# Basics of Wave Function (Molecular Orbital) Theory

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Foundations of Molecular Orbital Theory

Variational Principle for Linear Combination of Atomic Orbital

Wave Functions

Video III.i

Variational Method: Recap We can very rarely determine exact wave functions by analytical solution of a relevant Schrdinger (wave) equation But we can always evaluate expectation values for a guess wave function Variational principle for Hamiltonian operator (expectation value energy):

where E0 is the true ground-state energy Lower-limit condition: convenient way of evaluating the quality of different guesses (lower is better) It permits us to use the tools of variational calculus if depends on parameters

*Hdr*dr

E0

LCAO One-electron molecular orbitals are built up as linear combinations of atomic orbitals according to

The set of N atomic-orbital basis functions i is called the basis set and each basis function has associated with it some coefficient ai for any given MO. Use the variational principle to find the optimal coefficients. Many-electron wave functions : antisymmetrized Hartree productsSlater determinantsof occupied one-electron orbitals n

= aiii=1

N

LCAO: Energy and Minimization For a given one-electron orbital we evaluate

Hij and Sij resonance and overlap integrals Minimization condition

N linear equations must be satisfied in order for above to hold true

.

E =ai* i

*

i

H a j j

j

dr

ai* i

*

i

a j j

j

dr

=

ai*a j

ij i* H jdr

ai*a j

ij i* jdr

=

ai*a j

ij ijH

ai*a j

ij ijS

Eak

= 0 k

aii=1

N Hki ESki( ) = 0 k

The Secular Equation .

These linear equations can be solved for the variables ai if and only if

Secular: or century equations: corrections required to compensate such inequalities in the celestial motions as occur in the course of one century

H11 ES11 H12 ES12 H1N ES1NH21 ES21 H22 ES22 H2N ES2N

HN1 ESN1 HN2 ESN2 HNN ESNN

= 0

aii=1

N Hki ESki( ) = 0 k

The Secular Equation Polynomial of order N, so N roots (N different satisfactory values of E). For each Ej there is a different set of coefficients, aij (i runs over basis functions, j runs over molecular orbitals, each having energy Ej) Solve the set of linear equations using that specific Ej to determine aij values Coefficients define an optimal associated one-electron wave function j within the given basis set.

Steps in a Calculation 1) Select a set of N basis functions 2) Determine all N(N1)/2 values of both Hij and Sij 3) Form the secular determinant; determine N roots Ej of secular equation 4) For each Ej solve the set of linear eqs. to determine the basis set coefficients aij for that MO

Food for Thought In general, what are the upper and lower limits on N? Consider this from a question of physical requirements and also practicality. If it helps to have a specific example to think about, what answer might you offer for the molecule formaldehyde?

Write Hij and Sij in Dirac notation (bras and kets) and in standard mathematical notation. What are the relevant integration variables?

Under what circumstances would you expect the values of Hij or Sij to be zero?

Foundations of Molecular Orbital Theory

Integrals in the Secular Equation and Effective Hamiltonians

Video III.ii

What Are Resonance and Overlap Integrals?

Overlap is easy: a value between 1 and 1 (for normalized basis functions) measuring nearness ( |Sij | near 1) and phase relationship.

Resonance is trickier. It is helpful to consider diagonal vs. off-diagonal resonance integrals.

Diagonal is

Hii = i* Hidr

and this is the expectation value of the Hamiltonian operator for the pure basis function (orbital). That is, the resonance energy is the energy of an electron found in that orbital.

Off-diagonal Resonance Integral

Consider a system of only two basis functions, 1 and 2. Further, let the overlap integral between the two normalized orbitals be zero (i.e., S11 = S22 = 1 and S12 = S21 = 0).

In that case, the secular equation is

0 =H11 E H12H21 H22 E

Solving for E, noting that H12 = H21 gives

E =H11 + H22( ) H11 H22( )

2+ 4H12

2

2

Off-diagonal Resonance Integral

E

H11 +H22( ) + H11 H22( )2

+ 4H122

2

H11 +H22( ) H11 H22( )2

+ 4H122

2

H11 +H22( ) H11 H22( )2

2

H11 +H22( ) + H11 H22( )2

2

H11 +H22( )2

H11 H22( )2

H11

H22

E =H11 + H22( ) H11 H22( )

2+ 4H12

2

2

So, H12 couples orbitals 1 and 2, leading to a lower energy lower state and a higher energy higher state (resonance)

Effective Hamiltonian or Semiempirical Theories

Knowing the qualitative meaning of different resonance and overlap integrals means that we can adopt rational empirical approaches to estimating their quantitative values. This will likely compromise accuracy, but may greatly increase computational speed by avoiding extensive computations (especially of many very small integrals in large molecules)

Hckel Theory Molecular orbital theory (1930s) developed by Erich Hckel for unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Conventions: a) Basis set is formed from parallel carbon 2p orbitals, one per atom. b) The overlap matrix

c) Matrix elements Hii equal to the negative of the ionization potential of the methyl radical CH3, i.e., the orbital energy of the singly occupied 2p orbital in the prototypical system defining sp2 carbon hybridization.

