

Regarding the way of application of focusing commands, these may be classified in two groups:

a. The first group consists of the function buttons Or and Not. These two functions necessitate selection and confirmation during their application. First press the respective function button and then proceed with selection of curves (either pick selection or box selection). To apply the function, press the middle mouse button in the plot area. The function button remains pressed (therefore the function is active) until another function of this group is selected or the Esc key is pressed.

Logical operation for the selection of curves to remain visible. This operation can be applied either on the Curve List or directly on all visible plots. In the latter case, use the left mouse button for selection and the right mouse button for deselection. After selection is finished, press the middle mouse button to confirm. Selection is applied in all visible plots irrespectively of these being selected or not. However, the confirmation of the selections necessitates that the middle mouse button is pressed in each plot (or inside the �plot area� in the curve list).

Logical operation for the selection of curves to be excluded from the view. This operation can be applied either from the Curve List or directly on all visible plots. In the latter case, use the left mouse button for selection and the right mouse button for deselection. After selection is finished, press the middle mouse button to confirm. Selection is applied in all visible plots irrespectively of these being selected or not. However, the confirmation of the selections necessitates that the middle mouse button is pressed in each plot (or inside the �plot area� in the curve list).

b. The second group consists of the function buttons And, Inv and All. These functions apply on selected plots.

Logical operation for selected curves of selected plots to become visible. First select the curves and the plots and then press the function button.

Logical operation to invert the visibility of curves of selected plots. This means that visible curves become not visible and vice versa.

Logical operation to make all curves, that belong to the selected plots, visible.

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12.9.2. Example on application of focusing commands

1 Press the Not button. 2 Select one or more curves

either from the list or directly from the plot using the left mouse button. Deselect if necessary with the right mouse button. Note that if one of the Or and Not functions are active, selection/deselection from the plot is performed without the pressing the Shift key.

3 In the same way select one or more curves from other plots.

4 Press the middle mouse button inside each plot that

5 curves were picked from.

The selected curves are excluded from the view, but they do remain selected in the list. 6 Select the plots that hold the

curves that were excluded from the view.

7 Press the And button.

The previously excluded curves now become visible. Note that the Not focus command is still active. This can be deactivated either by activating another focus command that includes curves selection (e.g. the Or button), or by pressing the Esc key.

Remarks - Application of the Or and Not commands does not necessitate the selection of the plots holding the selected curves.

- For application of the Inv, All and And commands, it is necessary to select the relevant plots.

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12.10. Functions The user can apply mathematical functions on existing curves and create new ones as a result. All available functions are held under the Functions tab.

FUNCTIONS Notes

Differentiate Applicable also for a user defined range. Backward, Centered, Forward and ECE R94 methods can be used. ECE R94 differentiation method is according to:

8*(Y[t+∆t]-Y[t-∆t])-(Y[t+2∆t]-Y[t-∆t]) / 12∆t

Integrate Applicable also for a user defined range. The resulting curve can be saved or appended in an ASCII file. Also the integral (area of the curve/s with respect to the X-axis) is calculated and listed in the list.

Basic Calculations

Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division Maximum and Average of curves. Addition: Sum of selected curves. Subtraction: Creation of curves corresponding to the difference of selected curves. If

more than two curves are selected, the program creates a curve for every pair of selected curves taken from the list successively. One curve can participate in only one created Difference curve.

Multiplication: Product of curves. Division: Quotient between curves. Maximum: The new curve includes the points of the selected curves with the

Maximum ordinate for the same abscissa. Minimum: The new curve includes the points of the selected curves with the

Minimum ordinate for the same abscissa. Average: Average of all the curves used.

All the above options are applicable also for a user defined range.

Resampling The selected curves can be resampled with respect to a specified timestep or number of points with the option to replace the selected curves.

Area of curves Shades & calculates the area between two curves in the same plot. Applicable also for a user defined range. The resulting area can be saved or appended in an ASCII file.

Report of curves

Picking near to one of the two axes (similarly to the creation of DIFF lines) a line is created and the value at the intersection point of the line and the axis fills the Value text field (alternatively, it can be typed directly in the field) and all the other axis values of the points of intersection of the line with the curves are identified and listed. The listed points can be saved or appended in an ASCII file.

Exhibit curves

Identifies the curves that exhibit a max ordinate value over a specified limit or a min ordinate value below specified limit. The operations OR, NOT, AND, SELECT, KEEP, DELETE can be applied on curves that meet the condition set. The ordinate limit can be set either interactively in the same way as in the Report values of curve function or directly by typing the value in the field. Applicable also for a specific user defined range. Also a curve equation can be used as an exhibit limit (e.g. Select all the curves that lie above the curve �(c1.x+c2.y)/2�. The number of curves that satisfy the given criterion is printed in the META-Post Messages window.

Curves Intersection Function that identifies the intersection points of selected curves and lists them. The listed points can be saved or appended in an ASCII file.

Moving Average Function for smoothing curves according to the calculation of moving average : Fi=(f(i-1)+fi+f(i+1))/3

Maximum (Curve statistics) Identifies the point of a curve that exhibits the maximum ordinate value. The values can be saved or appended in an ASCII file. Applicable also for a user defined range.

Minimum (Curve statistics) Identifies the point of a curve that exhibits the minimum ordinate value. The values can be saved or appended in an ASCII file. Applicable also for a user defined range.

Average (Curve statistics) Identifies a point of selected curve/s that exhibit the average ordinate value. The values can be saved or appended in an ASCII file. Applicable also for a user defined range.

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Local Extremes - Envelope Function that identifies the local extremes on a given X-range, lists these points and provides the option to be saved or appended in an ASCII file. Also based on the local extremes the curve envelope can be optionaly created.

FIX (Fix x axis discontinuity)

Reforms the curve by sorting X values in an ascending order. This is applied on curves were the X values do not ascend constantly as moving from point to point on the curve. Applicable also for a specific user defined range

HIC (head injury criterion)

Capability to define Unit Sets for the calculation. The curves can be saved or appended in an ASCII file and HIC values can be passed to an annotation with right mouse button click. One-step curve creation for PAMCRASH, RADIOSS and LS-DYNA ASCII time histories just by selecting the corresponding entity from within the function tab and setting the relevant parameters.

Nij (Normalised NIC) Capability to define Unit Sets for the calculation and option to save results to a file. One-step curve creation for PAMCRASH, RADIOSS and LS-DYNA ASCII time histories format just by selecting the corresponding entity from within the function tab and setting the relevant parameters.

VC (Viscous Criterion or Soft Tissue Criterion)

Capability to define curves, node->node, bars, joints or springs for the calculation. Also the curves can be filtered directly from the VC menu and the results can be saved to a file. One-step curve creation for PAMCRASH, RADIOSS and LS-DYNA ASCII time histories just by selecting the corresponding entity from within the function tab and setting the relevant parameters.

Clip 3ms Criterion Calculation of the Clip3ms criterion (Sustained, Cumulative and Average) on selected acceleration curves and option to save to a file.

CFC filters (SAE J211) Applicable also for a specific user defined range. Capability to define Unit Sets for the calculation

Normalized Butterworth Filters

Applicable also for a specific user defined range. Capability to define Unit Sets for the calculation

FIR100 Filter Applicable also for a specific user defined range. Capability to define Unit Sets for the calculation

IIR Filter Applicable also for a specific user defined range. Capability to define Unit Sets for the calculation

Fourier Transformations Application of FFT and DFT transformations.

User Defined The user may create curves through this function even in large scale using variables and a loop procedure. Applicable also for a specific user defined range.

Modify curve points Points of a curve are displayed in a list and the user may edit, delete, insert new points and create new curves from these.

Modify curves Creation of curves through trimming, breaking, joining or deleting parts of existing curves via using �difference lines�.

Shift-scale curves Creation of curves by shifting or scaling existing curves along X or Y axis according to a specified value.

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2D-Plot Tool 12.10.1. Example on the use of Functions

1 Select the curves either from the list or directly from the plot.

2 Select the plot where the new curves will appear.

3 Press the Functions tab. 4 Select a function (in this example,

Differentiate). 5 Adjust options and parameters of

the function (in this example Select the Diff Method).

6 Optionally, activate the Apply on Range flag button to specify a range where the function will be applied.

7 Specify the range either interactively on the plot or directly input the values in the respective fields.

8 Press the APPLY button. The new curves appear in the selected plot.

9 Press REPLACE button. Now the

selected curves are replaced by the new curves, which appear in the same plot irrespectively of the fact that this was not selected.

Remarks

- It is necessary to have at least one plot selected, if the APPLY button is used. New curves will be placed in each selected plot. If no plots are selected then the function cannot be applied.

- If the REPLACE button is used instead of the APPLY button, then the selected curves are replaced by the new ones inside the same plot. The plot does not have to be selected and no other curves will be created in other selected plots. The REPLACE button does not appear in all functions.

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12.10.2. User Defined functions

12.10.2.1. General

The definition of X and Y axes for the User Defined curve follows the syntax described in Appendix B and uses the same mathematical functions, constants and expressions. The mathematical expressions can hold either numbers or axis values of any existing curve or a combination of both.

Axis values of an existing curve must be denoted according to one of the following syntax forms:

Syntax form options for axis values of an existing curve Example

1 p<plot id>w[2Dplot Window name]>c<curve id>.<axis (x or y)> p1w[Window1]c2.x

2 w[2Dplot Window name]>c<curve id>.<axis (x or y)> w[Window1]c2.x

3 c<curve id>.<axis (x or y)> c2.x

Note that the window name should be included in the expressions if more than one 2D plot windows exist, to avoid confusion. If it is not included then the active plot is used. On the other hand, the plot id is not necessary, since the numbering of the curves within a 2Dplot window is unique.

12.10.2.2. Syntax methods for retrieving a selected curve value

There is also the option to include single values of curves for the definition of the new User Defined curve. Examples of the available options follow:

c2.x[p=55] The x-value of the 56th point of curve 2 of the active window. (Numbering for points of curves starts from 0).

w[Window1]c2.y[p=22] The y value of the 23rd point of curve 2 of the 2Dplot Window with name Window1. Numbering for points of curves starts from 0.

c3.x[p=0] The x value of the first point of curve 3.

c6.y[p=last] The y value of the last point of curve 6.

c2.x[y=23.33] The x value where y=23.33 of curve 2 (if more than one values exist, then only the first one is considered).

c2.y[x=12.123] The y value where x=12.123 of curve 2. (if more than one values exist, then only the first one is considered).

c2.p[x=0.5] Returns the point id for x=0.5 and if a point does not exist, then returns the id of the closest point.

c2.p[y=0.5] Returns the point id for y=0.5 and if a point does not exist, then returns the id of the closest point.

c1.p[min] c1.p[max] c1.p[num]

[min] returns the lowest point id. [max] returns the highest point id. [num] returns the total number of points.

c1.x[x=max or x=min or y=min or y=max]

x=max returns the maximum x-coordinate. x=min returns the minimum x-coordinate. y=min returns the x-coordinate where the y-coordinate has its minimum value. y=max returns the x-coordinate where the y-coordinate has its maximum value.

c1.y[x=max or x=min or y=min or y=max]

x=max returns the y-coordinate where the x-coordinate has its maximum value. x=min returns the y-coordinate where the x-coordinate has its minimum value. y=min returns the minimum y-coordinate.

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y=max returns the maximum y-coordinate.

c1.p[x=max or x=min or y=min or y=max]

x=max returns the point id that has the maximum x-coordinate. x=min returns the point id that has the minimum x-coordinate. y=min returns the point id that has the minimum y-coordinate. y=max returns the point id that has the maximum y-coordinate.

c3.y[max] The maximum y value of curve 3.

c4.y[min] The minimum y value of curve 4.

c3.x[max] The maximum x value of curve 3.

c4.x[min] The minimum x value of curve 4.

c5.x[num] The number of points of curve 5 (same for c5.y[num]).

Complex curves can also be defined by enabling the Complex flag button. In this case the x value, the magnitude and the phase have to be defined.The syntax for the component values of complex curves is depicted bellow:

c5.y This expression corresponds to the magnitude of the complex curve. c5.yp This expression corresponds to the phase of the complex curve. c5.yr This expression corresponds to the real part of the complex curve. c5.yi This expression corresponds to the imaginary part of the complex curve.

Remarks

- Note the difference between the definitions: x=c1.x[max] and y=c2.y[max]+c3.y[max] This is actually just a single point. x=c1.x[max] and y=c2.y[max]+c3.y This is a curve.

- If a curve is defined by applying mathematical combinations on the values of existing curves like in the following example

x=c1.x and y=c2.y+c3.y

then there are two possibilities

a) if all the curves have the same number of points, µETA will combine the curve values taking into consideration only the point numbering. So, in the above example, the new curve will have the same number of points as all the curves and its point 10 will have the beneath values

x value = x value of point 10 of curve 1

y value = y value of point 10 of curve 2 + y value of point 10 of curve 3

b) if even one curve has different number of points, µETA will create a curve containing points for the x values of all the curves participating in the definition of x or y value in the common range of the above curves. For the definition of the y values the values of each curve will be interpolated (if needed) at each x value and then combined. In the above example the new curve will have the beneath values

x value: all the x values of curves 1,2 and 3 in their common range

y value: (interpolated if needed) y value of curve 2 for the specific x value + (interpolated if needed) y value of curve 3 for the specific x value

- Plot identification is optional since curve id numbers are unique in each 2d plot window.

- If more than one 2d plot windows are open and the definition of a new curve uses data from different windows then 2d plot window id number is necessary. If window id number is omitted, the program will search for the provided curve id number inside the 2d plot window where the Functions tab was opened.

- The curves that are used for the definition of the axes values of the new curve must reside in currently visible plots.

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2D-Plot Tool - It is possible to create curves in large scale using a loop-based definition of curves along with the µETA

PostProcessor inherent variable i.

- The user can select curves directly from any 2D-plot window to fill User defined fields: left mouse click on a curve opens a window allowing selection of the curve�s X or Y values.

12.10.2.3. Example on User Defined functions

1. Select the plot where the new curve will appear.

2. From the FUNCTIONS LIST select User Defined.

3. Enter a name for the new curve in the relevant field.

4. Define the X axis for the new curve. 5. Define the Y axis for the new curve (in

this example the if function is used. If the expression is true, the Y value of the new curve equals to 2*c3.y. If it is false, the Y value equals to 3*c2.y.

6. Press the APPLY button or the ENTER key.

The new curve appears in the selected plot.

Remarks

- Note the history feature on the right of the x, y formula input fields - previously created formulas can be recalled.

Curve 3

Curve 1

Curve 2

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12.10.2.4. Example on the use of a loop for large-scale creation of curves

It is possible to create numerous curves, based on the same formula while using different existing curves data successively. This is achieved through a loop procedure involving the inherent variable i to denote curve ids. For the following example, the starting point is the same as in the previous example. 1. Select the plot where the new curve will

appear. 2. From the FUNCTIONS LIST select

User Defined. 3. Enter a name for the new curve in the

relevant field. In this example the variable i is also used.

4. Define the X axis for the new curves. 5. Define the Y axis for the new curves. In

this example, the definition of the Y axis involves expressions of the variable i to denote curves ids.

c$i.y : denotes the curve which id is equal to the current value of i variable. c`$i+1`: denotes the curve which id is equal to the current value of i plus 1.

6. Define the starting value, the ending

value and the step for the variable i. 7. Press APPLY button or the ENTER

key. The new curves (5 new curves in this example) appear in the selected plots. Remarks

- The dollar sign $ must always precede the position of the i variable.

- To perform arithmetic functions with the variable i, the relevant expression must always be enclosed between ` `.

- Curves created within the loop can be used subsequently for the creation of curves in the same loop.

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Curve 2

Curve 3

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12.10.3. Modify Curve points function

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Curve 1

1. From the Functions tab select Modify curve points. 2. Either select a curve directly from the plot or type its id in the Curve id field and press ENTER. 3. The curve points are listed. Select points in the list applying the general rules for selection in

lists in µETA PostProcessor (refer to Chapter 2, par. 7). 4. On top of selected points, press the right mouse button and a menu with all available options

appears. (Selection of points is also available with the right mouse button directly.) Select an option to apply. In this example the Break option is selected and the original curve is split into three curves since the two selected points divide the original curve into three parts. Curve 2 remains in the list but is now limited only to the first part of the original curve.

Remarks - The available options with Modify curve points function can lead either to creation of new curves

(options Break and Create curve) or to modification of the selected curve without creating any new one (options Insert and Delete points).

t. The original s of the original

e followed by

-

--

B

Breaks the curve at the selected points and creates new curves for each parcurve is limited to the first part and new curves are created for the other partcurve successively. The new curves are named after the original curve�s nam#<Ascending order number of part (1, 2, 3, etc)>.

Inserts a point before or after the point where the pop-up menu was opened using the right mouse button. The user specifies the X and Y values of the new point in the field that pops. Deletes selected points.

fter the original t.

Creates a new curve from the selected points. The new curve is named acurve�s name followed by the word new. The original curve remains intac

The selected points in the list are depicted as selected points on the curve. The settings for the points on a curve are defined from the Curve Options > Point properties settings tab.

While in Pick mode, each time a curve is selected from the plot, its points are listed. The curve that is listed remains always highlighted in the plot.

