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Γιάννης ΣιάτραςΣύλλογος ΕΛΛΗΝΕΣ ΦΟΡΟΛΟΓΟΥΜΕΝΟΙ

Transcript of ΤΟ ΚΟΣΤΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ - Η Χρηματοδότηση των...

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    www.forologoumenos.gr

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    ISBN: 978-960-9751-01-8Copyright 2012 (. . : 556/2011) 2, 10556 , : 2103242032, fax: 2103242802e-mail: [email protected], [email protected] Taxpayers Association of Europewww.forologoumenos.gr: : : Open Line: , ( ). . :) : , 2012, , . , 24 2012.) (links): , , : , , GRECO , , . , . , , CD, .) : , . , , , .

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  • : . : .

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  • 2011, . : , , : www . forologoumenos . gr , , , , ., ( , ), . , , Taxpayers Association of Europe.

    , , 1963. ( ) University of Illinois, . , , . 1990 2004 & , , , . . . . www . eurocapital . gr email i . siatras @ gmail . com . .

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  • , . , , . , . ; ; ; , , . , . - , . , . . , , :) : ; ; ; ;) : ; , , ; ; ( 2 , 2012)., . , . ; ; ; , . , , , , , .

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  • , . , , . . . . , , , - . , , , . . , . , 2011, , . , . , , - . , 2012, 2 , , . , , ., . Eldion Ballabani, , . 2012

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  • , , , , . , , . , . , 2011 2012, , , , . , , , , , . 2007-2011, 64,42 . , 5 , 9 . 3 , 6,49. 2,14 , 2,44. ( ), 9,39 , 3,08, 3,73. , . , 1,85% 1,44% , , 6,88% 27 ! , 857 , . , . , (GRECO) , , .

    7

  • , ! , , . ( , ...), . , , , , . ; , , ;, . . , . , , . , . , , , , , ., , , . , , , . , , . , , .. , , . , . , , : .

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    1 - 11

    2 - 15 : 15 17 20 3 - 22 .. 22 25 4 - 29 29 GRECO Evaluation Team (GET) 36 (GRECO) 49 (GRECO) 50 52 59 5 - . 67 67 70 74 77 84 90 92 95 101 103 106 109 113 115 119 121 123 127 132 136 139 143 146 150 154v 157 6 - . 160

    164

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  • 1.

    , , , . 1990, 11 27 , 2000, 19. , , , 1. , , , . . . , , . 2. 1959, , . , 1967 . , , . , , . 1 , . , . , , .2 William Bourke Cockran, , 1904, , Theodore Roosevelt ( ). , 1960.

    11

  • , 3:

    1959 1994 1964 1995v 1969 1997 1974 19974 1975 1999. 1975 1999 1984 2003 1985 2005 1986 2005 1988 2005 1989 2006 1990 2007 1991 - 1991 , . , 1970, - , , , , , . ,

    , , . , status quo , . , , .3 () 1967. , 1975 (Short Money), . , 1995 . , , .4 1975, , , 2004.

    12

  • , , , :- , 1960 1970, . , 5, , , . - , , , .- , , ., , , , . , , , , . . , , , , , , , , ., , , - , . , , 5 1960 1970 , . ( , , , , ).

    13

  • , . . , . , , , ., , , , , . , . , , . , , . , , . , , . , . , . , , . . , ., , : . , , , , , . . . , , .

    14

  • 2.

    6 (Council or Europe Conseil de lEurope) , , , . . , (Venice Commission ), 2001: : :

    , 6-10 2001:

    . , , , . , . , . , . .

    6 1949. (47 , , ) , , , , . 15

  • . . . . :) .) . ) , , . . , , , . . , , .

    , . . , , , . . . , . . . . . , , . .

    . . , , .

    16

  • , , , . , , , .

    : (Rec(2003)/4)

    , 2003, 4 /2003 (Recommendation Rec(2003)4), , , . , , :

    , , , , , , , 2003/4, . ,

    ) , , , ) ("Group of States against Corruption GRECO") .

    17

  • 2003/4: .. . 1: . , , . . . . , , . , / , . 2: . . 3: .) , , :- - - - ) , : - - - . 4: . . . 5: .) , :i. ii. .) , .