Symbol (= 9.9 eV from experiment)

Sij = ij

Hckel Theory: Energies (d) Matrix elements Hij between nearest neighbors are also derived from experimental information.

A 90 rotation about the bond in ethylene removes all of the bonding interaction between the two carbon 2p orbitals: positive cost of the process is

E = 2Ep E

E = E E = 2Ep

The (negative) stabilization energy for the bond is distributed equally to the two p orbitals involved (divided in half) :

quantity termed used for Hij between neighbors

Hckel Theory: Energies

E = 2Ep E=-2 Ep =

So E=-(E -2Ep )=2+2

bond energy in ethylene ca. 60 kcal/mol= 2.6 eV. Dividing between the two carbon atoms: = 1.3 eV.

(e) Hij between 2p more distant than nearest neighbors is zero.

Hckel Theory: Extended?

What steps would be necessary to extend Hckel theory to include,

say, N and O atoms?

Foundations of Molecular Orbital Theory

Hckel Theory for the Allyl (C3H5) System

Video III.iii

The Allyl System: C3H5 Three carbon atoms: basis set determined from convention (a) 3 2p orbitals, one centered on each atom (1, 2, 3, from left to right) Solve a 3 x 3 secular equation. Conventions (b)-(e): H11=H22=H33= H12=H21 = H23 = H32 = H13 = H31 = 0 S11 = S22 = S33 = 1, all other S=0

Solve:

E 0 E 0 E

= 0

1

2

3

Energies Kronecker to define the overlap matrix: E appears only in the diagonal elements. Expand the 3 x 3 determinant

(E)3+(20)+(02)[0(E)0] 2( E) ( E)2 = 0

three solutions

and are negative by definition: the lowest energy solution is E1 To find the MO associated with this energy: use linear equations

E1 = + 2,E2 =

E3 = 2

aiji=1

N

Hki E jSki( ) = 0 k

Coefficients

(k = 1, k = 2, k = 3)

Infinitely many values of a1, a2, and a3 which satisfy above 2 equations Add requirement that the wave function be normalized:

a1 + 2( ) 1[ ] + a2 + 2( ) 0[ ] + a3 0 + 2( ) 0[ ] = 0a1 + 2( ) 0[ ] + a2 + 2( ) 1[ ] + a3 + 2( ) 0[ ] = 0a1 0 + 2( ) 0[ ] + a2 + 2( ) 0[ ] + a3 + 2( ) 1[ ] = 0

a2 = 2a1a3 = a1

ai2

i=1

3 =1

aiji=1

N

Hki E jSki( ) = 0 k

Lowest MO The unique values satisfying all equalities are then

coefficients are specific to the lowest energy molecular orbital E1. With both the coefficients and the basis functions, we may construct the lowest energy molecular orbital

By choosing the higher energy roots we can determine the coefficients required to construct 2 (from E = ) and 3 (from E = ).

a11 =12, a21 =

22, a31 =

12

1 =12p1 +

22p2 +

12p3

2

The other two MOs

Three orbitals: bonding, non-bonding, and antibonding Analysis of the so-called resonance energy arising from electronic delocalization in the system Delocalization: participation of more than two atoms in a given MO

a12 =22, a22 = 0 , a32 =

22

a13 =12, a23 =

22, a33 =

12

MO energy diagram

HC

CC

H

H

H

H

1 32

pC

1 =

2 =

3 =

E

+2

2

The Allyl Cation: C3H5+ Molecular aufbau principle of filling lowest energy MOs first:

each electron has the energy of the one-electron MO that it occupies (1 in this case) total energy of the allyl cation system is 2( ).

Alternative fully localized structure:

full (doubly-occupied) bond between two of the carbons

empty, non-interacting p orbital on the remaining carbon atom

energy: that of a double bond: 2( + ).

Hckel resonance ener

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