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- The user can insert points on a curve using the command: xyplot curve pointmodify preinsert <2Dplot Window name> <Curve id> <Point id>

<Enter X coordinate> <Enter Y coordinate> - Regarding the commands that insert points to a curve, the following cases should be considered: Add one point relatively to one existing point: The specified coordinate values are taken into account therefore the insertion of a point takes place in an exactly defined position. Examples: xyplot curve pointmodify preinsert Window1 1 10 100 100 Adds one point with coordinates X=100, Y=100 in curve 1 before the point with id 10 (this is the 11th point of the curve since numbering starts at 0). xyplot curve pointmodify insert Window1 1 10 100 100 Adds one point with coordinates X=100, Y=100 in curve 1 after the point with id 10 (this is the 11th point of the curve since numbering starts at 0). Add one point for each specified point of a range: The coordinate values are not considered when a range of points is provided. One point is inserted, for each point in the range, in the middle of the X and Y increment of successive points (linear interpolation). Examples: xyplot curve pointmodify preinsert Window1 1 10-20-2 100 100 Adds one point before each member of the range of points 10-20-2 (point ids 10 to 20 by a step of 2). The coordinates of the new points are calculated through a linear interpolation. As an example the coordinates of the point that is created for point 10 will be: Xnew=X10-[(X10-X9)/2] Ynew=Y10-[(Y10-Y9)/2] xyplot curve pointmodify insert Window1 1 10-20-2 100 100 Adds one point after each member of the range of points 10-20-2 (point ids 10 to 20 by a step of 2). The coordinates of the new points are calculated through a linear interpolation. As an example the coordinates of the point that is created for point 10 will be: Xnew=X10+[(X11-X10)/2] Ynew=Y10+[(Y11-Y10)/2] Add one point not with respect to an existing point of a curve but according to the X value of the new curve point. That means that the new curve point is sorted automatically according to its X value. Example: xyplot curve pointmodify preinsert Window1 1 ñ1 10.5 2 xyplot curve pointmodify insert Window1 1 ñ1 10.5 2 Both of the above commands will have exactly the same result. If �-1� is input as a Point id, then the X value of the point will be considered for the positioning the point. The Insert option of the pop-up menu within the Modify curve points function is enhanced. Now there are 2 options: Insert before and Insert after the selected point(s). - The following command can be used to delete the last point of a curve: xyplot curve pointmodify delete Window1 1 last

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12.10.4. Modify Curves function

The Modify Curves function can be used for interactive modification of existing curves and creation of new ones.

1. From the FUNCTIONS LIST, select the Modify Curves function.

2. Select the curves where modification will take place.

3. Select the iDiff option. 4. Create the measuring difference lines that

will be used as the guiding boundaries for curves modification.

5. Apply a modification function. In this example, the function Trim has been applied and the part of the selected curve, which lay between the extreme �measuring difference lines�, is preserved. Therefore, in this case only the two Y �measuring difference lines� were taken into account. The X line was ignored since it is necessary to have at least two lines for Trim function.

3

2

4

1

5

Remarks - The available options within Modify Curves function can lead either to creation of new curves

(Break curves and Join curves) or to modification of the selected curves without creating any new one (Delete down, Delete up and Trim).

Modifies selected curves by deleting the part that lies above the �measuring difference line� of the highest value.

Modifies selected curves by keeping the part that lies between the two extreme �measuring difference lines�. For that function, it is necessary to have at least two �measuring difference lines� of the same type (X or Y) defined.

Creates new curves by breaking the selected curves at the cross points defined between the currently existing �measuring difference lines� and the selected curves.

Modifies selected curves by deleting the part that lies below the �measuring difference line� of the lowest value.

Creates a curve by joining the selected curves into a new one. This is the only function that operates without �measuring difference lines�.

- Application of Break Curves, Delete down, Delete up and Trim functions necessitates the existence of �measuring difference lines�.

- The application of Modify Curves function is controlled from the All Plots and All Curves flag buttons. If All Plots is active, then all currently visible plots are taken into account, Otherwise, only the selected plots are considered. The same applies for All Curves button.

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12.11. Settings for curves and plots 12.11.1. General

Setting options for plots and curves are available through the appropriate tab settings panel at the bottom of the 2d plot window.

The following general matters must be considered regarding settings:

- The curves and plots that will accept the new settings are defined from the two toggle buttons at the bottom of the curves list window. Switch these to the desired options.

- The new settings will affect only the currently visible plots and their curves. - If no curve is selected, then the Curve Options tabs are inactive. - The expression c<curve id>.name can be used to address the name of the curves when setting

the axis titles, the header, the footer, etc. For example, c2.name will correspond to the name of the curve with id 2.

- Plot properties can be copied from one plot to another through the menu that appears with right click on a plot�s name, in the CurveList. Additionally, when a curve is copied and then pasted to a blank plot then the plot settings are copied as well.

12.11.2. Hints regarding settings for plots and curves

12.11.2.1. Legends

The legend displays reference of the curves as they appear in the curve list of the plot � curve color, id, name, entity id, variable abbreviation, etc.

- To place a legend in a plot, activate the Show Legend flag button from the Plot Options > General Options settings tab.

- This legend can be moved anywhere inside the plots area and resized by dragging its right bottom corner using the left mouse button.

- Legend settings can be modified from the Plot Options > Legends settings tab.

12.11.2.2. Show the X and Y axis that pass from the 0, 0 point in a plot

This is achieved by activating the Show zero Axis flag button under the Axis Options settings tab and from the axis list select the axis that X or Y that the Zero Axis will be assigned.

12.11.2.3. Lock the titles of a plot

This is to prevent overwriting a plot�s title in case curves from a different file are created in the same plot. To achieve this, activate the Lock Titles flag button under the Axis Options > Title -Settings tab.

12.11.2.4. Lock axes values

If axes values are locked, then any time the axes reset (by pressing F9 key or the right mouse button with the Control key), they return to the locked limits and not to the original limits which, in other case apply. To lock the axes values, activate the Lock to Values flag button under the Axis Options settings tab.

12.11.2.5. Lock axes of one plot with axes from another plot to assist comparison

The X and Y axes of a plot may be locked with the axes of other plots from the Axis Options >Scale> Lock Axis drop down menu.

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2D-Plot Tool Suppose that X axis of Plot 1 is locked with the X axis of Plot 3. Any rescaling of the X axis of Plot 3 due to zoom in or moving of the curve, will be reflected in Plot 1, in order for the latter to follow the same scaling as Plot 3. For the locking feature to work also in the opposite way, it is necessary to lock X axis of Plot 3 with the X axis of Plot 1.

12.11.2.6. 2D-Bar graphs

In order to display a curve as a 2D-Bar graph, activate the Bar flag button under the Curve Options > Bar properties settings tab. All relevant settings for the Bar graphs lie also under this tab.

12.11.2.7. Editing the curves command line and axes formulas of user defined curves

From the Curve Options > Name � Command settings tab the user may:

- Modify the name of a curve. Edit the new name in the relevant field and press ENTER. - View the command used for the creation of that curve. Moreover, similar curves can be created

fast in the following way: Edit the command, define another similar curve and press ENTER. A new curve is created.

- Modify a User Defined curve. Edit the formulas defining the axes of the User Defined and press ENTER to apply. The curve changes accordingly.

- Apply Show on Model function in the same way as from the Curves pop-up menu.

Remarks

- Use the Left and Right arrow keys to move inside the text field.

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12.12. Complex Results Plots

12.12.1. Creating Complex Results

Complex results can be created by reading NASTRAN .pch, ASCII format files or by calculating Modal Frequency Response. Modal and panel participation factors are also supported and can be read from a NASTRAN .pch file. Remarks on Supporting Panel participations and Modal participations results from a Nastran punch file - Only the $ITEM = MODAL RESPONSE and $ITEM = PANEL RESPONSE are supported (that is

the Modal and Panel participations complex values). If these exist, then Fraction and Projection values can also be calculated by META. However, if only Panel Fraction/Projection or Modal fraction / Projection are included in the punch file, then nothing is supported.

12.12.2. Selecting Plot Type

When plotting complex results the plot type is changed automatically to magnitude-phase plot. The user can change the plot type by selecting from the pull-dowm menu Type in the Plot Options > General Options tab.

The available plot types are shown below:

Plain Plot

Complex Mag � Phase Plot

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Complex Real � Imag Plot

Polar Plot

The user can change the number of the angle steps independently of the number of y steps in the other plots. Specific Frequency can be defined by activating the respective check box.

The Scale Limits and Steps of the radial axis can be defined. Auto Scaling can be also applied. For the Scale Type the user can select between the options: Plain, Log, dB, dB(A), dB(B), dB(C)

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12.13. Saving curve data

12.13.1. Printing curve data in META-Post Messages window

This can be achieved through the Commands List by typing in the command: xyplot output message <Enter window name> <Enter Range>.

Note that for the range entered apart from curves ids, curve name-matching can also be used as the name appears in the Curve list. As an example, the command:

xyplot output message <Enter window name> Internal*/Total* will only print data of curves whose name contains the words Internal and Total. Data regarding currently visible selected curves of selected plots are printed in two columns form in META-Post Messages window.

12.13.2. Saving curve data to a file

Switch to the Save tab. From the Curve List, select the curves that will be saved. Select also the plots that hold these curves. Enter the full path and a name for the new file in the specified field and press ENTER key.

Alternatively, press the button and through the file manager specify a file for saving the curves. Also, curves can be saved through the command:

xyplot output file <Enter window name> <Enter Range> Data regarding all currently visible selected curves of selected plots are saved. Note that additional curve data can be saved into the same file, without the previous data being overwritten, by activating the append toggle.

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2D-Plot Tool The curves can be saved in one of the available formats, controlled by the Output format toggle button. The available options are:

- Keyword � curves are saved in the same format as the one used for the LS-Dyna *DEFINE_CURVE_TITLE keyword definition.

- Columns � curves can be saved in ASCII Column text file. Available settings are: > Capability to define the curve value format to auto, scientific, auto-scientific and fixed. > Capability to control the Total digits per value. > Capability to define the number of Decimal digits if the format allows so. > Capability to define the Column separator between the columns of the ASCII file. > Capability to output in the ASCII file keywords, names, ids, colors of the curves if the

Output curve info checkbox is active. > Capability to output only the selected points if the Selected points only check box is active. > Complex curves can also be saved.

- Export Motion � This option is related only to saving curve data that correspond to nodal

translational components of displacement, velocity and acceleration. If such curve data are saved with this format option, then the LS-Dyna keyword *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_NODE along with its relevant parameters values are added to the file for each saved curve.

- Pamview format � Using this option, curves are saved in PamView format. Only the two lines related to the Asbcissa and the Ordinate units are omitted from the header of each curve.

- ISO v1.1 format � Using this option curves are saved in ISO v1.1 format.

It is also possible to save just a specified X-axis range of the selected curves. Activate the Save selected range flag button and then press and drag the left mouse button under the X-axis to select the range limits. Alternatively the user can define the range limits by typing the values in the respective input fields. Remarks

- Curve data saved includes the Curve Id and the Color of the curve(s) except for the Pamview format.

- If the saved curves are read again but other curves with the same Id exist, the Ids of the curves to be read are offset and the relevant message appears in the Messages window.

- Curve data can be saved in the same file as data saved from Functions menus, for storing curve-related information such as Curve Statistics, Area of Curves, etc. It is up to the user to save curve data before Functions data, for the curves to be readable by µETA afterwards.

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12.14 Saving 2d plot window settings The user can save the settings of the 2d plot window in a session file. These include the plot layout, font settings for legends and titles, axis options, etc. and the user can control what will be saved through the:

xyplot settings outopts . . . family of commands. The settings can be read and applied on a different 2d plot window or even a different µETA PostProcessor session, for uniformity of settings between e.g. projects or user groups. The settings functionality can be found in the Plot options tab:

Note also that the session file saved allows fast editing and modification when necessary: all parameters saved in the session file are defined as variables, at the beginning of the session, using the command:

options var <Name of the Variable> <Value of the variable>

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12.15. Related Commands

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Table 12.2.

Supported LS-Dyna

file

Type of file

Types of results Correspondence with the model

(identification on the model)

Notes

BINOUT Binary YES According to the corresponding ASCII database

D3THDT Binary Global Material Nodes Elements

NO YES YES YES

ABSTAT ASCII Airbag NO

BNDOUT ASCII Node Discrete Rigid Body Velocity Rigid Body Discrete

YES

DEFORC ASCII Spring/Dampers YES Correspondence with the model is possible if Geometry is read from the keyword input file.

ELOUT ASCII Shells Solids Beams

YES YES YES

GCEOUT ASCII Contact Entities YES

GLSTAT ASCII Global NO

JNTFORC ASCII Joints Joint Stiffness Flexion Torsion Stiffness

YES YES YES

Correspondence with the model is possible if Geometry has been read from the keyword input file.

MATSUM ASCII Material YES

NCFORC ASCII Master Slave

YES

NODFORC ASCII Node YES

NODOUT ASCII Node YES

RBDOUT ASCII Rigid Body Global Rigid Body Local Nodal Rigid Body Global Nodal Rigid Body Local

YES YES YES YES

Correspondence with the model for the Nodal Rigid Bodies is possible only if Geometry has been read from the keyword input file.

RCFORC ASCII Contacts : Master Slave

NO

RWFORC ASCII Rigid Wall NO

SBTOUT ASCII Seat-Belts Slip-Rings Retractors

YES NO NO

Correspondence with the model for Seat-Belts is possible if Geometry has been read from the keyword input file.

SECFORC ASCII Sections YES Correspondence with the model is possible if Geometry has been read from the keyword input file. The Show on model function for SECFORC curves applies the OR function among cross sections. It is also possible to ascribe names to the Sections (useful for LS-Dyna versions earlier than 970). For that, include Sections names in a file with the extension .lst. This file must reside in the same directory. The order of the names in the file corresponds to the order the Sections appear in the SECFORC file. You should not replace Sections ids in the SECFORC file with their names.

SLEOUT ASCII Contacts NO

SPCFORC ASCII Nodes YES

SPHOUT ASCII Lumped mass YES

SSSTAT

SWFORC ASCII Constrained Rivet Constrained Weld Spotweld Beam Spotweld Solid Generalized Weld Constraint Points

YES YES YES YES NO

Correspondence with the model is possible if Geometry has been read from the keyword input file.

TPRINT ASCII Node YES

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Chapter 13

OPERATIONS RELATED TO 3D FIELD STATES

RESULTS Table of Contents 13.1. User Field Function...............................................................................................................324

13.1.1. General .........................................................................................................................324 13.1.2. Key-rules to the definition of User Field Functions ........................................................325 13.1.3. Examples on User Field Functions creation..................................................................326 13.1.4. Create new states holding both Deformation and Function values datasets.................327 13.1.5. Recursive creation of User Field Functions through a loop...........................................327 13.1.6. Using User Field Functions to create sums and products of States ..............................329 13.1.7. Using Curve Values for User Field Functions creation..................................................329 13.1.8. Pass curve values on corresponding nodes and elements ...........................................330 13.1.9. Use of Design Optimization Results (NASTRAN SOL 200) with User Field Functions .331 13.1.10. General Remarks on User Field Functions creation....................................................332 13.1.11. Differences between Linear Combination of Results and User Field Functions ..........332

13.2. Handling of incomplete states...............................................................................................333 13.3. Merging states ......................................................................................................................334 13.4. Function results and generated states ..................................................................................334 13.5. Creation of a new state holding Minimum or Maximum results from all states......................335 13.6. Sum and Average of Function data.......................................................................................335 13.7. Comparing results of different states ....................................................................................336

13.7.1. Subtracting results of different states ............................................................................336 13.8. Transforming Nodal-based results to a local coordinate system...........................................337 13.9. Creating states from loadsets of NASTRAN input files (apply also on FLUENT results) ......338 13.10. Creating states from Initial Stress and Strain data of LS-Dyna key input files ....................338 13.11. Creating a new state or modifying an existing one by mapping a value on the nodes of an existing mesh.................................................................................................................................339 13.12. Automated execution of commands before and after a state change .................................340

13.12.1. Example on automated execution of commands before a state change .....................340 13.12.2. Example on automated execution of commands after a state change ........................340

13.13. Calculation and Display of Intrusion Velocities ...................................................................341 13.14. Remarks on application of commands ................................................................................341 13.15. Related commands .............................................................................................................342

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13.1. User Field Function

13.1.1. General

Using this tool, new data sets (states) can be created by mathematically combining results from already loaded states. All mathematical operations available for other tools in µETA can be used here. For the description of the tool that follows, it is assumed that one model is loaded along with its results. Invoke the tool by selecting the Create user Field Function from the Tools pull-down menu.

1. This is the section where the mathematical expression for the definition of a User Field Function

is entered. Through this expression, existing datasets are mathematically combined to create new datasets. A dataset consists of values for one Element or Nodal result type and for one state. Each time a User Field Function is defined, a dataset with either scalar or deformation or vector results is created.

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2. These are the lists with the currently loaded states for the Active Model and the results that can be combined. Using these lists, the formulas may be entered in the respective fields just by picking the relevant listed items. Results that are originally assigned on elements (such as Element Stress and Strain results) are referred to as Element Results while results originally assigned on nodes (such as Displacements, Velocities as well as Contact pressure results and other) are referred to as Nodal results.

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3. Mathematical functions / operations that can be used within the formulas that define the new dataset. Also there is the option to apply the User Field Function only to visible elements / nodes and the option to process each pid nodes independently. A full list with all available built-in functions that can be used is included in Appendix B.

4. Define the title and the id of the new state that will be created. This state id corresponds to the variables v0, state, subcase and step that can be used for states filtering within the Filter field of the States card.

5. The User Field Function tool can be used also along with NASTRAN Design Optimization results (NASTRAN SOL 200). For that case, the design optimization cycles are selected from this list.

6. States may be also created recursively through a loop in just one step. These fields can be used for the definition of the parameters for the loop.

7. The User Defined State is created by selecting Apply or by pressing Enter when entering the formula in the User Field Functions area.

13.1.2. Key-rules to the definition of User Field Functions

The syntax used for the definition of a User Field Function should respect the following rules: Any dataset referenced within the expression for the definition of a User Field Function should fall into one of the following cases:

CASE SYNTAX DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE Dataset corresponding to one particular state

s<state number*>.<function abbreviation**> s4.ft_x This string denotes the X component of the Element Vector Function results of the Top surface of shell elements (for solid elements the loaded function values are considered) for the 4th State in the States list.

Dataset corresponding to the current state

s.< function abbreviation**> s.ft_x This string denotes the X component of the Element Vector Function results of the Top surface of shell elements (for solid elements the loaded function values are considered) for the current state.

Additional Functions group from the Element and Nodal Results lists

These are the following functions: Element Results: Nodal Results: s_fzero s_nfzero s_thickness s_matlimit s_matlimit_t s_matlimit_c s_matlimit_s

s_thickness This string denotes a dataset that consists of the Shell Part thickness value for each shell element (for the solid elements the value will be 0). s_nfzero This string denotes a dataset with 0 value for each node.