    18

  • ) . 6: . , 4, , . 7: . , .. . 8: . , , :- .- .. . 9: . , , . 10: . .IV. 11: . ( 6), . , , , , 6. 12: .) , .) , . 13: .) 11, 14, .

    19

  • ) , , , 11, , . 10 12.V. : 14: .) .) , . 15: . , .VI. 16: , .

    - (GRECO) (The Group of States against Corruption - GRECO) . 1999 17 . GREC . 49 , . 2010, , GRECO. , GRECO , . , GRECO - , , , .

    20

  • GRECO , . . , , , Rec(2003)4 . , GRECO ( ). 1 2012. , . - : Council of EuropeCouncil of Europe - Group of States against Corruption (GRECO)Group of States Against Corruption ( Wikipedia)How does GRECO work?GRECO - GRECO - GRECO - 11 (English)Council of Europe - Venice Commission Council of Europe - Venice Commission: Opinion on the need for a Code of Good Practice in the Field of Funding of Electoral CampaignsCouncil of Europe - Venice Commission: Opinion on the Prohibition of Financial Contribution to Political Parties from Foreign SourcesCouncil of Europe Venice Commission: Guidelines and Report on the Financing of Political Parties

    21

  • 3.

    , , , , ., 1, , , . 1: ..

    ( = , = )

    22

  • :

    1) ; , , 25 27 . ( ) , ., , , . , , , , , ., . , : ) , ) , ) ( , ) ) .2) ; , 19 27 . , , , ., , . , 7. , , .3) ; . , , .4) ; 8 27 . . , 7 , , 1966 1968, ( 11 1999).

    23

  • , , . , , . , .5) , , . . , . ( ), ..6) ; 22 27 .. , , ., . , , ., , - , . , . , , , , . , , , , . , , , , . , , , . , .7) ; 16 27 , . , . , , , . ( , ),

    24

  • , .8) ; 14 27 , . . . , . , - , .9) ; 19 27 . , . , , , .10) ; 19 27 . , , . , , ., , , . , , , . , , 2010, 936,17 . 8. , , . , : , , , .8 , .. , , .

    25

  • 2:

    : (1) 27 . (2) . : Eurostat. (3) , -27. (4) , 2010. . (5) , 27 . (6) , . (7) , 2010. (8) , 27 ... (9) , . , , 2010. , . , , 20 4 , , ( ), 5 .

    26

  • : 5 , 9 .. , 3

    , 9. 3 , . , 0,0283%

    0,1428% . 27 .., 0,0076% ( ) 0,0298% ( ). 1,85% 27 .. 1,44% 27 .., 6,88% ... , GRECO , . , 857 ( ), . , , 10, . 857 GRECO, 30 . , .., , .

    , 3 , , . , :

    4 , , , 6,49. 27 2,44. 4 , , , , 9,39. 27 3,73.

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    : (1) 27 . (2) . (3) , . (4) . (5) , .

    28

  • 4.

    , 2, 29 , : , . , , . , . O , . . . 1443/1984 29 1975, . 60 . 2218/1994 21 . 2344/1995, . . 2429/1996 1443/1984 . . 3023/2002 ( 146) , , , . . 3242/2004 . 3274/2004. ,

    29

  • , . 3023/2002, . , . 3023/2002, , , . . , , , . . , , . . , . . () . , , .

    : , . . ' 1,02 (1,02%) . 0,22 (0,22%) . , , , , 0,35 (0,35 %). .

    : ) ,

    30

  • . 80% , . ) , . 10% , .) , , , (70%) , , (1.5%) . 10% , . : () () : , , , 70% , , 1,5% . , , 1,5% . 60% 40% . 11: , , , . (0,1%) , . , . , .11 , 2006, 2006. , , . 2 . 29 , , . ( 3157/2009 . ' )

    31

  • 12: , , , 2007-2011, 3 3: 3

    2007:

    20.982.849 2.057.142 3.026.969 26.066.960 18.952.280 1.858.067 2.705.902 23.516.249 4.327.452 424.260 393.473 5.145.185 3.215.971 315.291 217.729 3.531.262 1.838.958 180.290 146.368 2.165.616 835.890 81.950 917.840 50.153.400 4.917.000 6.490.441 61.560.841

    3

    2008:

