Echoes of the Big Bang

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Echoes of the Big Bang. Carolin Crawford Gresham Professor of Astronomy . NASA, ESA. Stephen Leshin. Edwin Hubble. Stephen Leshin. Stephen Leshin. l ong wavelength . m icro-wave. γ -rays. X-rays. UV. IR. radio. s hort wavelength . s - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Echoes of the Big Bang

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Echoes of the Big BangCarolin CrawfordGresham Professor of Astronomy NASA, ESAPlanck/ESA1

Stephen LeshinCredit Stephen Leshin2

Stephen Leshin

Edwin HubbleCredit for background image : Stephen Leshin 3

Stephen LeshinCredit for background image : Stephen Leshin


UVX-raysmicro-waveradioIRlong wavelength

-raysshort wavelength 5


Georges Lemaitre

The primeval atomThe Big BangFred Hoyle

Cosmological principleThe Universe is isotropic and homogeneous

Georges Lemaitre

Fred HoyleNASA/ESA/Illingworth et al Background image: NASA, ESA, G. Illingworth (University of California, Santa Cruz), R. Bouwens (University of California, Santa Cruz, and Leiden University)8

Maddox et al APM Galaxy Survey Maddox et al 9

SDSS / Blanton

Credit: M. Blanton and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.10

NASA/ESA 1.8 billion years Background image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble, HPOW11


1.8 billion years 3-4 billion yearsEarth image: NASA/NOAA/GSFC/Suomi NPP/VIIRS/Norman Kuring


NASA/ESA/Illingworth et al Cosmological principleThe Universe is isotropic and homogeneousin time as well as space

Radio source number countsSteady State UniverseTime and place are unimportantThe distant Universe resembles the localBig Bang UniverseTime is important; the Universe changes and evolvesThe distant Universe is younger than the local

Observed distant radio sources as they were in the past count numbers of radio sources at different brightnesses

Martin Ryle

ESO/M KornmesserCredit: for quasar drawing ESO/M. Kornmesser16

George Gamow

The origin of the chemical elementsNASA/ESA/NotaCredit: NASA, ESA and A. Nota (STScI/ESA) background imagePlot of estimated abundances of the chemical elements of the solar system from Wikipedia



The Helium problemCredit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)18

The discovery of the cosmic microwave backgroundArno Penzias & Robert Wilson


Wavelength (cm)Intensity0.03 0.3 3 30 300NASAnasa


Provenance of plot unknown, apologies 22

Wavelength (cm)Intensity0.03 0.3 3 30 300NASA23

Provenance of plot unknown, apologies 24COBE 1989FIRAS


Wavelength (cm)Intensity0.03 0.3 3 30 300NASAFIRASnasaIntensity of CMB radiation measured by various techniquesBoth x and y axes plotted logarithmicallyShallow slope at LHS is RJ regimeSteeper slope at shorter wvelengths is the Wien regimeDeviation from a perfect black body is less than 50 parts per million



AnisotropiesCOBEDMRNASATemperature variations = density fluctuationsCOBE science working group / NASA28COBE

John Mather George Smoot


FermilabCredit Fermilab30The flatness problem

mage credit: Ned Wright's 31The horizon problem

Addison WesleyAddison Wesley32The horizon problem

Addison WesleyAddison Wesley33

FermilabRadiation-dominated eraCMBRCredit Fermilab34

35Apologies, provenance of plot unknown

FermilabRadiation-dominated eraCMBRbaryon-radiation fluidCredit Fermilab36

Temperature variations = density fluctuationsNASAordinary matter pulls together under gravityradiation pressure of photons pushes outwards

dark matter clusters under gravity

W Huthe ordinary (baryonic) matter bounces to create oscillations in the density38

Temperature variations = density fluctuationsNASA

WMAP Hinshaw et alThe Power SpectrumHinshaw et al Final angular power spectrum from WMAPsolid line shows the best-fit CDM model from Spergel et al.gray band around the model is the 1 uncertainty due to cosmic variance on the cut sky40

BOOMERanG experiment

BOOMERanG experiment

BOOMERanG experiment




WMAP Hinshaw et alHinshaw et al 46

Total matter content (curvature of space)Ordinary matterDark + ordinary matterDark energytotal baryons mass Hu & DodelsonHu & Dodelson 200247

ESOESO48WMAP age of Universe 13.7720.059 billion yearsv


Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESA50

ESA / Planck collaborationESA and the Planck Collaboration51


ESA / Planck collaborationCredit: NASA / WMAP Science Team

The WMAP 7-year total-intensity image of the CMB after subtraction of the dipole anisotropy and the radio-source foreground. The intensity range is only 200K centered on the mean brightness T0=2725 K.

52WMAP age of Universe 13.7720.059 billion yearsPlanck

NASA / WMAP Science team(Image: NASA/WMAP Science Team)55

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