* state number: The sorting order in which the states appear within the States list. ** function abbreviation: This is the abbreviation of the function as this appears in front of the parenthesis within the Element Results and the Nodal Results lists.

- Element and Nodal Results cannot be combined for the definition of a User Field Function. Any attempt to combine Element and Nodal Results within the expression of a User Field Function results in an error message printed in the META-Post Messages window.

- Datasets can be entered in the expression for the definition of a User Field Functions directly through the interface by picking the corresponding items from the three lists. However, even in this interactive mode, it is the user�s responsibility to enter the expression correctly according to the rules above.

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13.1.3. Examples on User Field Functions creation

Example 1: Creation of a Scalar field function from Element Results

Target: Create a new state that holds as scalar results the difference in scalar Top and Bottom shell results of the 5th state from the 1st state. The example below depicts how the lists within the User Field Functions interface can be used for entering the expression that defines a User Field Function.

4

1

3

2

7 Enter

6 5

1. Select the Scalar flag button. 2. Pick State 5 from the States list. The corresponding abbreviation is written in the field. 3. Pick the Top and Bottom Element function from the Element Results. The corresponding

abbreviation is added to the tail of the already written string. 4. Type the �-� sign. 5. Pick State 1 from the States list. The corresponding abbreviation is added to the tail of the

already written string. 6. Pick the Top and Bottom Element function from the Element Results. The corresponding

abbreviation is added to the tail of the already written string. 7. Press ENTER inside the field where the expression is written. A new state with the title and the

id that is specified in the relevant fields (at the bottom of the User Field Function interface) is created. This state has as scalar function results the difference of the scalar element results between state 5 and state 1.

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Example 2: Creation of a Deformation field function from Nodal Results

Target: Create a new state that holds as displacement results the position of the nodes for the 31st state with respect to a Rectangular coordinate system parallel to the global coordinate system. The coordinates of the origin of the rectangular coordinate system are (100,50,20).

The functions used for this example are the Deformation and Position from the Nodal Results list. Note that the Position function returns always the original (initial) position of nodes despite the state that is being referenced in the expression. Example 3: Creation of a Vector field function from Nodal Results.

Target: Create a new state that holds as vector results the X component of displacements of the 5th state with respect to a local coordinate system rotated at 30° relevant to the Global coordinate system in the X-Y plane. Z-axes of the two systems are parallel.

The functions used for this example are the Deformations from the Nodal Results list. Remarks

- In order to create the new state it is necessary to press ENTER inside one of the fields where the mathematical expression is written.

- Note that the input for the built-in mathematical functions cos, sin and tan is always in rads.

13.1.4. Create new states holding both Deformation and Function values datasets

Each time the User Field Function tool is used one type of dataset is created (either Deformations, Scalar or Vector Functions). To create a new state that holds one dataset of Deformations and one dataset of either Scalar or Vector results, apply the User Field Function twice (one for the Deformation results and the other for the Scalar or Vector results) for the same State Title and for the same State id.

13.1.5. Recursive creation of User Field Functions through a loop

In case many states are to be created by combining existing states in a systematic way, then this can be achieved using the loop option. In this way, many states can be created in just one step. The key operator for using the loop is the �$i� inherent variable which stands for the State Number. The following examples for the loop option are based on the examples of paragraph 13.1.3.

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Example 1: Creation of Scalar field functions from Element Results

Target: Create a new state that holds as scalar results the difference in scalar Top and Bottom shell results for each one of the 31 states from the 1st state.

Example 2: Creation of Scalar field functions through simultaneous loops

Target: Create a new state that holds as scalar results the difference in scalar Top and Bottom shell results between states 11, 12, ... and states 1, 2, ... correspondingly.

Note that mathematical operations need to be inside back quotes (`). Example 3: Creation of Deformation field functions from Nodal Results

Target: Create a new state that holds as displacement results the position of the nodes for each one of the 31 states with respect to a Rectangular coordinate system parallel to the global coordinate system. The coordinates of the origin of the rectangular coordinate system are (100,50,20).

Example 4: Creation of Vector field functions from Nodal Results.

Target: Create a new state that holds as vector results the X component of displacements of each one of the 31 states with respect to a local coordinate system rotated at 30° relevant to the Global coordinate system in the X-Y plane. Z-axes of the two systems are parallel.

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13.1.6. Using User Field Functions to create sums and products of States

The user field function can be used to create sums or products of states using the expressions SUM(j,s$j.f,1,10,1) and PRODUCT(j,s$j.f,1,10,1). Example 1: Creation of Sum of States through User Field Function

Target: Create a new state that holds as Scalar result the sum of scalar functions of the states 4, 6, 8, 10, 12.

Example 2: Creation of Product of States through User Field Function

Target: Create a new state that holds as Scalar result the product of scalar functions of the states 4, 6, 8, 10, 12.

13.1.7. Using Curve Values for User Field Functions creation

Curve values can be used for the creation of User Field Function datasets. The syntax for the curve values used within the expressions for the definition of the User Field Functions follows the same rules as the ones used for referencing curve values in other tools of µETA. The Curve Selection editor is invoked by pressing the curve button within the Supported Functions group of the User Field Function interface. The Curve Selection editor as well as the use of curve values within the User Field Function tool is the same as in the Linear Combination tool (see Users Guide par. 3.16 and the Release Notes of µETA version 5.2.0) EXCEPT for the options current X and Y for current X. If the latter two options are applied within the User Field Function tool, then the curve values that correspond to the current state of the model in the 3D drawing window are used. That implies that in order to use these options it is necessary to have synchronised before the relevant curves with the corresponding models. Below, there are some examples on the use of curve values for the creation of User Field Functions.

Example 1: Use the Y Maximum value of a curve for the definition of a User Field Function.

Target: Create a new state that holds as scalar results the values 1 or 0 for the elements according to whether the difference of the scalar element function result between state 5 and state 3 is greater or less than the maximum value of curve 2.

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Example 2: Use the Y curve value at a specific abscissa (X value) for the definition of a User Field Function. Target: Create a new state that holds as scalar functions the difference of the scalar element function results between state 5 and the Y value of curve 3 at X=10.

13.1.8. Pass curve values on corresponding nodes and elements

Values from curves corresponding to particular entities (nodes or elements) can be passed automatically to these entities using the User Field Function tool. Syntax for the curve values:

w[Window Name]c.y[optionally specify a particular curve value] The syntax that should be used in these cases for the curve values is the same as when referring to curve values, except that, for these cases, no curve id should be specified. When using this functionality, the following should be taken into account:

- This is an automated process. µETA will search all curves within the 2Dplot window. If Nodal results are used for the creation of the User Field Function then all curves corresponding to nodes will be considered. If Element results are used for the creation of the User Field Function then all curves corresponding to Parts and Elements will be considered.

- The curves that can be used in this way for the User Field Function creation are the ones that can be associated form the 2Dplot tool to entities on the 3D window. In other words these are the curves for which the Show on model option can be applied. The Show on model option is included in the pop-up menu that appears when pressing the Right Mouse Button on top of curve names in the CurveList of the 2Dplot window.

- In case more than one curve corresponds to one element, then µETA will take into account, among these curves, the curve with the Maximum id.

- To ensure that this process involves the correct curve results, create in the 2Dplot window only the curves that should be used and then create the User Field Function.

Example: Use the Y Maximum value of each curve corresponding to an Element.

Target: Create a new state that holds as scalar results the Maximum Force value for each element as this is provided from the corresponding curve in the 2Dplot window. For the elements for which no curve exists, a zero value is assigned. Note also here the use of the s_fzero function.

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13.1.9. Use of Design Optimization Results (NASTRAN SOL 200) with User Field Functions

Results coming from NASTRAN Design Optimization analysis can be also used for creating User Field Functions. The procedure is the same as described above but in this case it is also necessary to specify for a dataset the cycle of the Design Optimization solution. The datasets related to Design Optimization results that can be referenced within the expression for the definition of a User Field Function, should fall into one of the following cases:

CASE SYNTAX DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE Dataset corresponding to one particular state and one particular cycle

s<state num*><cycle num***>.<function abbr**> s4c3.ft_x This string denotes the X component of the Element Vector Function results of the Top surface of shell elements (for solid elements the loaded function values are considered) for the 4th State and the 3rd cycle in the States list.

Dataset corresponding to a particular state and the current cycle or to the current state and the current cycle

s<state num*>c.< function abbr**> sc.< function abbr**>

s5c.ft_x This string denotes the X component of the Element Vector Function results of the Top surface of shell elements (for solid elements the loaded function values are considered) for the 5th state and the current cycle.

* state num: The sorting order in which the states appear within the States list. ** function abbr: This is the abbreviation of the function as this appears in front of the

parenthesis within the Element Results and the Nodal Results lists. *** cycle num: The sorting order in which the cycles appear within the States list. Remarks

- Recursive creation of User Field Functions through the loop functionality (refer to paragraph A.5 above) can be used also in conjunction with the cycles of a Design Optimization analysis. For the following example the loop functionality is used.

- In order to display in the 3D window the results of a calculated state, select the relevant state and REMEMBER to select Cycle 0 in the Cycles list of the States card. This is because the calculated states do not hold any cycles therefore they can be displayed only if Cycle 0 is selected.

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Example: Creation of Scalar field functions from Element results Target: Create a new state that holds as scalar results the % difference of the Top and Bottom shell results for each cycle (1 to 7) of subcase 1 from cycle 0 of subcase 1.

13.1.10. General Remarks on User Field Functions creation

1. The datasets related to Element functions consider the results that have been loaded. That means that if Corner results have been loaded then these will be considered for the creation of User field functions.

2. Solid elements do not exhibit Top and Bottom results. Therefore, any of the Element Functions: Top, Bottom, Top and Bottom can be used to denote the results on solid elements.

3. The use of the Element Thickness Additional Element function assigns a 0 value to all solid elements.

4. When the target is to create a User field function by combining different types of results (for example stress and strains) then the Copy States functionality within the States card should be used.

Load the first type of results (for example the stresses), copy them to new states and then load the second type of results (for example strains). In the end, there will be states containing stress results and states containing strain results under the same model geometry. These states can then be combined using the User Field Function tool.

5. States belonging to different models cannot be combined. 6. The Position functions for Nodal results return the position of each node at the Original

state despite of what state is referenced in the string.

13.1.11. Differences between Linear Combination of Results and User Field Functions

Main differences between the two tools are summarized in the Table below.

User Field Functions creation Linear Combination

1. All mathematical operations available in µETA can be used for the creation of User Field Functions.

1. New states are created only by linearly combining other states. That means that the results of the new states are calculated based on an expression of the type:

New State = A* State1+B*State2+�+M*StateN+� 2. Application of this tool is independent of the

type of results. Any loaded type of results can be used for the creation of a User Field Function.

2. Applied only for NASTRAN and ABAQUS results as well as for results deriving from a META database.

3. It is necessary to load results in order to use them for the creation of a User Field Function.

This tool applies on already loaded states.

3. It is not necessary to load the results that will be used for the Linear Combination. The results are used directly from the source file (the output file of the solver) without actually entering the States list. In the end, only the linearly combined states are loaded.

This tool applies upon loading / reading results.

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4. Higher memory requirements compared to

the Linear Combination tool provided that the same datasets are created with both tools.

4. Less memory requirements compared to the User Field Functions creation provided that the same datasets are created with both tools. This is a consequence of 3.

5. Invariants (Von Mises, Tresca, etc) calculated through mathematically combining Invariants of existing states is not recommended since the calculation is done directly on the loaded invariant values and not on tensor components. This is because after invariant results are loaded for a state, no other information (i.e. the stress tensor) is kept.

5. Invariants (Von Mises, Tresca, etc) for the new state are calculated correctly from the linearly combined tensor components. This is a consequence of 3.

6. Lower performance compared to the Linear Combination tool provided that the same datasets are created with both tools.

6. Higher performance (faster creation) compared to the User Field Functions creation provided that the same datasets are created with both tools.

7. Combination of results between different models is not possible. Only states (datasets) of the same model can be used each time. Therefore, in order to combine results of 2 models, it is necessary to load the results of both models (files) under the same model (geometry).

7. Combination between states (datasets) of different models is possible.

8. Passing of curve values on corresponding elements / nodes is possible through this tool.

8. No such capability.

13.2. Handling of incomplete states

Using this command the user can control the reading of incomplete states. options incomplete read or skip The default is skip.

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13.3. Merging states

Using this command, the user can merge states that hold only Function data (either Scalar or Vector) with states that hold only Displacement data. This can be particularly useful in cases where Function data and Displacement data were loaded from different files. Also, it is possible, when loading Strain Energy results from a NASTRAN file, that Displacements and Strain Energy are placed in different subcases. In these cases, after loading the subcases, the user may merge them. The new subcases will hold both Displacement and Function data.

Remarks

- This function applies on the Active model and takes into account all states already loaded for one model.

- The number of states with Displacement data must equal the number of states with Function data.

13.4. Function results and generated states

In case interpolated states are generated only for Displacement results, the Function results of its base state are, by default, visible (if the Fringe drawing style is enabled) for any generated state under the base state. This feature can be controlled through the following switch command:

function getfromparent on / off The default option is on.

Remarks:

- Note that in case this option is enabled, generated states still do not actually hold any Function results.

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13.5. Creation of a new state holding Minimum or Maximum results from all states.

The user can create an extra new state in all types of analysis that contains the maximum or minimum results data taken from all or selected loaded states. This can be achieved by applying the command:

function minimum/maximum xnode/ynode/znode/dnode/function all This command allows the user to visualize the scalar/vector minimum or maximum results on the 3D model with the fringes on.

13.6. Sum and Average of Function data

This command is used for the calculation of Sum and Average of Function results on nodes and elements (either identified, visible or all) corresponding to the current state. The outcome is printed in META-Post Messages window.

Remarks:

- In case the all option is selected at the last command application step, this refers to all entities that are set as visible from the Set Visible Entities card (F12).

Enter

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13.7. Comparing results of different states

13.7.1. Subtracting results of different states

It is possible to acquire the difference between results of individual states of the same model. This may be applied on any type of results (function, xnode, ynode, znode and dnode). The difference results are placed in a new state as Scalar Function results in case one of the options below is used: function diff

- function, - xnode, - ynode, - znode - dnode

The option function diff states ... is used for calculating the difference between states for both Displacements and Scalar results. The outcome is new states that hold as Displacements the difference of the Displacements and as Scalar results the difference of the Scalar results. The option function diff node ... is used for calculating the difference between states for Displacements. The outcome is new states that hold as Displacements the difference of the Displacements results.

Remarks

- The difference of any type of results (function, xnode, ynode, znode and dnode) is considered as Function results. This must be taken into account when viewing difference results with fringes.

- The user may define two sets of states for subtraction. These sets must have equal number of states. Subtraction will take place between corresponding states of the two sets.

- States are defined in the command line with their sequence number. This sequence number of each state is depicted in the example and corresponds to the ascending order of states in the list, starting from the top. 0 number is always assigned to the Original State.

2

1

Tab

Sequence number of states

0 1 2 3 4 5

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13.8. Transforming Nodal-based results to a local coordinate system Results transformed to local coordinate systems

may be loaded as Scalar Functions according to the available Read Options within the Read Results card. Alternatively, for nodal-based results, there is the option to create new states, which include the transformed nodal results with respect to a specified local coordinate system. The relevant command is: functions transform node <Enter System id> <Enter set of states>

Remarks: - The transformed nodal results are wrong if the

nodal data are complex. - If the state that includes the transformed

results is viewed with the Deform flag on, then the displayed deformation corresponds to the transformed results but with respect to the Global Coordinate system (see pictures below). Therefore it is recommended to deactivate the Deform flag button and view the transformed nodal components in Fringe mode.

- For ABAQUS, coordinate systems defined with the TRANSFORM and SYSTEM keywords are supported only from the input file .inp.

Tab 2

1

Original State

State: Displacement Transformed � Y-Nodal results � Local Coordinate system � DEFORM flag on

State: Step 1 � Z-Nodal results � Global coordinatesystem

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13.9. Creating states from loadsets of NASTRAN input files (apply also on FLUENT results)

This command is used to load data designated as PLOAD or TEMP in a .nas file. These data can be viewed in fringe mode as any other type of results. In this way, it is possible to view FLUENT results that were output in NASTRAN format. First the .nas file has to be read in. Then, edit the command

functions fromload. If any PLOAD or TEMP loads are referenced in the .nas file, these are read in and listed as states in the States list. Subsequently, these may be treated as any other state in µETA PostProcessor. Remarks:

- All loads, which are read in using functions fromload command, are treated as Scalar Functions.

Tab

13.10. Creating states from Initial Stress and Strain data of LS-Dyna key input files

This command is used for loading data from an LS-Dyna .key input. These data may be either: a) INITIAL_STRESS_SHELL. In case of a multi layer definition, results on all integration points of

the inner and the outer layer are read. A state is created for each one of the components: SIGxx, SIGyy, SIGzz, SIGxy, SIGyz, SIGzx, EPS.

b) INITIAL_STRESS_SOLID for all integration points. A state is created for each of the components: SIG11, SIG22, SIG33, SIG12, SIG23, SIG31, EPS.

c) INITIAL_STRAIN_SHELL for inner and outer surface. A state is created for each of the components: EPSxx, EPSyy, EPSzz, EPSxy, EPSyz, EPSzx.

d) ELEMENT_SHELL_THICKNESS

2

Enter1

Remarks: - The relevant model has to be loaded before applying this function. - All these data can be viewed in fringe mode as Scalar Functions.

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13.11. Creating a new state or modifying an existing one by mapping a value on the nodes of an existing mesh

It is possible to create a new state or modify an existing one by means of mapping a value on the nodes of an existing mesh. (The mapped values can then be displayed as a contour plot.) This can be achieved in two ways:

- specifying a node as the center of the affected (mapped) area function mapping radius < id for the new State> <Enter the radius for the mapping effect> node <Enter Node id which will be the center of mapping> <Enter node mapping value> <Enter Group name that will be mapped> Example: function mapping radius 1 40 node 10 8 Group1 The application of this function creates a new state with id 1 or modifies an existing state 1. For this state, all nodes of Group1 that are within a distance of 40 from Node 10 have a function value 8. (In case of selecting an existing state then see the first Remark).