    21.819.488 2.139.165 0 23.958.653 20.071.669 1.967.811 0 22.039.480 6.076.530 595.738 0 6.672.268 4.622.851 453.221 0 5.076.072 4.039.862 396.065 0 4.435.927 56.630.400 5.552.000 0 62.182.400

    3

    2009:

    23.933.840 2.346.455 7.053.618 33.333.913 22.016.655 2.158.496 6.507.803 30.682.954 6.665.358 653.466 1.529.354 8.848.178 5.070.814 497.139 792.594 6.360.547 4.431.333 434.444 800.885 5.666.662 - 242.837 242.837 62.118.000 6.090.000 16.927.091 85.135.091

    3

    12 . , . , , , , , . , 5 2007-2011 15,6 ( 5,9% ). 32

  • 2010: 13 18.040.993 1.768.725 0 19.809.718 13.711.867 1.344.301 0 15.056.168 4.273.150 418.936 0 4.692.086 3.635.404 356.412 0 3.991.816 3.191.242 312.867 0 3.504.109 - 1.590.201 155.902 0 1.746.103 44.442.857 4.357.143 0 48.800.000

    32011: 14

    19.803.784 1.941.548 0 21.745.332 15.481.744 1.517.820 0 16.999.564 4.758.572 466.528 0 5.225.100 3.968.448 389.064 0 4.357.512 3.543.132 347.364 0 3.890.496 - 1.639.852 160.768 0 1.800.620 49.195.532 4.823.092 0 54.018.624

    : : ) , . ) . ) .) , . , , , 30.000. , . : , , , 15.000. , , , 3.000. , 15.000.13 : /105612-7-201014 : ) , ) , ) . , .

    33

  • 30.000 , . - : , , , , , , . , . 600, , . 600, , . : , , ' , . . , (2) , , , , . . , , . , . , , , . , , , , (15) , , . : ,

    34

  • , , (20%) : 1) , 40% , , , 150.000.2) , 5% , , , , .3) - , 10% , , , .4) 50% . , 150.000.5) . 50% , , , . , 20 GRECO, , , , .

    35

  • GRECO Evaluation Team (GET) GET, (, GRECO Evaluation Team, GRECO), , 2009). ( : GRECO: Evaluation Report on Greece - Transparency of party funding)15 GET, :) . 3023/2002, 2002. GET , , Rec (2003) 4 . , , , . : GET, - - 90% ( ) 60% . , - - .) . 3202/2003 , , , , . , . , GET, . Rec(2003)4, . , . GET, . GET, . , , , .15 GRECO 11 2010.

    36

  • . . , , . GET , 16. . . , GET, , 100.000 . , GET . , GET 17, , . , , 2013. , GET . 3023/2002 , GET Rec(2003)4. , (. 3202/2003) . , , , , , , , 18. 16 . , 2009 ( 51), 12,7 , 52,8% 2009, 19,2% , 41,5% . , , 7,2 , ! ( ... ) , , ( , , 20% ).17 2010.18 , . (Transparency International),

    37

  • GET1) , , 42 . , 30 . . , GET . . () , () . . , GET , .2) 600 200 . ( ), . , , , . . , , , , . , , . GET, . , GET 19 . (: 2010 National Survey on Corruption in Greece).19 . , , ( ). , , . 2 16 3023/2002, , , 600 . , , !

    38

  • , . , !3) GET , , , 20, , , . GET , , . GET : (i) (ii) , , . 4) GET, , ( ) . GET , . , , , . , , , . , GET , , . , , , , 23 24 . , , , , 2 29, , .20 80% . , , 80% ( ), , , !

    39

  • . 5) . 5 6, 3023/2002 , " . GET, : ) , . , , , , . ) GET, , . , , .) , , . GET, , . ) , ( ) . , , . , ( ), . ) , GET , . , GET , , , ( ), , , , . 6) GET 857 . ,

    40

  • 300 22. , . GET, , , , . , , . , , . GET, , . , GET , , . 7) , , 21. GET, , , ., GET . , , , GET 11 Rec (2003) 4, , , .8) . , ! , GET, , , 22.21 2010 4,4 6 .22 , . , . , , ( , - ), . ,

    41

  • , , , . . , GET , , .9) . , , , , 23. , . , GET , , , , , .10) , . (, , ) , . , , . . . ( ) , , . fax email , ! , , , . , , . ! , site , - . - .23 , , , 2009. ( , ..., 2009 1 10).