- specifying a position in space (by its coordinates) as the center of the affected (mapped) area

function mapping radius <Define id for the new State> <Enter the radius for the mapping effect> xyz <Enter X, Y, Z coordinates> <Enter node mapping value> <Enter Group name that will be mapped> Example: function mapping radius 1 40 xyz 35,2,0 8 Group1 The application of this function creates a new state with id 1 or modifies an existing state 1. For this state, all nodes of Group1 that are within a distance of 40 from the x,y,z position 35,2,0 have a function value 8. (In case of selecting an existing state then see the first Remark). Remarks

- If the id of an already existing state is selected then the mapping value will be applied only on the nodes that have a function value lower than the mapping value. The nodes that exhibit a function value higher than mapping value will remain intact even if they are located within the mapping radius distance.

- The nodal function value that is assigned on the nodes through this function is the greatest integer which is not greater than the specified mapping value in the command. (That means that the nodal mapping value in the command can be a real number but the assigned value on the node is always an integer).

- It is possible to specify a node of one model to be the mapping center for another model. For this case, use the syntax:

function mapping radius 1 40 node 2:10 8 Group1

Node 10 of model 2 will be the mapping center for the Active model.

- An example of the use of this function comes from the Pedestrian Safety sector: This functionality can be used for the creation of a state for a bonnet that will hold the HIC values which are calculated by impacting the bonnet on different positions.

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13.12. Automated execution of commands before and after a state change

It is possible to define a sequence of commands that will be executed each time the state of the model is changed. There are two command options that can be used for the definition of a sequence of commands:

a) states preexec <�sequence of commands�>. First the sequence of commands is executed and then the state is changed.

b) states postexec <�sequence of commands�>. First the state is changed and then the sequence of commands is executed.

Regarding the syntax of these commands, the following should be kept in mind: - The commands, which are entered for execution for each state change, follow the same

syntax as if they were applied directly. - The commands must be enclosed in double quotes � �. - If more than one commands are entered for execution (sequence of commands), then these

commands should be separated with semicolons ;. - State variables v0, v1, v2 (refer to Paragraph 5.2.1.2.) can be passed to the preexec and

postexec command options using brackets [ ]. To pass v0 variable type [0], for v1 variable type [1] and for v2 variable type [2]. Examples of the use of this feature are shown below.

- If prexec and postexec command options are enabled, they remain active until the user disables them.

The use of these command options could be very helpful, as depicted in the following examples. For presentation purposes, suppose that a model�s state changes from State 2 to State 4.

13.12.1. Example on automated execution of commands before a state change

If this command is applied, then for any change of state (during animation or simply by switching to another state), the elements with function values for the current state that fall within the range 0.3 and 0.4 will be identified. Additionally, a group with these elements will be defined and assigned the name Group<Current state id>. Particularly for switching from state 2 to state 4, elements with values between 0.3 and 0.4 for state 2 are identified and form a group with the name Group2.

2 Enter

1

13.12.2. Example on automated execution of commands after a state change If this command is applied, then for any change of

state (during animation or simply by switching to another state), an encapsulated postscript file will be created for the new state in the directory /EXAMPLES/. Each file will be assigned the name Image<Time Value>.eps. Particularly for switching from state 2 to state 4, an encapsulated file with the name Image17.9996.eps will be created for state 4.

1 Enter

2

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13.13. Calculation and Display of Intrusion Velocities

Capability to load nodal vector results with respect to a Follow Nodes system (moving local system) defined in µETA PostProcessor. To operate this correctly: 1. Apply the Follow feature (Follow 1, 2 or 3 nodes). 2. Activate the Follow nodes transform flag button in the Read Results>Results>Vector>Nodes tab. Respective command read options vtransfollow enable/disable 3. Load the nodal vector results (eg: velocities). These results are now transformed as intrusion results relatively to the system specified by the Follow node feature. Remark In order to work correctly the steps must be respected. The Follow feature must be applied before the results reading.

13.14. Remarks on application of commands

- During editing of commands, META-Post Messages window prints information regarding the syntax of the command (warnings for wrong syntax or the available options for the following step). These messages are printed each time the user presses the Tab key.

- Wherever it is necessary to refer to particular states when applying respective commands, the sequence number of states must be used (refer to paragraph 13.7.1).

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13.15. Related commands

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Chapter 14

TOOLS FOR NVH ANALYSIS

Table of Contents

14.1. Modes Correlation.................................................................................................................345 14.1.1. Modal Correlation (MAC) Tool ......................................................................................345 14.1.2. Contour plot of the model with respect to single nodes MAC values ............................350 14.1.3. Related commands .......................................................................................................351

14.2. Modal Response Analysis.....................................................................................................352 14.2.1. General .........................................................................................................................352 14.2.2. Description of the interface ...........................................................................................353

14.2.2.1. Modes tab..............................................................................................................353 14.2.2.2. Frequency Response tab ...........................................................................................354

14.2.2.2.5 Calculation of Modal Frequency Responses � 3D Deformation menu ................362 14.2.2.3. Coupled Fluid-Structure analysis / Acoustic Coupling tab..........................................362

14.2.2.3.1. Setting the Acoustic Coupling (Fluid-Structure Interface) data ...........................362 14.2.2.3.2. Defining Panels inside µETA for the calculation of panel participations .............363 14.2.2.3.3. Calculation of Acoustic Responses / Panel Participations � 2Dplot menu..........365 14.2.2.3.4. Calculation of Acoustic Responses � 3D Deformation menu .............................365

14.2.2.4. Modal Participation Factors........................................................................................365 14.2.2.5. Visualisation of Frequency Response results in 2Dplot .............................................366 14.2.2.6. Saving FRF results in Universal format file ................................................................366 14.2.2.7. Important Remarks on Frequency Response calculations .........................................367

14.2.2.7. Transient Response tab ........................................................................................368 14.2.2.8. Important Remarks on Transient Response calculations ......................................371 14.2.2.9. Settings tab ...........................................................................................................371 14.2.2.10. Tables tab............................................................................................................372

14.2.3. Related commands .......................................................................................................373 14.3. Frf Assembly.........................................................................................................................374

14.3.1. General .........................................................................................................................374 14.3.2. Description of the interface ...........................................................................................374

14.3.2.1. Step 1 � Load the geometry of the components....................................................374

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14.3.2.2. Step 2 � Load results for each component ............................................................375 14.3.2.3. Step 3 � Connect the components ........................................................................376 14.3.2.4. Step 4 � Define the dynamic loads........................................................................379 14.3.2.5. Step 5 � Define the frequency range, the response Dofs & Calculate the responses.............................................................................................................................................379

14.3.3. Optimisation of Bushing properties ...............................................................................381 14.3.3.1. Optimisation parameters .......................................................................................381 14.3.3.2. Description of the procedure .................................................................................381

14.3.4. Related commands .......................................................................................................383 14.4. Modal Model Builder .............................................................................................................384

14.4.1. Description of the interface ...........................................................................................384 14.4.2.1. Modes tab..............................................................................................................384

14.4.2.2. Damping tab...............................................................................................................385 14.4.2.3. Output Nodes tab ..................................................................................................385 14.4.2.4. Settings tab ...........................................................................................................387

14.4.3. Save the Modal Model ..................................................................................................388 14.4.4. Related commands .......................................................................................................389

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14.1. Modes Correlation

14.1.1. Modal Correlation (MAC) Tool

Modal correlation is available for normal mode results from Nastran op2 or punch files, from Universal files (datasets 55 and 2414) or from Abaqus odb files.

It can be used for correlation between a FE and a Test model or between FE and FE models as well as Test and Test models.

Generally, in order to calculate the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) both models must be loaded either in the same window or in different ones.

However, it is possible to correlate 2 models without having to load their geometry. This is possible if the Node Pair Table has previously been saved from within the Modal Correlation tool. This table can be read in inside the tool and Modal Correlation is then calculated for these pairs and for the provided normal mode results without the need to load the geometry.

Open the Modal Correlation (MAC) window from Tools > Calculate > Calculate Modal Correlation (MAC).

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The Modal Results Input File of Model 1 is loaded by pressing the "..." button and by selecting the file through the File Manager. Repeat the same procedure for Model 2.

Results are listed in the Mode - Frequency list for each model. The user has the option to select pairs of states and visually compare them by pressing the Anim button. Animation ends with the Stop button. The user can select which modes will take part in the calculation with the Exclude and Include buttons.

Next step is the Node Pairs selection through the Node Pairs tab. By pressing the Add button the user can select between three options.

1. First option is the selection of nodes that are already identified inside the window. The user can identify nodes on either of the two models. µETA searches for the corresponding nodes according to the Node Pairs Tolerance, as defined in the Settings tab.

2. Secondly the user can select all the nodes corresponding to the PlotEl elements that may exist in the model.

3. Third choice is the usage of the Adv. Filter (Advanced Filter) feature (see Chapter 18). Also the user can load the Node Pairs from an existing Node Pair Table, by pressing the Read button. In this case, there is no need to load the model geometry. By pressing the Save button, a Node Pair Table can be created with all the Node Pairs of the Modal Correlation window. Finally Node Pairs can be deleted by pressing the Delete button, while by using Exclude and Include buttons, the user can decide which Node Pairs will take part in the calculation.

Mode Pairs are automatically calculated according to the Node Pairs and listed in the Mode Pairs tab. The user can preview one or more Mode Pairs animated by selecting the Mode Pairs and clicking the Anim button. Animation ends with Stop button. Save button creates a Mode Pairs Table which can be saved through the File Manager. The user can delete one or more Mode Pairs by selecting them and pressing the Delete button.

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In the Settings tab the user can define the Dofs that will be used in the calculation. µETA searches for corresponding nodes between the two models according to the defined Node Pairs Tolerance. The user can define a lower limit in the Mode Pair MAC Limit field, which excludes from the calculation, Mode Pairs with a MAC value less than that limit. Mode Pair Frequency (%) Tolerance is the % calculated difference between frequencies of the two models. In case that the difference value (%) is exceeding the defined Tolerance (upper limit value), then these Mode Pairs are not taken in account for the calculation. Both these two criteria, Mode Pair MAC Limit and Mode Pair Frequency (%) Tolerance, should be satisfied at the same time in order a Mode Pair to be valid for the calculation. Finally if the option Keep only higher MAC Mode Pairs is activated, then µETA keeps for each mode of the first model, only the modes with the maximum MAC values.

After setting up the parameters, the 3d Plot MAC window can be created by selecting the 3d Plot option of the MAC button. With the Save MAC Matrix in Excel csv and the Save Frequency difference in Excel csv options the user can save the calculated matrices in excel form for each case accordingly.

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µETA creates the MAC and Frequency Difference 3d Plots as a grid of quads, where the x and y axes correspond to the number of modes used in the calculation. Plots are shown in the pictures below.

MAC Plot (Value range 0 � 1)

Frequency Difference Plot (Value range 0 � 100)

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µETA creates a new Model containing the MAC and Frequency Difference 3d Plots. The States list consists of three states, ORIGINAL STATE, 3d MAC and 3d Frequency diff.

The user can identify isometric areas where the MAC criterion has a specific threshold value. Create a Solid Closed Upper curve from the main menu ISOFunctions > New > Solid Closed Upper. Vizualization of results can be done either by having the shade mode activated or not. Also by using the iElem feature, the user can identify elements, getting information about the MAC value of these elements and the Mode Pairswhere the specific value appears.

Shade Mode Activated

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Shade Mode Deactivated

14.1.2. Contour plot of the model with respect to single nodes MAC values

It is possible to calculate MAC values for each different node of a model and contour the model according to these values. Each of these MAC values is equal to the MAC value calculated with the Modal Correlation tool for a mode pair but for the same node for both models. The modes, in this case, must be loaded under the same geometry and there should be a one to one node-id correspondence for all nodes (or at least for those nodes the user is interested in) between the 2 models. This calculation is performed by applying the command: function mac <First Set of States> <Second Set of States>

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14.1.3. Related commands

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14.2. Modal Response Analysis

14.2.1. General

Using this tool, it is possible to calculate:

1. Modal Responses for Nodal variables (displacements, velocities, accelerations and pressure, the latter in case of a coupled fluid-structure problem)

2. FRFs for the above modal responses

3. Modal participation results

4. Panel participation results in the case of a coupled fluid-structure problem The above results can be calculated as curves so as to be plotted in the 2D or as field results so as to be displayed in 3D. The required input includes:

• the Normal Modes (Eigenmodes) results or Complex modes from a Nastran op2 or punch (SORT1 and SORT2) file format or Universal file format or Abaqus odb file.

• the dynamic loads

• the response dofs for which the modal responses are requested

• acoustic coupling data (in case of coupling fluid-structure problem) from a file either in Nastran punch format, or in Akusmod format or calculated directly in µETA

• optionally, the panel definitions for the case of a coupling fluid-structure problem and in case panel participations are to be calculated

The tool is invoked by selecting the Calculate Modal Response option from the Tools pull-down menu. Remark

- Note that it is not necessary to have the geometry of the model loaded in order to calculate modal responses.

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14.2.2. Description of the interface

14.2.2.1. Modes tab

1. Optionally, specify a name for the current model / component. This name can be included within

the name of the curves that will be created but it can also be used inside the FRF assembly tool (par. 14.3).

2. From the Modal Results Input File field, load the file that includes either the Normal modes results or Complex modes results for the currently loaded model. Supported files are the Nastran .op2 or punch files, the .unv files (datasets 55 and 2414) and the Abaqus odb file. Both real and complex eigenmodes can be loaded. The modes are listed.

3. These buttons control the Modes in the list. Selection in the Modal Response lists follows common selection features within µETA. - Select a Mode and press the Animate button to see this mode animated on the screen. For

this mode, by default Strain Energy > Energy Density results will be loaded. Note that if such results are not available, then the results that were Set as Default will be loaded instead.

- Select another mode and press the Animate button again to see the last selected mode animated.

- Press Stop button to stop the animation. - Select one or more modes and press Exclude button. The selected modes appear with a

gray background and they will not be considered for the calculations of modal responses. (For the example shown above, the first 7 modes have been excluded).

- Select one or more of the excluded modes and press Include button to take into account the selected modes for the calculation of the modal responses.

4. The Damping of a mode can be defined by the user. By default, the modes enter the list with a default value 0.02 for the modal damping. - To modify the modal damping of one or more modes, select the modes and press the Right

Mouse button on top of the respective value of one of the selected modes. Type the new

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value in the text field that appears and press ENTER. The new value is now applied to all currently selected modes.

- To retrieve the original default values of the parameters press Reset button. - Alternatively to editing, the modal damping values can be retrieved from a damping table

(TABDMP1). Enter in the B Table field the id of a currently existing TABDMP1 table and press ENTER. The corresponding modal damping value is then assigned to each of the currently selected modes. Regarding TABDMP1 tables: i. To view and select one of currently available tables, press <?> inside the B Table field

and select the table from the list that pops-up. ii. From the Tables tab, TABDMP1 tables can either be read from a Nastran Bulk data file

or created directly in µETA. iii. All types of a TABDMP1 table are supported (�G�, �CRIT� or �Q�) but they are

transformed to Critical damping. Therefore, the value that appears for each Mode is always the Critical damping.

14.2.2.2. Frequency Response tab

This is used for the calculation of Modal Frequency Responses. Through this tab the user enters the input regarding the dynamic loads and the response dofs and finally the respective results are calculated. The interface of this tab is shown in the image below. There are 4 distinctive sections within this interface:

• The Load section: Controls the Dynamic Loads input that will be considered for the calculation of the Modal Frequency responses.

• The settings for the frequency range and the frequency resolution that should be used for the calculations.

• The Response DOFs section: Controls the Response Dofs for which the Modal Frequency Responses will be calculated.

• The 2D Plot and 3D Deformation section: Sets the Modal Frequency Response results that can be calculated and plotted. To plot a result, select in the relevant tab and press Calculate.

Detailed description of each of these sections follows below.

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14.2.2.2.1. Frequency-dependent Dynamic Loads

The Frequency-dependent Dynamic Loads can be either read from a Nastran bulk data file through the Read button or can be specified inside µETA through the New button.

By pressing the Read button, a file manager pops up and the user may select the Nastran file that includes the Dynamic Loads. Alternatively, by pressing the New button, new loads are entered in the list and the user may edit them to define their parameters.

Which is the form of Frequency-dependent Dynamic loads? Loadcase The frequency-dependent dynamic loads entering the list follow the

Loadcase-Loads scheme which is displayed as a tree listing. That means that each loadcase can be comprised of one or more distinctive dynamic loads. This scheme is equivalent as having defined a DLOAD in Nastran as a linear combination of one or more RLOADi loads.

Loads

Which Frequency-dependent Dynamic Loads are supported?

Read: From a Nastran Bulk data file, the dynamic loads defined with the DLOAD, RLOAD1 and RLOAD2 keywords are supported. The loadcases can be defined either as DLOADs with RLOADi entries constituting the distinct dynamic loads or directly as RLOADi. Both cases are supported in µETA.

Note also that currently only the type LOAD is supported. The enforced motion types (DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY and ACCELERATION) are not supported.

New: When the frequency-dependent dynamic loads are created directly inside µETA, then these can be defined in any complex form (Real-Imaginary or Magnitude-Phase).

Editing the parameters of dynamic loads

The parameter names that include the string (f) indicate that these parameters should be specified as a function of frequency. Consequently, for these parameters the id of an existing TABLEDi table should be specified. However, note that if no TABLEDi is specified, then µETA assumes a load with magnitude 1 and phase 0 for the entire frequency range. For the rest parameters, the input is a number.

- To edit a parameter of one or more loads, select the loads and press the Right Mouse button on top of the respective field of one of the selected loads. A pop-up menu appears. Select Edit to provide the value manually and press ENTER or Pick (available only for the Node field) to pick a node from the screen. The new value is now applied to all currently selected loads.

- If the parameter requires a table as an input, then a list with the currently available tables in the Tables tab pops up and the user should select one table from that list.

The tables of TABLEDi type can be read from a Nastran bulk data file or can be defined directly in the Tables tab.