    42

  • , , GET , . , GET , : (i) (ii) , .11) GET, , , . GET , . , , .

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    43

  • 25. . , ., , GET , . , , ! , . , , , . , GET , , ( , ), , . 3) GET , 2002, . , , . GET, . , , 2013. GET , . , , 29 25 , , site, , , , site (, , , )., , site, site , ( ) ... !

    44

  • , . , . , GET .4) , , , , . , , . GRECO , , , , . , , . , , . , , . , . GET . 5) . , , , , . , . , . GET , , . , , . , GET : (i) (ii)

    45

  • , . 6) , , , , , . , , . , GET, , , , . GET , , 3023/2002, , 26 . , , . , GET , , . 7) , , ad hoc , , . - , , . , . de facto , GET , , . , GET , , - - . 3023/2002 , , , , 26 , , , 5 10 . ! 5 10 .

    46

  • , . . GET , Rec (2003) 4. , , ,. , , , , . , GET , , , . , , , 27. GET, , 1990, 28. GET , , , , . , , , , , . , , , . , , , . , GET , , .27 Siemens. , 2011, , , Feroolstaal ( ).28 , , . , : ) , , ( , , ). ) , Siemens 450.000 . , , . . , ( ) 2006-2007. , . 3 , .

    47

  • , GET : (i) (ii) . : 3126/2003, . GET, , GRECO, 29. GET , . GRECO . , , .

    29 , 10, 137 137 . 108 5 . 15 !

    48

  • : ) . 3023/2002 , ) . 3202/2003 . , , Rec (2003)4 . , , , . GET , :) , - - .) , , , .) , , . ) , . , , , . , . , , . , , , , . , , , , , , , , .

    49

  • 30

    GRECO , , :1) , , .2) (i) , (ii) , .3) , . , 31.4) , , , ( ) , , , .5) , .6) , , , .7) , , .8) , (i) , (ii) , .9) .30 , GET GRECO .31 , GET . GET . , ( 2009) , . ( ) 52.

    50

  • 10) .11) .12) .13) (i) , (ii) , . 14) , .15) (i) , . (ii) . 30.2 , GRECO , 31 201132., GRECO , , , 33.

    32 GRECO, . , 2 2012, ( ). , , 5/1/2012, ... : ! (, , , ... ! ( ) , , GRECO, GET, .33 , GRECO. , , . .

    51

  • , : ) . , . ) , , . . , , , . . 200934, : : 2.225.553. , . , , , 2.158.486, .: 2.672.567. , , .

    34

    52

  • : 7.160.987. . , 2009 ( ) . : 10.136.739. 10,1 , .: 8.253.231. . : 12.743.758. ( ) , . , 35. : 3.497.355. 16% , ., 2009, 2009 , , 35,6 66,5 . , , , 46,8 . 2010: 201036 , , 2010, 22,775 65,068 . 87% , 18,04 1,768 . 1,6 , ( ) 753 873,7 37. 4,158 , 1,974 (!), 2,6 , 5,5 (!), 1,813 , 35 , , , , .36 , ( ) , (, , , ). , . , 1/3/2011. ( ) - .. . . , 1/3/2011 ( ).37 , 7,2% .

    53

  • , 3,858 . 6,49 , 5,6 33,3 (, ) . , , 2010 ( ), 22,8 31,7 , 8,9 . , , 2,4 . ( ), ( 17,3 ), Eurobank ( 5,1 ), ( 6 . ), Marfin ( 7,15 ), ( 5 ) ( 25 ). : , 2010 18,7 40 , 25 . 15,05 , 1,2 1,5 38. , 7,293 , 1,397 , 3,378 , 0,611 39, 8,2 , 5,8 , 6,357 , 7,034 () . 2010 127,6 2,3 . ., , , 2010 21,3 (, 114% !). , 14,9 , 99% , 79,7% !, . , 40, , , , 38 8,0% .39 2010, 11% , , , ( ) . .40 2010. , 2009

    54

  • ( ) . :) , , . , , . 41, , , .) , ( , , ), . ( , ) ( ) , .) , . , , , , , : , , . 42 , , . , . , , 2009, 3,1 . .41 59 .42 . , 21/11/2011, , , .