Parameters specified for a loadcase are actually applied on its loads. However, parameters specified for loads take precedence over the ones specified for loadcases. That means that if a parameter (eg: Factor) has been specified for a load as well as for its loadcase, then the value that has been specified for the load is considered. The parameter value of the loadcase is

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considered only for the loads for which there is no value specified for the same parameter. As a consequence, in the following example, the two loads shown are perfectly equivalent.

Similarly, for the following example:

The Factor for the dynamic load 231 is 1 but for the load 232 the Factor is 2 which is the one specified for the respective loadcase since there is no Factor defined exclusively for load 232.

Adding multiple loads in the list

Read: When reading dynamic loads from Nastran Bulk data files, the only criterion that regulates whether the new loads will be added in the list as a new loadcase or appended as a load to an existing loadcase, is the id of the loadcase (DLOAD). The examples shown below illustrate the 2 cases (the id of the loadcase in the Nastran file is equal or not to one of the already loaded loadcases).

Loadcase id exists Loadcase id does not exist

Remarks

- The load ids as well as the Tables ids are unique in µETA. As a consequence, attempting to load from a Nastran file, loads or Tables that have the same ids with already loaded ones, will result in the new loads and Tables being renumbered. This is depicted in the examples shown above.

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New: To add a new loadcase, deselect all currently listed loads and press the New button. To add a load to an existing loadcase, select either this loadcase or any of its loads and press the New button. The examples below illustrate the 2 cases.

Add a loadcase Add a load

Loads handling - Which loads are considered for the Frequency Response calculations?

The loads / loadcases can be Excluded from the Modal calculation, Included in the Modal calculation or Deleted completely from the loads list.

Select one or more loads / loadcases and press Exclude button. The selected loads appear with a gray background and they will not be considered for the calculations of modal responses.

Select one or more of the excluded loads / loadcases and press Include button to take into account the selected loads for the calculation of the modal responses.

Select one or more loads / loadcases and press the Delete button to permanently delete these loads from the list.

14.2.2.2.2. Settings for the Frequency range and resolution

The calculation of Modal Frequency Responses is performed for the frequency range that is specified through the following fields:

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14.2.2.2.3. Response DOFs

Modal response results are calculated for specified Degrees Of Freedom (DOF) of the nodes that appear in this list of the Frequency Response tab.

The handling of nodes (add nodes to the list or delete nodes from the list) is achieved from the buttons on the right side.

To modify the degrees of freedom that should be considered for selected nodes, select the nodes and press the Right mouse button on top of the respective field in the list. In the field that appears, edit the DOFs and press ENTER.

Important Remarks

- The response DOFs specified in the list are associated with the loads on a loadcase basis. That means that each loadcase can be associated with a different set of response DOFs. As a consequence, when adding Response Dofs inside the list, these Dofs will be assigned to the currently selected loadcases.

- The response DOFs specified in the list are the only DOFs for which Modal response results can be calculated. Even if results naturally exist for a degree of freedom, these could not be calculated unless this degree of freedom is specified in the Response DOFs list. For example, if for one node only the X-translational DOF is specified in the list (dofs: 1), then Modal responses results can be calculated only for that DOF although results can be perfectly feasible for other DOFs of the same node.

14.2.2.2.4. Calculation of Modal Frequency Responses � 2Dplot menu

After the Frequency-dependent Dynamic loads, the frequency range and the Response DOFs are specified, press the 2Dplot button to select which Modal Frequency Response variables to plot.

It is important to clarify that: • The calculation of modal responses is conducted for each loadcase. Loadcases are

not combined with each other. • It is possible to calculate the modal response for each �included� mode separately in

one step. To do so, activate the Generate curves for every mode flag button within the Settings tab (refer to 14.2.2.9).

The variables are by default plotted on a Magnitude-Phase plot.

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The image on the right depicts the available Modal Frequency response variables for the case where only Eigenvectors results are available for each mode in the file provided as input within the Modes tab. For calculation of modal responses for SPC Forces, MPC Forces and Static Loads, the respective results for each mode should exist in the file provided as input within the Modes tab.

For the selected variable, the user must also choose the component (x, y, z translational or Rx, Ry, Rz rotational) or the total value (translational Total or RTotal rotational) to be plotted.

The available Modal Response variables can be divided into 2 groups: the ones that do not involve the Load values (Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration) and the ones that involve the Load values either as numerator or as denominator (Receptance, Dynamic Stiffness, Mobility, Impedance, Accelerance, Apparent Mass and Applied Load).

For the first group of variables, curves are created directly as depicted in the example below:

For the second group of variables however, it is necessary to specify the Load values. Therefore, after the selection of the component to be plotted, a menu pops up and the user must specify the Load values (which loads and which dofs of loads) that should be considered as numerator / denominator. This menu is shown below:

For each response node, the load applied on this node will be considered. As a consequence, for nodes with no applied loads, the calculated results will be 0.

The total of all �included� loads that were accounted for the calculation of Modal Responses will be used as numerator / denominator for each response node.

The total of the currently selected (in the list) �included� loads will be used as numerator / denominator for each response node. This option is directly related to which loads are currently selected in the loads list.

The component (dof) of the load that will be used as numerator / denominator. The �match response dof� is related to the Modal response component that was selected to be plotted.

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The following examples depict the differences between these options:

No load is applied on node 9 therefore, its receptance is 0. For the receptance of node 6, the dominator is load 231.

Example 1

Example 2

The denominator for both nodes is the total of loads 231 and 232.

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Example 3

No load exists for the X translational direction. As a consequence, in this case the Y-receptance for both nodes is 0.

Example 4

All loads are currently selected in the list therefore, the result is the same as having the All loads flag active (see Example 2).

Example 5

Only load 231 is used as the denominator for both nodes. The receptance for node 6 equals that of Example 1 (black curve).

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14.2.2.2.5 Calculation of Modal Frequency Responses � 3D Deformation menu

The user can create states at which the modal frequency variables are loaded as deformation results. Select 3D Deformation tab. The available modal frequency variables are the same as for the 2D Plot. The user can select between the translational and the rotational results and whether the magnitude, the phase, the real or the imaginary part of the variables will be loaded. There is also the option to generate Cos states for each response.

The states with the deformation results are created for the active model. The geometry of the model must have been loaded prior to calculating the modal frequency response.

14.2.2.3. Coupled Fluid-Structure analysis / Acoustic Coupling tab

It is also possible to calculate Acoustic Responses for a coupled fluid-structure analysis. The steps are the same as the ones followed in par. 14.2.2.1 & 14.2.2.2 for the calculation of structural responses with the addition of the definition of Acoustic coupling data. To summarise for the calculation of Acoustic Responses, the following need to be considered:

1. Structure and fluid modes should be provided in the Modes tab.

2. The Response DOFs entered in the respective list of the Frequency tab should be related to fluid nodes.

3. The Acoustic coupling data must be provided from within the Acoustic Coupling tab.

4. Optionally, panels can be defined from within the Acoustic Coupling tab for the calculation of Panel participations.

14.2.2.3.1. Setting the Acoustic Coupling (Fluid-Structure Interface) data

Acoustic coupling data can be acquired from any of the sources below:

- cpl file output from Akusmod with acoustic coupling data. Use the Read button.

- pch file with acoustic coupling output from Nastran. Use the Read button. These data are output by Nastran if the parameter: PARAM,AGGPCH,YES has been specified inside the Nastran Bulk data file.

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- acoustic coupling data calculated by µETA. Use either the Read button for coupling data that have been previously saved in a file using the Save button or the New button to calculate new acoustic coupling data.

When the New button is pressed, the Fluid-Structure Interface window pops-up:

The necessary input consists of the Fluid group and the Structure group that should be considered for the Fluid-Structure Interface as well as a search distance as the percentage of the minimum solid (fluid side) edge length.

After the input is provided, press Calculate and the Fluid-Structure Interface is calculated and listed in the corresponding table.

Remarks on Acoustic coupling data (Fluid-Structure Interface)

- Use the Include / Exclude buttons at the bottom of the list to set the coupling data that should be considered for the calculation of Acoustic responses. Whole acoustic coupling data sets may be included / excluded as well as specified coupling node pairs of a data set.

- Values in the columns: Factor, AreaX, AreaY, AreaZ can be edited and modified in the same way as in the lists of the Modes tab and the Frequency Response tab.

- Selected coupling node pairs are identified on the model.

- Coupling data from the list can be saved in Nastran format as DMIG keywords (in the same format that Nastran outputs the relevant data).

- µETA considers and calculates only translational degrees of freedom of the coupling data. Coupling data for rotational DOFs, if originally exist in the coupling data file, are ignored.

- Through this Acoustic Coupling interface µETA provides flexibility for the definition of the Fluid-Structure Interface. The user can specify several coupling data sets, each of them related only to the interface between few structure parts of the model and the fluid. In this way, the Fluid-Structure interface can be controlled in a better way.

14.2.2.3.2. Defining Panels inside µETA for the calculation of panel participations

For the calculation of Panel Participations for a Fluid-Structure interface analysis, the respective panels need to be defined. This is done through the bottom list of the Acoustic Coupling tab.

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To define panels, press the New button. The Advanced Filter tool pops-up. Any set of structural nodes that can be filtered can comprise a valid panel for the panel participations calculation.

The use of the Advanced Filter tool provides flexibility for the panels definition in the following sense depending on the Output option that has been selected:

Nodes: One panel is created including all structural nodes that have been filtered. That means that the user can create for calculation purposes a panel that includes nodes which do not actually comprise a physical panel.

Part Panels: The Panels that are created with this option correspond to all parts (Pids) that have been filtered.

Material Panels: The Panels that are created with this option correspond to all materials (Mids) that have been filtered.

Group Panels: The Panels that are created with this option correspond to all groups that have been filtered.

Panels which will be considered for the calculations can be controlled using the Include / Exclude buttons at the bottom of the Panels list.

The Name and Panel Grids columns of the Panels list are editable.

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14.2.2.3.3. Calculation of Acoustic Responses / Panel Participations � 2Dplot menu

After the acoustic coupling data have beset and the panels have been defined, it is possible to plot acoustic responses and panel participation results by selecting the respective options from the 2D plot options menu at the bottom of the Modal Response tool in the same way as it is done in par.14.2.2.2.4 for structural responses.

14.2.2.3.4. Calculation of Acoustic Responses � 3D Deformation menu

Similar to par.14.2.2.2.5, acoustic responses can be calculated as field data from the 3D Deformation tab by selecting the respective option. Note that in this case, pressure data sets that are calculated are considered as deformation data sets and therefore, in order to be visualized as a contour plot, the Node Data X. should be selected as a contouring variable from the Fringe options card.

14.2.2.4. Modal Participation Factors

Standard Modal Participation results can be calculated from the following options within the 2D Plot tab:

Structural Modal Participation Factors: One Structural Modal Participation Factor equals the displacement at the response degree of freedom if the response of one mode only is considered.

Fluid Modal Participation Factors: Valid only for Acoustic Coupling analysis � One Fluid Modal Participation Factor equals the pressure at the response degree of freedom if the response of one mode only is considered.

Acoustic Structural Modal Participation Factors: Valid only for Acoustic Coupling analysis � One Acoustic Structural Modal Participation Factor equals the pressure at the response degree of freedom if the acceleration of the wetted surface consists of the response of one mode only.

Calculation of Modal Participation Factors for any of the available results is also possible. If the Frequency Response > Settings > Generate Curves for every Mode (refer to 14.2.2.9) is activated, then Modal Participation Factors will be calculated for the currently selected result (eg: acceleration, etc).

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14.2.2.5. Visualisation of Frequency Response results in 2Dplot

By default, when 2D Plot frequency response results are calculated they are plotted in a Magnitude-Phase plot inside the 2Dplot tool. To switch the plot to Real-Imaginary or Polar type, select the respective option from the: 2Dplot > Plot Options > General options > Type menu. To visualise a Polar plot at a specific frequency, adjust the frequency from the 2Dplot > Axis options > Specific Frequency.

14.2.2.6. Saving FRF results in Universal format file

This is possible through the Save FRF tab. The respective results are saved in Universal format dataset 58. Select the respective FRF result type to be saved from the options menu and press Calculate.

Remarks on saving FRF results

- It is not necessary to have the results plotted in order to save the FRF in a file.

- The Response Dofs that are saved are the ones that are displayed in the dofs column of the Response Dofs list for each listed node.

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14.2.2.7. Important Remarks on Frequency Response calculations

! The calculation of modal responses takes into account the currently �included� Modes and the currently �included� loads.

! The response DOFs specified in the list are associated with the loads on a loadcase basis. That means that each loadcase can be associated with a different set of response DOFs.

! The calculation of modal responses is conducted for each currently �included� loadcase. As a consequence, for each Response node assigned to a loadcase, one curve is plotted based on that loadcase.

! Loadcases are not combined with each other.

! Modal responses cannot be calculated for Reponse DOFs that do not appear in the Response DOFs list. Since, by default, the Response Nodes enter the Response DOFs list with only the Translational DOFs (123), the user should edit the DOFs and add the Rotational DOFs (456) in case the calculation of Rotational Modal responses is required.

! Availability of calculated response variables in µETA depends on the results that exist for each Eigenmode in the file that is provided as input in the Modes tab. If only Eigenvector results are available, then µETA can calculate the Modal Response Variables for Displacements, Velocities and Accelerations. However, if SPC Forces, MPC Forces and / or Static Loads results exist for each Eigenmode, then the Modal Response results for these variables can also be calculated in µETA and the respective options appear within the 2Dplot menu.

! Only Modal damping is taken into account. Material damping, dampers and damping deriving from cbush or spring elements is not accounted for the calculation of Modal responses.

! All types of a TABDMP1 table are supported (�G�, �CRIT� or �Q�) but they are transformed to Critical damping. Therefore, the value that appears for each Mode in the Mode tab is always the Critical damping.

! For accurate results, the Modes input (Modes tab) should have been calculated on the basis of including the residual vectors for both system modes and component modes. Note that for Nastran SOL103 this is not the default option. In that case, the user should run Nastran SOL103 with the Case Control Command: RESVEC BOTH or RESVEC YES.

! In order for the modal responses to be calculated correctly, the eigenvectors should be normalized to mass.

! Acoustic coupling data cannot be calculated by µETA for Abaqus models / results.

! Since acoustic coupling data cannot be calculated by µETA for Abaqus, it is not possible to calculate panel participations for Abaqus results either.

! It is possible to calculate Acoustic responses for an Abaqus model from the normal modes of an odb file even if the acoustic coupling data cannot be defined in µETA for Abaqus. This is possible if the normal modes in the odb file include information both for the structure and the fluid. As a consequence in this case, the calculated acoustic responses are greatly affected by the value of the option �ACOUSTIC COUPLING� of the �*FREQUENCY� Abaqus keyword that has been used for the calculation of the normal modes by Abaqus.

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14.2.2.7. Transient Response tab

This is used for the calculation of Modal Transient Responses (Time domain). Through this tab the user enters the input regarding the dynamic loads and the response dofs and finally the respective results are calculated. The interface of this tab is shown in the image below and, conceptually follows the functionality of the Frequency Response tab. The difference from the Frequency Response tab lies in the fact that the input in this case is adapted to the Time Domain. There are 4 distinctive sections within this interface:

• The Load section: Controls the Dynamic Loads input that will be considered for the calculation of the Modal Transient responses.

• The settings for the time range and the time resolution that should be used for the calculations.

• The Response DOFs section: Controls the Response Dofs for which the Modal Transient Responses will be calculated.

• The 2D Plot and 3D Deformation section: Includes all available Modal Transient Response results that can be calculated and plotted.

Detailed description of each of these sections follows below.

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14.2.2.7.1. Time-dependent Dynamic Loads

The Time-dependent Dynamic Loads can be either read from a Nastran bulk data file through the Read button or can be specified inside µETA through the New button.

By pressing the Read button, a file manager pops up and the user may select the Nastran file that includes the Dynamic Loads. Alternatively, by pressing the New button, new loads are entered in the list and the user may edit them to define their parameters.

Which is the form of Time-dependent Dynamic loads?

The time-dependent dynamic loads entering the list follow the Loadcase-Loads scheme which is displayed as a tree listing. That means that each loadcase can be comprised of one or more distinctive dynamic loads. This scheme is equivalent as having defined a DLOAD in Nastran as a linear combination of one or more TLOADi loads.

Loadcase

Loads

Which Time-dependent Dynamic Loads are supported?

Read: From a Nastran Bulk data file, the dynamic loads defined with the DLOAD, TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 keywords are supported. The loadcases can be defined either as DLOADs with TLOADi entries constituting the distinct dynamic loads or directly as TLOADi. Both cases are now supported in µETA.

Note also that currently only the type LOAD is supported. The enforced motion types (DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY and ACCELERATION) are not supported.

New: When the time-dependent dynamic loads are created directly inside µETA, then these can be defined as any function of time.

Editing the parameters of dynamic loads

The parameter name F(t) indicates that this parameter should be specified as a function of time. Consequently, for this parameter the id of an existing TABLEDi table should be specified. However, note that if no TABLEDi is specified, then µETA assumes a load with magnitude 1 for the entire time range. For the rest parameters, the input is a number.

The functionality regarding editing the parameters of dynamic loads, adding multiple loads in the list and handling the loads that should be used for the Modal responses calculation is the same with that for Frequency-dependent dynamic loads (refer to the respective sections of par. 14.2.2.2.1).

14.2.2.7.2. Settings for the Time range and resolution

The calculation of Modal Transient Responses is performed for the time range that is specified through the following fields:

The time step that is used for the calculation of Modal Transient Responses is defined through the Step field.

The Output Frequency parameter defines the number of time steps for which a curve point is plotted. For example, an Output Frequency value 5 indicates that a curve point is plotted for each 5 time steps. The Output Frequency value should be an integer.

14.2.2.7.3. Response DOFs

Refer to par. 14.2.2.2.3.

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14.2.2.7.4. Calculation of Modal Transient Responses � 2Dplot menu

After the Time-dependent Dynamic loads, the time range and the Response DOFs have been specified, press the 2Dplot button to select which Modal Transient Response variables to plot.

It is important to clarify that the calculation of modal responses is conducted for each loadcase. Loadcases are not combined with each other.

The following image depicts the available Modal Transient response variables for the case where Eigenvectors as well as SPC Forces results are available for each mode in the file provided as input within the Modes tab.