    55

  • , : 118 . 126 ( 105 15 ). , , 5 . , , 7 . , , , , 2010. , , . , , 2017., , , , , , 2009. . , . ( ), 43 . , : ( ) ; , , , , ; , ., , , , , ( ) - ;43 2011, . . , ( ). , , ( , ).

    56

  • , , . , site , !. , : , , 29 2011. , , :1) , 31 2010;2) 5 ;3) , 2010. 2011;4) 2010 , ;5) ;, , , . , : ) , , ) 2010, , ) , ) 2011. , . , , 2010, , 2010, , . , 2013. ( , ). ; 44., , , , 44 , , ;

    57

  • , ., , , . . , , , , , , . , , ., , . , . . , 3023/2002 ( ) , . , . , , ( ) . , , , , , , , 45.

    45 , , 1990, , . , . , , . . 58

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    , , . , , , . , : ) , ) ) . , , . , , , , , , . , . () , . () , , . GRECO , , , , Rec (2003) 4 .

    59

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    60

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    : 15 + 43 - , 1996 . , , , , , , , , , , . . . 2010, 58 . . . , , . , . : : . - (-) . , , . - . , , , .47 CNCCFP ( ) .

    64

  • - :

    : 1443/1984 2429/1996 2429/1996 3023/2002 3023/2002 3023 - 3202/2003 3213/2003 ( , ) Sites : : GRECO: Evaluation Report on Greece (GRECO: 2010) - Sustainable Governance Indicators - Report on Greece Transparency International: 2010 National Survey on Corruption in Greece -, (, 1/3/2011) (, 1/3/2011) 2,5 ! (, 1/3/2011) - .. (, 1/3/2011)900 . 10 (, 20/12/2011)Disgrace (, 17/8/2009)Transparency International - Ro le of corruption in Greek crisis (TI) ( ) Greek parties do not account for government money spent ( 10/12/2010)Greece's Corruption Problem ( 7/10/2010)

    65

  • 66

  • 5.

    Republik sterreich

    , (Lnder). , : ) (Nationalrat) 183 . , 5 . , () . ) (Bundesrat), 62 . (Landtage). , 6 ( ). : 1975. 2003, . , 2004, 14,4 . : . , 1,94 . , 48 . 2010, 16,5 . , :

    , 5 , 218.019. , . , 1% , , . ,

    48 6.350.000. 67

  • , . , 218.019. , ( ) , . : . , 25% , . 50% , , 13% - 15% . , 10% 12% . , 49, , . : ( ). (Wiener Zeitung). , ., , , , : : , . , , . : , , , , 72.672. , . 7.260, . , ( , ) , 30 .49 , .

    68

  • . , . , , , . , 5 . , , . , , . , . , .: , . , , , 50. GRECO, . , GRECO . GRECO ( 2011), , 2013, , , . , , (Rec 2003)4 . - : ( ) - ( ) ( site) ( site) ( Wikipedia) ( site)SGI - SGI - Haider, Hussein Rise From the Dead, Haunt Austrian Political Party Finance () Austrian journalist fights to uncover political advertising spend ()Parliament Waives Immunity Of Austrian MEP Hans-Peter Martin ()50 , .

    69

  • Royaume de BelgiqueKoninkrijk Belgi

    1970 : ) , ) , ) , ) , ) . , . . , , . , . , 1980 . , , . 1989 . . , . , . : ) ( 6 ), ) ( ) 5 , ) ( 4 ), ) ( 5 ). , . (150 11 , ) (73 , 40 31 - ). 51: . 51

    70

  • . , , , : 125.000 1,25 . . , . , 62.000 1,49 . .

    : 2010 , , 9,2 , , 8,9 . , 2010, , 18,1 . . , , 47% . ( ) 30% . 9% , , 5% . , 9% . : : , . . : 19 1994 . , . . , 500 2.000 . .