For the selected variable, the user must also choose the component (x, y, z translational or Rx, Ry, Rz rotational) or the total value (translational Total or RTotal rotational) to be plotted.

14.2.2.7.5. Calculation of Modal Transient Responses � 3D Deformation menu

The user can create states at which the modal transient variables are loaded as deformation results. Select 3D Deformation with the left mouse button. The available modal transient variables are the same as for the 2D Plot. The user can select between the translational and the rotational results.

The states with the deformation results are created for the active model. The geometry of the model must have been loaded prior to calculating the modal transient response.

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14.2.2.8. Important Remarks on Transient Response calculations

The same remarks made for Frequency Response calculations apply also here. For details refer to par. 14.2.2.6.

14.2.2.9. Settings tab

In the Settings tab the user can set the settings regarding the response calculation

1. The rigid body modes may be excluded automatically according to the eigenfrequency

threshold set in the respective field.

2. If Modal damping as Structural Damping is deactivated, the values set in the Modes tab as B Ratio will be considered viscous damping. If it is activated, the values will be considered structural damping.

3. The Frequency Modal Responses can be calculated for each �included� mode separately in just one step if the respective flag button is active. This flag has no influence at all on the calculation of Transient Modal Responses.

4. The value in the Generate States Number field defines the number of the states that will be automatically generated when 3D Deformation of Frequency Response is calculated.

5. If the Include Component name flag is active, then the component name as it appears at the top, it will be included in the name of the curves that will be created for this component.

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14.2.2.10. Tables tab

The list with all currently existing tables of Nastran type TABLEDi and TABDMP1 (for damping) is available in the Tables tab. These tables can be modified through this tab. New tables can be either loaded from a Nastran bulk data file through the Read button or can be created directly through the New button.

Selected tables in the list can be output in Nastran format through the Write button.

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14.3. Frf Assembly

14.3.1. General

Using the Frf Assembly tool, the modal frequency responses are calculated for an assembled model provided that there are results available for each of the components that are assembled. Moreover, the connection properties (which are defined inside µETA), can be optimized using a genetic optimization algorithm which is embedded within the Frf Assembly tool.

The fact that a component can be represented by its FRF results, allows for the use of measured data (test data) for components. These components can be displayed as a wire (PLOTEL) mesh that connects the nodes where responses and / or excitation has been measured during the test. That means simply that modal frequency responses can be calculated for hybrid models.

The input that is necessary for this calculation is the following:

1. The geometry of the components.

2. Results for each component that is assembled. The results for the components can be either FRFs in Universal format (dataset 58) or normal modes as being output for a FE model in Nastran op2 or punch format, in Universal file format (datasets 55 and 2414 are supported) or in Abaqus odb file.

3. Definition of the connections. This takes place inside µETA. For each connection between 2 components, a node pair (one node for each component) has to be specified. These 2 nodes are supposed to be connected with the connection. The properties of the connection are also defined inside the Frf Assembly tool.

4. The dynamic loads that are applied on the assembled model needs also to be defined.

5. The Response Dofs. These are the Dofs of the assembled model for which the modal frequency responses are calculated for.

14.3.2. Description of the interface

The calculation of modal frequency responses for an assembly of different components can be done in 5 steps.

14.3.2.1. Step 1 � Load the geometry of the components

The geometry of the components is loaded from the Read Results > Geometry. The image below depicts an example with 2 components. One component is the PLOTEL model that represents the body of a car. The other component is a FE model of a subframe.

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14.3.2.2. Step 2 � Load results for each component

Open the Frf Assembly tool from the Tools > Calculate > Frf Assembly. From the Components tab, set the respective results for each component.

This is achieved in the following way:

1. Press the New button below the first list that holds the various components results and a menu pops up. Select the appropriate option to load the results of each component. The option Unv 58 Frf corresponds to FRF results in Universal format (dataset 58). When this is selected, the Edit Unv FRF card opens. From the top field of this card, select the Universal file that holds the FRF results for one component. As soon as the file is selected, all relevant information is listed in the respective lists of the card. None of these fields can be edited. This is provided just as an overview of what actually exists in the Universal file. The only item that is allowed to be specified is the Unit System (bottom of the card) where these results refer to.

In the end, press ESC to close this card.

The options: Current Modal Response Component and New Modal Response Component invoke actually the Modal Response tool card. The only difference is that the Current Modal Response Component will invoke the Modal Response tool with the settings for the last model that has been processed, while the New Modal Response Component invokes the Modal Response tool empty. From the Modal Response tool, the file with the normal mode results for

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the FE component is provided. Moreover, the user may specify which modes should be taken into account for the calculation and may also set the modal damping values (refer to 14.2 par. for more information on the Modal Response tool). After all these are set, press ESC to exit the Modal Response tool.

Using the Edit button, the settings for the selected component can be viewed and can be modified.

2. Use the Right mouse button to edit the Model id of each component so as to correspond to the model id of the geometry model as it has been loaded at Step 1.

3. Use the Exclude / Include buttons to exclude or include components to the assembly.

14.3.2.3. Step 3 � Connect the components

2 components can be connected together by providing a node pair (one node from each component) for each connection. Connections can be defined either automatically or manually.

Automatic definition of connections

For the automatic definition of connections, select the 2 components that should be connected and press the Connect button from within the Components tab. Automatic definition can be achieved based on one of the options that appear in the respective menu.

Note here that these 3 options are meant for the selection of nodes. However, it is not necessary to filter the all nodes of the required node pairs. Even if one node per node pair is filtered, the other node can be automatically identified by µETA based on a proximity criterion called: Connections Node Pair Tolerance which can be found under the Settings tab and it is user adjustable. That means for example, that in order to specify connections between 2 components, the corresponding nodes on only one of the components can be identified and then using the option Connect > Identified Nodes, the connections are defined provided that at least one node from the other component lies within a distance from its respective node of the first component. This distance should be smaller than the Connections Node Pairs Tolerance.

After the connections have been defined, switch to the Connections tab to view them inside the Connections list.

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Using the Right mouse button, all fields of a connection entry may be edited in the list and changed.

The connections displayed in the Connections list above correspond to the locations depicted with annotations in the following image for the example presented here.

Manual definition of connections

To define connections manually, press the New button inside the Connections tab. Each time this button is pressed a new connection enters the list. Using the Right mouse button, any field of a connection entry in the list can be edited and specified accordingly.

Connections properties

Connections can be either Rigid or Bushings. Select a connection from the list and the lower part of the Connections tab changes accordingly so as to display the properties of the currently selected connection.

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Modifying Connections properties

To modify the properties of one or more connections:

1. Select them from the list

2. Specify the new properties for the connections

3. Press Modify button and select the option Values of Selected Connections so as to modify the properties of the selected connections to the new specified ones.

For the example displayed on the right, a rigid connection is changed to a bushing with stiffness values in X, Y and Z direction equal to 1000.

The Unit System for the specification of the bushing properties can be specified from the Settings tab.

1

3

2 2

Saving, Reading & Switching On / Off connections

Selected connections can be saved in an ASCII file and can be read in again if the same connections need to be used.

Connections may also be switched On & Off for the calculation of modal frequency responses through the Include and Exclude buttons respectively.

Remarks on connections

- The FRF results of a test component should include each of the nodes of the test component that participate in connections, both as excitation points as well as response points.

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14.3.2.4. Step 4 � Define the dynamic loads

The dynamic loads are defined inside the respective list of the Components tab. The functionality is the same as the one described for the definition of dynamic loads inside the Modal Response tool (refer to par. 14.2.2.2.1).

Remarks on dynamic loads

- There is only one difference between the dynamic loads defined inside the Modal Response tool and the ones defined inside the Frf Assembly tool. The dynamic loads inside the Frf Assembly tool are assigned to a particular component as it can be realized by the column Component inside the dynamic loads list. That means that whenever a dynamic load is defined, this is assigned to the currently selected component. Note here that µETA does not check whether an excitation node defined for a dynamic load actually exists for the selected component. It is for the user to verify whether the defined dynamic load is valid or not.

14.3.2.5. Step 5 � Define the frequency range, the response Dofs & Calculate the responses

The frequency range is set in exactly the same way as in the Modal Responses tool (refer to par. 14.2.2.2.2) from the respective fields of the Components tab. Similarly, the Response Dofs are defined inside the respective list of the Components tab in the same way as described for the Modal Responses tool (refer to par. 14.2.2.2.3).

Remarks on Response Dofs

- The difference that applies for the dynamic loads between the Modal Responses tool and the Frf Assembly, applies also for the Response Dofs. The Response Dofs inside the Frf Assembly tool are assigned to a particular component as it can be realized by the column Component inside the Response Dofs list. That means that whenever a Response Dof is defined, this is assigned to the currently selected component. Note here that µETA does not check whether a defined response node actually exists for the selected component. It is for the user to verify whether the specified response node is valid or not.

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After the necessary input has been provided following these 5 steps, the modal frequency responses are calculated from the options at the bottom of the Frf Assembly tool. These options are the same to the ones that are available for the Modal Response tool (refer to par. 14.2.2.2.4).

The following image depicts the Acceleration on the Z axis calculated for node 1122 which belongs to the Test component.

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14.3.3. Optimisation of Bushing properties

14.3.3.1. Optimisation parameters

From within the Frf Assembly tool, it is possible to optimize the bushing properties of connections between components. The optimization settings that can be controlled by the user are the following:

1. The optimization objective can be either minimizing the maximum values of responses or lowering the response level for the whole frequency range under a user specified limit curve.

2. The lower and upper limits for the design variables (which are actually the bushing properties) are also user adjustable. These limits are defined per connection as a percentage of the initial values.

3. Dependencies between connections can be defined. That means that the dependent connections will be treated as one and will be assigned the same values during the optimization.

4. The components of the bushing properties that should be optimized are also specified by the user.

14.3.3.2. Description of the procedure

Setting up the optimization parameters

The following image depicts the optimization parameters and how these can be set up.

• The lower and upper limits of the design variables are specified per connection by editing

the respective field inside the Connections list using the Right mouse button.

• Dependencies between design variables (actually between connections) are also defined by editing the respective field of the Connections list with the right mouse button and typing the name of the dependent connection. For the example shown above, Connection 3 has dependency with Connection 4.

• To specify the components of bushing properties that should be optimized:

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3

1

2

1. Select from the list the Connections for which the components of their properties will be declared to be optimized.

2. Activate the components that should be optimized and deactivate the ones that will not be optimized. Note here that if for a component of a bushing property no value exists, then this is not considered for optimization.

3. Press the Modify button and select the Optimisation params of selected Connections option to validate the components that will be optimized.

Optimisation of bushing properties to minimize maximum response values

After setting up the optimization parameters, press the Optimise button. If the Optimiser Exhibit Table Id field within the Settings tab is empty,

then the optimization objective will be to minimize the maximum response values. As response, it is considered the option which is currently selected in the 2D Plot tab at the bottom of the Frf Assembly tool. After the optimimsation is finished and the optimized response is plotted, select one by one the connections which were optimized to see their optimized property values.

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Optimisation of bushing properties to bring the response below a limit curve

If a table id has been specified inside the Optimiser Exhibit Table Id field within the Settings tab, then the optimisation objective will be keeping the response values for the whole frequency range below the respective Table values (therefore, below the curve defined with the provided table. The table must be one of the available tables inside the Tables tab. For more details about the Tables tab refer to par. 14.2.2.10. After the optimimsation is finished and the optimized response is plotted, select one by one the connections which were optimized to see their optimized property values.

14.3.4. Related commands

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14.4. Modal Model Builder

The Modal Model Builder (MMB) is a tool for fast and interactive building of a Nastran Modal model out of a full model and its Nastran Normal Modes results.

14.4.1. Description of the interface

14.4.2.1. Modes tab

Open the Modal Model Builder (MMB) tool from the Tools pull-down menu. This tool has four tabs. The first one is the Modes tab and this is depicted below:

1. First of all, before invoking the MMB, load the geometry of the model. In case geometry has

been loaded from the NASTRAN .op2 file where the Eigenvalue results lie, then the respective modes are already listed when the MMB is opened. If geometry is loaded from another file, then specify in the respective field of the MMB the file where the Eigenvalue results lie (a File Browser is also available). The results can be loaded either from .op2 files or from punch files (SORT1 and SORT2).

2. These buttons control the Modes in the list. Selection in the MMB lists follows common selection features within µETA. - Select a Mode and press the Animate button to see this mode animated on the screen. - Select another mode and press the Animate button again to see the last selected mode

animated. - Press Stop button to stop the animation. - Select one or more modes and press Exclude button. The selected modes appear with a

gray background and they will not be considered for building the Modal Model. - Select one or more of the excluded modes and press Include button to include the selected

modes within the Modal Model. 3. The Frequency, the Mass and the Damping of a mode can be changed.

- To modify the Frequency, the Mass or the Damping Ratio of one or more modes, select the modes and press the Right Mouse button on top of the respective value of one of the selected modes. Type the new value in the text field that appears and press ENTER. The new value is now applied to all currently selected modes.

- Alternatively, to modify one of the above values for only one mode, double-click the respective value with the Left Mouse button.

- To retrieve the original default values of the parameters press Reset button. - Alternatively to the Damping Ratio, a damping table can be defined for a mode. Enter in the

Table field the id of the table that will be used for damping and press ENTER. The table id is assigned to the currently selected modes. Damping tables can be defined in the Damping

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tab. To view and select one of currently available tables, press <?> inside the Table field and select the table from the list that pops-up.

14.4.2.2. Damping tab

From the Damping tab the user can define NASTRAN TABLEDi tables that will be used, optionally, for damping within the Modal Model. Furthermore, the user may read defined tables from existing NASTRAN Bulk Data files.

Remark - The Damping flag button controls whether damping parameters (either Damping Ratio or

Tables for damping) will be taken into account (in other words, if they will be output) or not when creating the Modal Model. If this flag is off, then the columns B Ratio and Table will not be visible within the Modes tab.

14.4.2.3. Output Nodes tab

From the Output Nodes tab the user can control the DOFs that will be included in the list, hence, in the Modal Model definition. Selection in the list follows general selection rules within µETA. All DOFs that appear in the list by the time the Modal Model is output, they will be included in the Modal Model.

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1. To insert / delete Nodes from the list: - Press the Add Plotel Nodes button and all nodes that are connected to PLOTEL elements are

listed. By default, these nodes are listed only with three translational degrees of freedom. - Press Add Identified Nodes button and all currently identified nodes on the screen are

inserted in the list. - The user may also Pick nodes from the screen (or by editing the ids in the corresponding

field). While in the Pick mode, the user may deselect some selected nodes using the right mouse button and the list is updated accordingly.

- Press Delete button to delete selected nodes from the list. Remark

- Nodes entering the list through either the Add Identified Nodes button or the Pick option have, by default, all 6 DOFs.

2. To specify the DOFs (follow Nastran convention) that will be included in the Modal Model: - Enter the DOFs in the field and press ENTER. All currently selected nodes will be assigned

the new set of DOFs. - Select the nodes and press the Right Mouse button on top of the DOFs indicators of one of

the selected nodes. Type the new set of DOFs in the text field that appears and press ENTER. The new value is now applied to all currently selected nodes.

- Alternatively, to modify the DOFs set of only one node, press the respective DOFs indicator with the Left Mouse button.

3. To specify a new id for a node when the Modal Model is output, press the Left Mouse button on top of the respective area, enter the new id and press ENTER. If the Right Mouse button is pressed over a specified node Output id, then the id is reset to the original (the one with which the node was loaded).

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14.4.2.4. Settings tab

From this tab the user may configure the creation of the Modal Model through specifying:

- A Title. - The starting id for the numbering for the Modal Model entities that will be created. - The inclusion of RBE3s in the Modal Model. For RBE3 elements to be included in the Modal

Model, the following three conditions must be satisfied at the same time: a. The Include RBE3 flag button must be switched on. b. The RBE3s must be identified on the screen. c. At least 2 nodes (other than its Reference Grid) of each identified RBE3 must be included

within the current list of nodes that will be considered for the creation of the Modal Model. Press the Connected button to identify on the screen the RBE3 elements that are connected with at least 2 nodes (not considering the Reference Grid of the RBE3) from the list. Using the Pick option, the user may select / deselect RBE3s from the screen to be included or not within the Modal Model. Reset button resets all identified RBE3 elements on the screen.

- If the Transform to CORD2R flag button is not active, the nodes that are included within the Modal Model will be output with the same parameters as when they were input. That means that the CP and CD fields of the nodes will be kept intact and the definitions of the respective coordinate systems is kept the same as it was read. If the Transform to CORD2R flag button is active, then all nodes that are included within the Modal Model will be transformed to the specified CORD2R system (both CP and CD fields of each output node will point at the defined CORD2R). The specified CORD2R system may be either: a. User-defined. The user may edit the corresponding fields to define the id of the Coordinate

system and the coordinates of three points that used for the definition of CORD2R in Nastran. b. An existing coordinate system included in the original full model. Input the id of an existing

CORD2R in the respective field and press ENTER. The rest Transform to CORD2R fields are filled automatically.

- If the Save Header flag button is not active, the KEYWORDS regarding the Control Parameters and the ENDDATA are not written to the output file.

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14.4.3. Save the Modal Model

To create the Modal Model, press the Save Modal Model button to open the file manager and save the Modal Model. The Nastran file is created in Long Format and if the Save Header flag button in the Settings tab is activated, a default Nastran Header is also created.

Remarks

- The saved Modal Model includes all DOFs that are listed in the respective list.

- All modes of the list in the Modes tab, that are not currently excluded, are taken into account for the Modal Model creation

- The EIGR and EIGRL entries are read in during the loading procedure and they are exported along with the Modal Model.

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14.4.4. Related commands

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Chapter 15

SECTION FORCES

Table of Contents

15.1. Section Forces......................................................................................................................392 15.1.1. General .........................................................................................................................392

15.2. Description of the interface and use......................................................................................393 15.2.1. Interface ........................................................................................................................393 15.2.2. How to display section forces........................................................................................394 15.2.3. Definitions of the section force types and results ..........................................................397

15.3. Example on Section Forces ..................................................................................................399 15.4. More options and features ....................................................................................................404

15.4.1. Sections ........................................................................................................................404 15.4.1.1. Synchronize with Plane .........................................................................................404 15.4.1.2. Mark points for the Section nodes .........................................................................404

15.4.2. Force Balance ...............................................................................................................404 15.4.2.1. Coordinate System tab..........................................................................................404 15.4.2.2. 2d Plot ...................................................................................................................404 15.4.2.3. Current State, Section Nodes................................................................................404 15.4.2.4. Functions and switches on the right side of the Force Balance tab.......................405

15.5. Key points to remember for Section Forces tool ...................................................................405 15.6. Related Commands ..............................................................................................................407

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15.1. Section Forces

15.1.1. General

This tool is intended for the display and calculation of grid point forces / moments and their resultants for NASTRAN, ABAQUS, LS-DYNA and PAMCRASH. The following results must have been requested for output in order to be able to display and calculate section forces:

NASTRAN: Grid Point Forces (GPFORCE output control command) either in op2 or punch file.

ABAQUS: All components of Point Loads and Concentrated Moments (related variable identifiers: CF, CM) All components of Reaction Forces and Moments (related variable identifiers: RF, RT, RM) Internal Forces at the nodes of elements (related variable identifier: NFORC) The above ABAQUS results should be available within the odb file as FIELD results.

LS-DYNA: Element Forces in d3plot file.

PAMCRASH: Element Forces in DSY file.

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15.2. Description of the interface and use 15.2.1. Interface

As it can be seen in the picture above, there are 4 distinctive areas within the interface of the Section Forces tool:

1. The Sections area is the area where the sections are controlled from. The following actions can be performed through this area:

- Creation of sections

- Assignment of nodes to created sections

- Handling of sections through a list

- Assignment of Properties to the sections

2. The States tab holds the list that displays the states for which section results have been loaded for each section. The states, for which section loads are displayed each time, are selected through this list. The results, which are necessary to calculate section forces, are loaded from the Read Results button. Refer to par.15.1.1 for a list of these results with respect to each solver. Note that it is necessary to load the respective section-load results within the Section Forces tool even if these results have been loaded as model results for 3D-post processing.

3. Options for the display of section loads in the 3D drawing window are placed under the View Options tab.

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4. The last row of buttons:

- Set as defaults: When pressed it saves current View Options as well as the status of the Synchronize with States button (the �lock� icon within the States tab) in the META_post.xml file as the default options.

- Apply saved defaults: When pressed it retrieves the saved defaults.

- Force Balance : When pressed it opens the tables that displays the results for the currently visible section loads.

15.2.2. How to display section forces

Step 1: Create the section(s)

From the Sections list, pick the model for which a section should be created and then use any of the available options within the Create tab of the Sections area to create the section.

The actions: Delete, Rename, Identify and Merge Sections can be performed on selected sections through the pop-up menu that appears by pressing the right mouse button on top of selected sections.

Step 2: Add nodes to the section

It is not possible to visualize any section-loads if no nodes have been assigned to the section.

By default, the sections that are created using the From Plane option have the interface nodes at the plane position assigned automatically to them. If a section is created From a Group that includes nodes, then these nodes are automatically added to the section. Sections created with any other option, do not have any nodes assigned automatically to them.

Sections that currently do not have any nodes are marked in the list with the symbol .

To add or remove nodes from a section, select the section from the Sections list and then use any of the available options within the Add-Remove Nodes tab.

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The Interface Nodes refer to all nodes, which are connecting elements of the section with elements that do not belong to the section.

Note that the options: SPC Nodes, MPC Nodes and Force Nodes are valid only for NASTRAN.

The nodes that are currently assigned to a section are marked as black dots on the model when the respective section is selected in the Sections list.

Optionally, from within the Properties > Watch Node tab, a Watch Node can be specified for a section. This should be one of the nodes that have been assigned to the section. For the Watch Node, it is possible to display the section forces for multiple states simultaneously (see par.15.2.3 �Definitions of the section force types and results�).

Step 3: Load the section forces results

Press the Read Results within the States tab and from the file manager that pops up, select the file that holds the section force / moment results, then select from the list of states the ones that should be loaded and press Read.

Note that states (subcases) that do not include section forces results are marked in the list and cannot be selected for loading.

The loaded states appear in the States list. These states are the same for all sections of the same model and they appear in the States list each time a section of that model is selected.

It is recommended to keep the flag �Read Forces only for current sections nodes� active. If this is deactivated then results for all nodes of the model are loaded and therefore, the user runs the risk of high memory allocation.

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Step 4: Display the section force results

Switch to the View Options tab. From the relevant options select what should be displayed on the model in the drawing window.

Provided that the �lock� icon within the States tab (this �lock� is different from the one in the View Options tab) is pressed, the visibility of the section loads in the drawing window is synchronized with the States. That means that as the user changes the states (subcases) of the model, the section forces and moments are automatically updated so as to correspond to the current state.

The type of section force results that is considered each time is controlled from the 2 options menu at the top of the View Options. For more information on the different types of section force results refer to the next par. 15.2.3. �Definitions of section force types and results�.

The picture above corresponds to the Total Moment of SPC forces for a pure torsion loading. It can be seen from the picture that this moment is in the opposite direction (as it is expected) to the one deriving from the applied loads.

However, more states (subcases) can be selected from the States tab and the corresponding section loads are viewed simultaneously in the drawing window.

By pressing the Show Force Balance Table button, the loads that are currently viewed in the drawing window are also displayed in a table.

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15.2.3. Definitions of the section force types and results

The section forces types and results that are calculated and displayed at any time correspond to the combination of the current options of the 2 options menu within the View Options menu.

The left menu includes the following options:

Internal Loads: Only the contributions of the neighbouring elements that are included in the section are considered for each assigned (added) node.

Internal Pamcrash Loads

Same as the Internal Loads but with the opposite sign so as to comply with the PAMCRASH section force definition. If calculated section forces are compared to the ones output by PAMCRASH, then use this option.

Applied Loads: Only the Applied Loads on each assigned (added) node of the section are considered.

Reaction Loads: Only the Reaction Loads on each assigned (added) node of the section are considered.

MPC Loads: Only the MPC Loads on each assigned (added) node of the section are considered.

Freebody Loads:

With this option, the following loads are considered for each assigned (added) node of the section: Applied Loads, Reaction Loads, MPC Loads and the contribution to each added node from the connected elements that are not included in the section (these nodes, in particular, are called �interface nodes�).

Freebody Loads without MPC

With this option, the loads considered are those of the Freebody Loads option excluding the MPC loads (which are not considered at all). This last option is intended for use in cases where there is an Applied Load or an SPC load fixed on an element for which MPC Loads are calculated (such as RBE2, RBE3, etc). Such a case is shown in the images below:

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The interface nodes and the node of the force have been added to the section shown on the left. Therefore, all external loads to that section are accounted for and the total load calculated from these partial loads should be equal to 0, since the section should be in equilibrium.

However, the external force is applied on the independent node of an RBE2 element. For this node, an MPC Load also exists. This MPC Load is opposite to the Applied Load since the node itself should be in equilibrium.

The consequence of that fact is that when the Freebody Loads are calculated, the MPC Load is also considered and therefore, the total force is not equal to 0 as someone would have expected.

For that case, it is useful to use the option: Freebody Loads without MPC.

The right menu includes the following options:

Selected States, Total:

The resultant force and moment of the forces and moments acting on the assigned (added) nodes is calculated for each selected state. The resultant force and moment is calculated and displayed on the Summation Point which is defined in the Properties > Summation Point tab. By default, the Summation Point is the geometrical center of the nodes of the section for all sections except those that are created From Plane. For the latter ones, the default option is the geometrical center of added nodes, thus assuring that, in cases where results derive from explicit solvers (PAMCRASH, LS-DYNA), the section moments calculation complies with the respective results from the solver. When the Selected States, Total option is selected, then for each force F the cross product rXF with respect to the Summation Point is added to the resultant moment.

Current State, Section Nodes:

The forces and moments acting on each assigned (added) node are summed up on each node and the total force and moment on each node is displayed. This is done only for the current state which is the last state selected in the States list. This current state is also marked in the States list. No cross product rXF is calculated in this case and therefore, the results in this case are independent of the Summation Point that has been defined.

Selected States, Watch Node:

The forces and moments acting only on the Watch Node (defined for a section in the Properties tab of the Sections area) are summed up and the total force and moment is displayed. This applies for the selected states in the States list. No cross product rXF is calculated in this case and therefore, the results in this case are independent of the Summation Point that has been defined.

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15.3. Example on Section Forces

The following sample model will be used for the demonstration of the Section Forces tool. The model consists of 2 quads with dimensions 20 X 20.

Nodes 1 and 6 are constrained with SPCs in X, Y, Z and Ry directions.

The loadcase that is analysed is a bending load caused by a pair of equal forces Fz = -20 acting on each of the nodes 3 and 4.

Three sections are analysed:

Section 1: Included elements 1 and 2. Added nodes 1 and 6 (SPC nodes).

Section 2: Included elements 1 and 2. Added nodes 1 and 6 (SPC nodes) and 3 and 4 (Applied Forces).

Section 3: Included element 1. Added nodes 1 and 6 (SPC nodes) and 2 and 5 (Interface nodes).

Section 1 - Section Nodes: 1, 6

Reaction Loads - Current State, Section Nodes

2061 == RR FzFz

80061 −== RR MyMy

Comments:

The reaction loads of each of the added (section) nodes are displayed.

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Section 1 - Section Nodes: 1, 6

Reaction Loads - Selected States, Total

Summation Point: Center of section nodes

4061Re =+= RRlactionTota FzFzFz

160061Re −=+= RRlactionTota MyMyMy

Comments: The summation point is at the center of the Nodes 1 and 6. The contribution of the forces F1 and F6 to the total moment around the y axis (rXF) is 0 because the distance of those forces from that axis is 0. Therefore, the total moment is the sum of the moments at nodes 1 and 6.

Section 1 - Section Nodes: 1, 6

Reaction Loads - Selected States, Total

Summation Point: Center of whole model

4061Re =+= RRlactionTota FzFzFz

=+++= 6161Re XX RRRRlactionTota FzrFzrMyMyMy

80020202020800800 −=⋅+⋅+−−=

Comments:

Forces F1 and F6 generate a moment (rXF) around the y axis when they are moved to the center of the model and this is considered for the calculation of the total moment.

Section 1 - Section Nodes: 1, 6

Freebody Loads - Selected States, Total

Summation Point: Center of whole model

Comments:

The Freebody Loads are exactly the same with the Reaction Loads since only the SPC nodes are added to the section and the reaction loads are the only external loads acting on these nodes.

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Section 1 - Section Nodes: 1, 6

Internal Loads - Selected States, Total

Summation Point: Center of whole model

Comments:

The Internal Loads in this case are equal to the Reaction Loads but of opposite direction. These internal loads are the contribution of element 1 (included in the section) to nodes 1 and 6. Actually, in these cases, these are the loads that are applied from the structure to the nodes so as to counterbalance reaction loads and maintain equilibrium for each node.

Section 2 - Section Nodes: 1, 6 (SPC), 3 and 4 (Applied loads)

Applied Loads - Current State, Section Nodes

Comments:

These are the external applied loads as they were specified in the input file.

2043 −== AA FzFz

Section 2 - Section Nodes: 1, 6 (SPC), 3 and 4 (Applied loads)

Applied Loads - Selected States, Total

Summation Point: Center of whole model

4043 −=+= AAalAppliedTot FzFzFz

=+= 61 XX AAalAppliedTot FzrFzrMy

80020202020 =⋅+⋅=

Comments:

Forces F3 and F4 generate a moment (rXF) around the y axis when they are moved to the center of the model and this is considered for the calculation of the total moment.

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Section 2 - Section Nodes: 1, 6 (SPC), 3 and 4 (Applied loads)

Freebody Loads - Selected States, Total

Summation Point: Center of whole model

0Re =+= lApplieTotalactionTotaTotal FzFzFz

0Re =+= alAppliedTotlactionTotaTotal MyMyMy

Comments:

In this case, all external loads acting on the model have been considered. The total resultant force is 0 and the total resultant moment is 0. The freebody requirement for a body in equilibrium is satisfied.

Section 3 - Section Nodes: 1, 6 (SPC), 2 and 5 (Interface Nodes)

Internal Loads - Current State, Section Nodes

Comments:

These are the contributions from element 1 (belongs to the section) to its nodes as they are loaded from the results file.

2061 −== II FzFz 8006 == IMy1IMy

2052 == II FzFz 4005 −== IMy2IMy

Mx

In the image on the left it has been selected to display all moment components with respect to the global coordinate system and not the resultant as in the cases before. It can be seen that an component that equals to 30 has been also calculated for nodes 2 and 5 by the solver.

Section 3 � Section Nodes: 1, 6 (SPC), 2 and 5 (Interface Nodes)

Internal Loads � Selected States, Watch Node Watch Node: 2

These are the contributions from element 1 (belongs to the section) to node 2 as they are loaded from the results file.

202 =IFz 400−=2IMy

As in the previous image, here it has been selected to display all moment components with respect to the global coordinate system and not the resultant. The forces and moments for node 2 are exactly the same as in the previous image. The difference is that they appear only for node 2.

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Section 3 - Section Nodes: 1, 6 (SPC), 2 and 5 (Interface Nodes)

Internal Loads - Selected States, Total

Summation Point: Center of whole model

05261 =+++= IIIItalInternalTo FzFzFzFzFz

0XX 61

5261

=++++++=

II

talInternalTo

FzrFzrMyMyMyMyMy

Comments:

The total internal force and total internal moments of an element calculated at any point should be 0 in order for the element to be in equilibrium. This condition is satisfied here after all internal loads for the element have been considered.

Section 3 - Section Nodes: 1, 6 (SPC), 2 and 5 (Interface Nodes)

Freebody Loads - Selected States, Total

Summation Point: Center of whole model

Comments:

For a body to be in equilibrium, the total external force and moment calculated at any point should be 0. This is displayed in this case where all external loads acting on element 1 have been considered.

The external loads are: for nodes 1 and 6 the Reaction Forces and for nodes 2 and 5 the contributions from element 2 which does not belong to the section. These external loads are completely the opposite (in direction) from the respective internal loads acting on these same nodes.

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15.4. More options and features

15.4.1. Sections

15.4.1.1. Synchronize with Plane

The option Synchronize with plane within the Create tab can be applied only for sections that have been created with the From Plane option. When this button is pressed, the corresponding section is updated automatically from the current position of the plane.

15.4.1.2. Mark points for the Section nodes

The section nodes (added nodes) of a plane are marked as black dots on the model when the section is selected. To change the size of the marking dots, use the command:

section options pointsize <Enter the size value>

15.4.2. Force Balance

15.4.2.1. Coordinate System tab

A coordinate system, other than the global, may be assigned to any currently loaded model through the Properties > Coordinate System tab. In such case, the components of the forces and moments will be calculated and displayed with respect to this coordinate system. To do so, switch the respective menu within the Properties > Coordinate System tab, to the Specify option and enter the id of the coordinate system.

15.4.2.2. 2d Plot

It is possible to plot directly section forces results in a 2d Plot window. The relevant options are located at the bottom of the Force Balance Table. Specify the values for the X and the Y axis and plot the respective curves for the currently displayed results in the table.

15.4.2.3. Current State, Section Nodes

When the Current State, Section Nodes option is active, it is possible to identify / reset selected listed nodes on the screen. To do so, select the nodes in the list, press the right mouse button and a menu with the relevant options pops up.

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15.4.2.4. Functions and switches on the right side of the Force Balance tab

The following buttons are available on the right side of the Force Balance tab:

Controls the visibility of the columns of the Force Balance table.

Controls the format of the values in the table.

Options for saving the table contents in csv format.

Switch for Auto-updating of the list. If this is active, any change to the options and the parameters is reflected automatically to the table contents.

Button for updating the table contents. If the list is already updated, this button is inactive (it cannot be pressed).

15.5. Key points to remember for Section Forces tool

• Currently the tool is addressed to the respective results for NASTRAN, ABAQUS, LS-DYNA and PAMCRASH. If these results are not available in the results file, then section forces cannot be calculated / displayed.

• For each section, the loads that are taken into account for display and calculations are the loads acting on the nodes that have been assigned to the section. For PAMCRASH and LS-DYNA these forces at the nodes are calculated from the contributions of neighboring elements. µETA can also calculate Section Forces based on LS-Dyna and PAMCRASH Beam Forces results.

• The section forces are calculated for the added nodes (section nodes). If no nodes have been added to a section, then section forces cannot be calculated. Moreover, the results for the section forces always depend on the nodes that have been added to the section.

• As a consequence of the above statement, when the loads equilibrium for a free body is examined (free body requirement), the user should ensure that all respective nodes have been added to the section.

• The Summation Point affects only the section forces calculation with the option Selected States, Total.

• Setting a coordinate system other than the Global for section forces, affects only the load components and not the resultants. The user can assign different coordinate systems to different Sections - the coordinate system specified is assigned to the Sections selected in the list.

• Section forces results can be

• Load vectors can be exportedthe Export Vectors button in imported directly in the pre-pmoments, or both. For 'Curreor not, and to choose to outprows in spreadsheet, or with coloring). For 'Selected statethat is attached to the summ

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plotted directly in a 2D plot.

directly in NASTRAN or in ABAQUS format either by pressing the Section Forces window. Then, these load vectors can be rocessor. The user can choose to export either forces or nt State, Selected Nodes', user can choose to output the grids ut only marked vectors (the vectors can be marked by selecting the 'Mark vectors' button - the marked vectors have a lighter s, Total', the user can choose the id offset of the created node ation point.

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• The displayed magnitudes� font type and size and the format and number of digits of the values and the font selected can now be adjusted from the Settings card - the settings are the same as those of the identified.

• It is now possible to change the color of each vector component separately. By right-clicking on the color button a menu pops-open allowing the user to select the component for which the color will be changed.

• If a section does not have Section forces read, its entry in the list of available sections is marked with a red exclamation mark ! . Such a case will happen if the user selects to read section forces with the Read Forces only for the current sections nodes option for existing sections and a new one is created - the new section will be marked with a red mark.

• The Section Forces tool can be used with multiple models.