    71

  • , , . , 10 40 . , , . . : 4 1989 . , 1998. , . ., . .: (Commission de Contrle) ( ), . 10 10 . . ( ). , . , , , , . . . , , . : 4 1989 , ,

    72

  • . , , . , . GRECO, (GET) . , 1989 2007, 7 , . , GET . GRECO: GET , , 23 . Rec(2003)4 , , , , . - : ( )- ( ) 4 1989 ( ) 19 1994 ( ) ( Wikipedia) ( site) ( site) : GRECO - 2009 SGI - SGI - Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights : Belgian Federal Elections , June 10, 2007 Why parties adapt : Electoral reform , party finance and party strategy in Belgium ( Marc Hooghe, Bart Maddens Jo Noppe)

    73

  • . 240 , . , , . : . , (PPA) 2005. . : , . , . , 1% . , . 5% 52 53. , 2010 56.139.642 BGN54, 28,7 . , . : , . , , , .52 (http://www.fedee.com/minwage.html), , 2011 270 BGN, 135.53 2009, 7.129.965. 4.323.581 . 4.226.194. 1% 4.158.492 .54 1 BGN = 0,5

    74

  • , , 1% , . , , . : , :

    , . . : 1.000 BGN 4.000 BGN , ... 25% , , , 10.000 BGN, , 30.000 BGN . . ( ) , .

    : . , :) 1.000.000 BGN ( 500.000) ) 2.000.000 BGN ( 1.000.000) , 2.000.000 BGN ( 1.000.000). 5.000 BGN 1.000.000 BGN ( 2.500 500.000), ., BGN 2.000.000 ( 1.000.000) .

    75

  • : , BGN 5.000 . . . , BGN 50.000 ( 25.000). , , 31 . . , 15 . 6 , , . , , . , . , , , . , , . , site , 15 . , , , . , . , , . - : ( site) ( site) ( ) - ( )Bulgarian National Audit Office ( site): GRECO ( 2010)

    76

  • Rpublique Franaise

    1988, , . 1901, , . , , , . , . 1987, , ., , , . 1988 : 1) , ) ( 88-226 1988 90-55 1990 ), ) ( 19 1995 ) ) . : 577 (dputs) , 348 ("grands lecteurs) 150.000 . () 5 . , . , , , . 2007. 577 , 5 55. 50% , . , , , , 12,5% . . 10 17 . 55 577 - 555 22 . .

    77

  • 6 , ( 100 , 6 ), 6 5 .. , , , . , , , . : , . : , , 50 1% . , :) , ) . , , , 12 , 10.000 , 150.000. , , , , . , , . : , : , ( ) . , , . :) : , 5% .

    78

  • 5% , 50% . , . : 5% ( 3% ) , . , . (: ). 5% ( 3% ) . 50% . : ( CNCCFP):) 2011, 42 74,9 . , , : ) UMP | Union pour un Mouvement Populaire : 33,1 , ) Parti Socialiste: 23,3 . , 56,4 , 75,3% .) 2007, , 44,3 .) (Elections Cantonales) 2008, 4.340 ( 5.874), , 19,6 .) (Elections Municipales) 2008, 3.328 ( 4.126) , 53,2 . ) 2010, 15,0 .) 2009, 9,5 . 5 , 6 , ( 100 , 6 ), 6 5 , , 103,5 . :) : , . .

    79

  • 7.500 (4.600 ). 150 , . , . , , . . , . () , , .) : , . , , , . , ., , : ) . ) , . :) : , , , . , 150 ( ) 150. 150 , . 4.600. ( 150) , 20% ( 15.000). , , 66% , , 20% . , . , . : . . .

    80

  • . , . : , . , , . :: 1,15 : 16,2 , . , 21,6 . : 38.000 0,15 (1,18 ), ( , 20.331 74.178). , , .: 56 (CNCCFP - Commission Nationale des Comptes de Campagne et des Financements politiques), 90-55 1990 . CNCCFP 9 , 5 . , . , 30 40 , , 160 , . , 6 . , , . , . : , , . .56 CNCCFP ( PDF 3,5 Mb) 2009 ( 522 ). , , , , 198,6 181,4 .

    81

  • , . . , , . , , , . : , (La Commission pour la transparence financire de la vie politique ) . , . . , . , CNCCFP , , ( ), ., , , .: . . , , , , . GRECO: , Rec(2003)4. , . GET, . ' . : ) 1988, () .) .

    82

  • ) , , , . . - : ( ) - ( ) 88-227 ( Loi n 88-227 du 11 mars 1988 relative la transparence financire de la vie p olitique ) 90-55 ( Loi n 90-55 du 15 janvier 1990 relative la limitation des dpenses lectorales et la clarification du financement des activits politiques ) CNCCFP (Commission nationale des comptes de campagne et des financements politiques)CNCCFP ( Wikipedia - FR) CNCCFP ( pdf - ) La Commission pour la transparence financire de la vie politique ( ) : GRECO ( 2009)SGI - SGI - Comparative Party Finance Reform : The Cases of France and Britain ( Ben Clift (Warwick University) and Justin Fisher (Brunel University)).