• The user can linearly combine Section Forces� results states, even if from different models. This can be done through the right mouse button�s Linear Combination menu option, after selecting the required states. In the card that appears, the user can specify the parameters (Load Factor of each state, state id, etc) and press the Apply to linearly combine the listed states.

• The scale of the currently visible vectors (forces and moments), can be automatically calculated with the 'Auto Calculate Vector Scale' button, so that their length is about 10% of the overall model size. When the Lock button is activated, µETA locks the Auto Vector Scaling, so whenever the visible vectors change (e.g. by changing the state) the scale is recomputed.

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15.6. Related Commands

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Chapter 16

ANNOTATION TOOL Table of Contents

16.1. General .................................................................................................................................410 16.2. Creating Annotations ............................................................................................................411

16.2.1. Through the Annotations Management card .................................................................411 16.2.2. Extra options for creating annotations from the commands list .....................................412 16.2.3. Creating multiple annotations........................................................................................412

16.3. Handling Annotations............................................................................................................413 16.3.1. Use of mouse buttons ...................................................................................................413 16.3.2. Filtering Annotations .....................................................................................................413 16.3.3. Arranging Annotations...................................................................................................414 16.3.4. Copying Annotations .....................................................................................................414 16.3.5. Categorizing Annotations ..............................................................................................415

16.4. Pointer Attachment ...............................................................................................................415 16.5. Text Editing...........................................................................................................................418

16.5.1. General .........................................................................................................................418 16.5.2. Variables used with the Annotation�s text......................................................................419 16.5.3. Built-in functions that return the values of annotations..................................................424 16.5.4. Example of attaching Annotations on Parts ..................................................................425 16.5.5. Example of attaching Annotations on Planes ................................................................426 16.5.6. Attaching Annotations on Groups..................................................................................427

16.5.6.1. Extra commands regarding Annotations on Groups..............................................427 16.5.7. Attaching Annotations on Curves ..................................................................................427 16.5.8. Attaching Annotations on Selected Entities...................................................................427 16.5.9 Annotation On Window ..................................................................................................428

16.6. Position of the Annotation .....................................................................................................430 16.7. Value-based properties.........................................................................................................431 16.8. Annotation command options ...............................................................................................432 16.9. Related Commands ..............................................................................................................433

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16.1. General

Annotations in µETA PostProcessor is a comprehensive tool for adding text and marking positions and results in a drawing or a 2Dplot window. The user can control the annotation format by editing the position, the text style and the pointers directly from the interface. The Annotations tool can be invoked through the Tools pull down menu.

The following sections are identified within the Annotations Management window:

All created Annotations are listed in this list along with their respective ids

Buttons for Creation / Deletion / Focus of annotations.

Annotations list: All currently existing annotations are listed here.

Tabs for annotation styles and features.

atures urrently active

Buttons for copying and grouping annotations

Settings and feregarding the cTab.

410 µETA v.6.5.0 User�s Guide

Settings for annotations styles (pointer styles, font styles, etc). Press the Set as defaults button and the settings are saved in the META_post.xml file. The Apply saved defaults button can be used to revert to the default settings, in case annotation settings have been changed by the user at some point.

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The following tabs are available within the Annotations Management card:

- Pointer tab from where you can control the style of the pointer and specify the entities or the function results on Parts, Entities and Groups to be indicated.

- Text where actually the appearance and the visibility of the annotation is controlled.

- Position from where you can define the position of the annotation in the window either by inputting the X-Y (Screen Plane) position in the respective fields or interactively using the cursor.

16.2. Creating Annotations

16.2.1. Through the Annotations Management card

Once the Annotations Management Window is active the user has to press the NEW button at the bottom menu of the card to create an annotation or to select any of the available attachment places and press Pick or write the values in the respective fields that appear and press ENTER. The new annotation is directly listed in the Annotations List on the left side of the card and, by default, appears on the top left corner of the Active Window. The user can create as many annotations as needed by pressing the NEW button.

Remarks - Once the new annotation entry is listed in the Annotations List it takes a unique id and the user has to select it (becomes highlighted) in order to apply a feature on it.

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16.2.2. Extra options for creating annotations from the commands list

The following options for creating annotations for parts and groups are available through the command list:

The command:

annotation add onparts pick <Enter Text> allows for multiple selection of parts. In case of multiple models and All Models are active, if the user sets the annotations pointer On Node, On Element, On Part Function on Part and On Material and the id of the entity is entered in the field (instead of picking from the screen), then, if this id exists in multiple currently loaded models, an annotation is created for each model. To avoid having to specify an annotation id number, the latter can be automatically assigned through the command:

add autonumber <text>

16.2.3. Creating multiple annotations

Multiple annotations can also be created by specifying id range in the respective fields.

Open the Annotations window. Create three annotations by pressing the button New three times. Select the annotations in the Annotations List. Type $id as the text of the annotation in the Text tab. Press Apply. Alternatively the annotations can be directly created with the text $id through the command annotation add 1-3 $id

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Keep the annotations selected in the Annotations List. Switch to the Pointer tab. Select On Element. Type the ids of the elements as range or separated by /, eg: 1-3 or 23/45/62 and press Enter.

In the pop-up window select Continue. Alternatively the annotations can be directly set on the respective elements through the command annotation pointer 1-3 position element 23/45/62

16.3. Handling Annotations

16.3.1. Use of mouse buttons

The mouse buttons can be used for: - Annotations may also be selected / deselected in the list by picking

them from the screen with the left mouse button. - Double click with the left mouse button on an annotation results in

zooming in the entity that the annotation is attached on (in case a Pointer has been set for the annotation).

- Annotations may be picked and moved anywhere in the window using

the right mouse button.

16.3.2. Filtering Annotations

It is possible to select annotations through filtering according to their text or the available variables that can be used within these annotations (see also paragraph �Variables used with the Annotation�s text�). Filtering is achieved by entering a suitable string within the respective field.

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16.3.3. Arranging Annotations

In case of creating multiple annotations at the same time, the new annotations are placed by default one on top of the other. These annotations can be automatically arranged in a tree form using the Arrange tree option that is included in the pop up menus that appear when pressing the right mouse button either on an annotation or on an existing window title inside the Annotations List. The options contained in these two menus are:

1. Pressing right mouse button on Metapost in the Annotations List, a pop up menu appears where the following options exist:

Select all the created annotations Deselect all the created annotations Select the �Children� annotations Arrange vertically all the created annotations Paste annotations among drawing windows Create a new annotations� group Reset Synchronization of annotations Copy the annotations list to the clipboard Copy the selected text to the clipboard

2. Similarly, pressing right mouse button on selected annotations the following options appear:

Arrange vertically all the selected annotations Arrange all the selected annotations on the model removing overlaps Arrange all the selected annotations in the free area of the screen Copy the selected annotations among Drawing windows Cut all the selected annotations Delete all the selected annotations Reset Synchronization of annotations Copy the annotations list to the clipboard Copy the selected text to the clipboard

- Functionality inside the list follows common functionality of lists in µETA PostProcessor.

16.3.4. Copying Annotations

Annotations can be copied either to another window or to another model:

1. Copy selected annotations to other windows from right mouse button menu

2. Copy selected annotations to other models in the same or other windows from Copy To Model button. All the annotation attributes (entity attachment, text, etc) are also copied aiding they comparison between various models. Upon pressing this button a menu of the currently loaded models appears and the user can choose the target model to copy the annotations.

There is also the capability to copy annotations or groups of annotations from the current page to an other, using the command:

annotation pagecopy <annotation ids> <target page number> <target window name> annotation group pagecopy <source page num.> <name of group to copy> <target page>

<name of group>

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16.3.5. Categorizing Annotations

Pressing the Categorize button can automatically create groups of annotations regarding their type:

Categories of annotations: - regarding the model they belong to - created On Part - created On Element - created On Plane - created On Group - created On Material - created On Selection

A new User Defined Category can be created and annotations may copied or moved in this new category

16.4. Pointer Attachment

The Pointer tab controls the pointer style and visibility of the pointer as well as the entities that the pointer will be attached on. - Through the Model dependent visibility the user can optionally control the visibility of an annotation that is associated with model entities. With this option activated, annotations that point to entities that are not visible, will not be visible either. - Through the Hide Shadowed option the user can hide annotations that point to entities that are hidden behind other entities. The Pointer follows the assigned entity throughout animation or any change of state. - The Color the Style the Size and the Width of the pointer can be edited from the respective fields in the Appearance menu

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The available Attachment places are listed bellow:

None No attachment place assigned.

2D position Attaches a pointer at a specified position on the screen plane. Either by picking or by typing in the X and Y coordinate values

3D position Attaches a pointer at a specified position in space. Either by picking or by typing in the X, Y and Z coordinate values.

On Node Attaches a pointer on a specified Node of the model.

On Element Attaches a pointer on a specified Element of the model.

On Part Attaches a pointer that traces either a Maximum or a Minimum value of a specified type of results for a selected part.

On Plane Attaches a pointer that can trace a Maximum or a Minimum value of a specified type of results on a selected cross section. The cross section is displayed in the annotation.

On Curve Attaches a pointer on a curve.

On Selection Attaches a pointer that traces Maximum or Minimum values of a specified type of results for selected entities (nodes / elements).

On Group Attaches a pointer on a Group. Maximum and Minimum values within a group can also be traced.

On Material Attaches a pointer on a Material. Maximum and Minimum values within a group can also be traced.

On Window Attaches pointer on the entity of the 3d model that its 2d curve is selected.

First select the annotation from the list and pick one of the Attachment places. Then, depending on the Attachment place, select the entity to attach a Pointer to. Selection of the entity can be performed either by using the Advanced Filter tool, by picking from the screen or by typing directly the entity id in the respective field. If the user selects to use the pointers Function On Part, Function On Plane, On Selection, On Group or On Material, the annotation can be placed to point at a specific element or node based on the following criteria: For Elements - Maximum Element Function Value - Maximum Centroid Element Function Value - Maximum Corner Element Function Value - Minimum Element Function Value - Minimum Centroid Element Function Value - Minimum Corner Element Function Value For Nodes - Maximum Nodal Function Value - Minimum Nodal Element Function Value - Maximum X Displacement - Minimum X Displacement - Maximum Y Displacement - Minimum Y Displacement

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- Maximum Z Displacement - Minimum Z Displacement - Maximum Total Displacement - Minimum Total Displacement

Remarks

- Double clicking on an annotation results in automatically zooming in the entity, which the annotation is attached on.

The user may use the Adv.Filter button in order to place annotations on selected entities according to specific criteria.

This feature is available after selecting one of the following Attachment Places:

- On Node - On Element - On Part - Function on Part - On Curve - On Group - On Material

After filtering, in the Advanced Filter window, the entities where annotations will be attached, the user has the option whether to synchronize them with states or not.

If the Sync. with States button is active then annotations are locked with the states. In this way, while the user is navigating through states, the number of annotations may vary depending on the values appearing in each state, as there may be more entities than the identified ones that satisfy the filter criteria.

Synchronization of the annotations can be reset from the right mouse button pop-up menu in Annotations List by selecting the Reset Synchronized option

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16.5. Text Editing

16.5.1. General

The tab Text Options refers to text and annotations� style/appearance modifications.

- To edit the text that will be displayed in the annotation, type the text in the respective field and press the Apply button to apply the changes.

- The Text settings provide options for modifying the Text Color, the Fonts and the text alignment. The Float Prec controls the number of decimal digits that appear within the annotation from the respective float values. The values Format can be set to Fixed, Auto and Scientific.

- The Border settings provide options for editing the Border Color, the Width and the Padding.

- From the Size settings the Size of the annotation box is controlled and by default the Fixed Size flag button is disabled. Activate the Fixed Size flag button in order to adjust the size manually.

- The Background settings provide options for the Background Color and the Transparency

- If the Value Based Coloring check-box is activated then the annotation will be colored regarding the value that displays (the Default option)

The user has the option to color the annotation regarding the function value that it displays, the X Displacement, the Y Displacement, the Z Displacement or the Total Displacement of the entity that it points to.

- With the Circular option the user can apply a circular shape in the annotation. The user can set the Initial Size of the annotation. From the Fit Text button the size of the annotation can be fixed in order fit to the annotations� text.

A Multiplier factor can be set, for adjusting the circular annotation�s diameter according to its value. Note that a multiplier smaller than � the default � 100%, means that the larger the value in the annotation, the smaller its diameter will be.

The Limit to minimum option can be used for preventing the circular annotation becoming very small due to its combination of value and multiplier.

- The Plane cut settings refer only to the Function on Plane option and actually allow the user to rotate selected cross section inside the annotation window.

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- The Var Name input field refers to the creation of system variables. Actually, once the user creates the text of the annotation by typing comments and inserting annotation�s inherent variables in the text window, the contents of the annotation�s text can be referred to as a variable. This variable can be used in other applications of µETA PostProcessor (i.e. Report Composer). Once the variable is defined the user must press ENTER.

16.5.2. Variables used with the Annotation�s text

It is possible to add variables in the text field. The value of this variable will appear in the annotation and this value will be dynamically updated according to the current state. The available variables depend on the type of entity chosen for the annotation�s Pointer, therefore, it is necessary to attach a Pointer to the annotation prior to adding a variable in the text. Also mathematical operations can be performed within the Text options window (within the (`) symbol, e.g. `$val*1.1`) Pressing right mouse button inside the annotation text window an Insert pop up menu appears and the user may select the type of variables to add. The common variables for all entities are the Model variables, which include variables such as State and Time of the model. The specific variables refer to the type of entities the annotation will be attached on. All available variables are denoted with the $ sign inside the text field. These variables are:

Attachment Places

Pop-up menu inside the Text Window

Model variables and Syntax Specific Variables and Syntax

2D Position

$title

$geomFileName

$geomname

$modelnum

$subcase

$time

$mode

$frequency

$eigenvalue

$loadstep

$cycle

$lsname

$nodedataname

$funcdataname

$x $y

3D Position Same as above

$x $y $z

On Node

Same as above

$id $pid $pname $mid $mname $t $x $y $z $dx $dy $dz $dtot $val

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On Element

Same as above

$id $type $pid $mid $pname $t $mname $x $y $z $dx $dy $dz $dtot $val $cmax $cmin

On Part Depending on the Function chosen from the list the pop-up that appears is referring either to Element or to Node.

Same as above

Depending on the Function chosen in the variables list, these are referring either On Element results or On Node results.

On Plane

Same as above

$id $origx $origy $origz $normx $normy $normz $M0val

On Curve

-

$id $name $eid $x $y $yp $yr $yi

Selection

$title

$geomname

$geomFileName

$modelnum

$subcase

$time

$mode

$frequency

$eigenvalue

$loadstep

$cycle

$lsname

$nodedataname

$funcdataname

Depending on the Function chosen from the list the variables that appear are referring either On Element results or On Node results.

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On Group

$gname

$title

$geomname

$geomFileName

$modelnum

$ssubcase

$time

$mode

$frequency

$eigenvalue

$loadstep

$cycle

$lsname

$nodedataname

$funcdataname

Depending on the Function chosen from the list the variables that appear are referring either On Element results or On Node results.

On Material Depending on the Function chosen from the list the pop-up that appears is

referring either to Element or to Node.

$title

$geomname

$geomFileName

$modelnum

$subcase

$time

$mode

$frequency

$eigenvalue

$loadstep

$cycle

$lsname

$nodedataname

$funcdataname

Depending on the Function chosen from the list the variables that appear are referring either On Element results or On Node results.

On Window

$wname

$title

$geomFileName

$geomname

$modelnum

$subcase

$time

$mode

$frequency

$eigenvalue

$loadstep

$cycle

$lsname

$nodedataname

$funcdataname

-

Except from variables that depend on the type of entity chosen for the annotation�s Pointer the user can add the already defined User or System Variables. From the right mouse button pop up menu in the Annotations Text field the user may select the Variables option. A window with all the available User and System Variables listed will appear and the user can select which variables want to apply in the annotations text.

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Remarks

- The user has the option to specify different float precisions and different format for different variables in the same annotation. This can be done if the number of digits is added in brackets after the variable, along with the first letter of the desired format.

Examples: $val[2f] : $val will be represented with 2 decimal points and Fixed format. $val[1s] : $val will be represented with 1 decimal point and Scientific format. $val[3] : $val will be represented with 3 decimal points and the selected for the annotation format. $val[a] : $val will be represented with the float precision that has been selected for the annotation and Auto format.

- The user has the option to select the text that will be displayed at the synchronized annotations. First the text must be typed along with the desired variables in the annotations Text Field and then from the right mouse button pop-up menu the Use Text On Synchronized option must be selected.

- It is possible to use values from existing curves within annotations. The syntax to define such curve values is exactly the same as the one used for User Defined curves Function within the 2Dplot window. Note that in that case the string denoting the curve value must be enclosed within back quotes ` `. Examples: `c3.y`: This will report the value of curve 3 that corresponds to the current state.

Note that in this case it is necessary to have the curve synchronized with the model.

`(c2.y[max]+c3.y[max])/2`: This string will report the average value of the maximum values of curves 2 and 3.

Note that in this case, it is not necessary to have the curves synchronized with the model.

- It is necessary to attach a Pointer to the annotation prior to adding a variable in the text for the same annotation.

- In Model variables in case the model has generated states (modal or frequency response analysis) the Angle variable is added to the list (the angle variable is a hidden variable).

- Obtain the Contact Thickness value through annotation On Part by specifying a $optt variable.

- Creating a new annotation, after selecting the entities related to the annotation, a text representative of the annotation type is added by default. A list of the possible default texts follows:

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Annotation Type Default Text

None / Detach Empty Annotation

2D Pos x=$x, y=$y

3D Pos x=$x, y=$y, z=$z

On Node id=$id, val=$val

On Element id=$id, val=$val

On Part id=$id, type=$type

Function on Part id=$id, val=$val

Function on Plane plane name=$id, val=$M0val

On Curve id=$id, x=$x, y=$y

On Selection id=$id, val=$val

On Group group name=$gname, id=$id, val=$val

On Material material name=$name, id=$id

On Window Window name : $wname

The above texts and pre-defined annotation variables can be edited to suit the user's needs in the Text tab of the Annotations window.

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