    83

  • Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    193057, , 1945. . , 1949, ( 21). 1966, , , . (Parteiengesetz PartG , 24/7/1967). . 1984 , , . 1992 , 1994 , . , , , , , , , . : (Parteiengesetz PartG , 24/7/1967) . . : ) , ) . : , (Bundestag), 15 . , :) 0,5% 1% ( ). ) ( 30 ) (Bundestag), . , 57 , , , , . 1930: Who Financed Adolf Hitler?

    84

  • . , , , , , 58. , , . 9 1992, 230 , 1994 1997. , ( ) 245 1998 2001. 2002 133 ( ). : , , 0,85 , . 4.000.0000 0,70 . , , 0,38 , 3.300 . , , . , , , . , , , . , , 59. , , , . , . 2008, 1.080.000 , . . 58 , , Bundestag ( ). , .59 2007 ( site Budenstag)

    85

  • , . , . , , , ., 20 0,50% . , 95% , . 85% 90% , 3.300 , . 1970, , . : ) , 60 , ) , ..., ) , ) , , , . , 2005-2009, ( ) 29% 61. , , , . 2009, SPD ( ) 173 , CDU 163 . CSU ( ), D ie Grnen () FDP (Freie Demokratische Partei) Die Linke (), 27 43 . , 128 , 121 , 90 55 , . : , , , , . () 62 . . 60 1958, , .61 , , .

    86

  • 1.650, 825 ( 50%), 1.650 3.300, 63. : , , , . 2009 ( ), 41% 50% . 50% 60% ( , ), , . , 23% , 15% . : , , , . : ) (, , ) ) . ( , ) ( ) 10.000 , . 50.000 . 21 23 , , . , Bundestag, . , , . 24 , . , , . , , , , . , 62 .63 100 .

    87

  • , , . 26 . , , , . : , , . . . . , : ) , , 0,38 , ) ( 1.650) 1.650 3.300. , , . ) , . , . : ) ) . : , . , , , . . , . 1996-2008, , 292 . : 16 . . , , , . 64, , .

    64 6 ( 107) . 88

  • : (Parteiengesetz PartG ), : 1) . 2) , . 3) . 4) , . 5) . , , , : Flick 1980, Kohl 1990 . , . GET, GRECO Rec(2003)4 , , . , GET , ( GET ). - : ( ) - ( ) ( Parteiengesetz PartG ) ( site Budenstag) ( Bundestag ) ( site) ( site) ( site Budenstag) 2007 ( site Budenstag): GRECO ( 2009)SGI - SGI - State Funding for Political Parties in GermanyThe cartel theory and the funding of German political Parties ( Wikipedia)Who Financed Adolf Hitler ? ( )

    89

  • Danmark

    . (Folketinget), 179 , . . : 1986 1987. , 1291 2006, . , , . : , (Folketing), 1.000 . , , DKK65 26,50 ( 3.57) , ( 2009). 201166, 12,7 . . : , , , . , 1.000 , , 3,75 DKK (0,50) . , 1.000 , , 6,00 DKK (0,81) . , , , , 4,6 ., , 17,3 . : , . , , .65 31/12/2011, 0,1345 . , 1,00 = 7,43 DKK66 2011.

    90

  • : , (35-61% 80 % ). . . , , . . : . , , . : , . : , . ( ) . , " , , "., 1996, , . 1990. , , ( ) , , . : ) , ) , ) , ) ) , , ., 1996, , 20.000 DKK ( 2.692) . , . - : ( site) ( )- ( ) ( site): GRECO ( 2009)SGI - SGI -

    91

  • Eesti Vabariik

    . 101 (Riigikogu) . , 5 , . 5% . : , 1994. , . , , , : : 1% 9.615 . 4% 16.026 ., . 2007, , . 3,8 ( 1,7 .) (Party Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica). 2004-2006 2007, 2003 1.300.000 . , , . , , 0,40 1996, 2004 4,46, 4,27 200767 4,9 201068.67 Estonia: The Increasing Costs and Weak Oversight of Party, . 12.68 2011, 5,4 ( ). , Tallinn, , . 2011, , ,

    92

  • , . : . : , , :- - ( )- - ( ) . , . . , ( ) . . : ( ), , 5% . .: . 2007, , 7,74 , 10 199569. : . 70. , , . , . , . , . . , ( ).69 Estonia: The Increasing Costs and Weak Oversight of Party, . 1570 sites .

    93

  • ( , , ), ( , , , ). : . ., . , (Select Committee ), , , . . (Select Committee) , 1999 , . , . . . ( ) , , . , 2010, 2011, 71, , . - : ( ) - ( ) ( site) ( site) ( site)Select Committee on the Application of Anti-Corruption Act: GRECO ( 2008) ( Wikipedia)Estonia: The Increasing Costs and Weak Oversight of Party Finance ()

    71 . 94

  • United Kingdom

    . : (The House of Commons Westminster) (The House of Lords ). 650 (Members of Parliament) . 10 , 2 . 788 ( ), 72. : (The Scottish Parliament ) 129 . 5 , . (The Welsh Assembly ), 60 4 . (The Northern Ireland Assembly ), 108 , 7 , .

    The Political Parties Elections and Referendums Act 2000 (PPERA), . : , . , . . (Electoral Commission ) , . , , . .

    . , ( 50% 80% ), 72 , 90 .

    95

  • . , . , ( 19 ) , . ( Tory, 1678) . . , , 2006, Cash for Honours , . , , : , .

    ( ). 12 PPERA, 2002, ( 2,4 ) . . , . , , 458,000, . 155,000, Scottish National Party 162,000 Plaid Cymru 151,000. Short (Short Money , Edward Short , 1975), , 150.000 . , :) ( 14,015 27,99 200 ).) ( 153,956 , ()).) N . 652,936 . , 73,617 ,

    96

  • (Opposition Chief Whip ) (Assistant Opposition Whip) 41,370 26,820 , . 2010, 2010 Short 5.640.141,79 73:

    . . Labour 4,462,554.00 129,991.79 604,493.00 5,197,038.79Democratic 125,591.00 3,658.39 N/A 129,249.39Green 49,873.00 1,452.79 N/A 51,325.79Plaid 60,328.00 1,757.31 N/A 62,085.31SDLP 53,280.00 1,552.02 N/A 54,832.02SNP 141,489.00 4,121.49 N/A 145,610.49 Cranborne (Cranborne Money , Cranborne, , 27/11/1996, ). Short, , . 2009/2010, Cranborne 726,988. , , , 73.617 , 68.074., Cranborne 868.679. , , 201074 8.508.821 9.923.83875. : , . , ( ). , . 2008, 68 16 . : , . 73 Short 1/4/2008.74 , ( ).75 31/12/2010, 1 GBP = 1,1663 .

    97

  • 20 , . : , ( , ) . The Political Parties Elections and Referendums Act 2000 (PPERA). . PPERA. , . . , 200 . , . ( ..) . , , , , 76. , , (The Electoral Commission). ( ). : ( ). . , 200, . . : 2006, . , Electoral Administration Act 2006 (EAA) ( ), , . PPERA, (regulated transactions). , .76 .

    98

  • 200, . , , . , :- - , , - - : ( , ) . (.. , 150) , . : , , . , , , , . : , 200. . 200 . : 200 , 200, . . , , , . , ., , , , , , .

    99

  • , , 2002 - 2005, ( ):- Labour Party: 28 - : 32- Conservative Party: 17 - : 23- Liberal Democrats: 5 - : 5 PPER, ( ). , 30,000 ( 650 ) 19,38 , . : , . , . , , . ( ), . . PPERA . , . , 2001 2007, 29 , 23 . - :The British Monarchy ( site) ( site) ( site)Registration of Political Parties Act 1998Political Parties and Election Act 2009Party finance and expenditure in the United Kingdom (The Governments proposals 2008) . ( Wikipedia) : GRECO ( 2008)SGI - SGI - The Funding of Political Parties ( 2007) . ( Wikipedia)Comparative Party Finance Reform: The Cases of France and Britain1 ()Public Perspectives:The future of party funding in the UK (Research - The Electoral Commission - 2006)

    100

  • Republic of Ireland

    . (Oireachtas) . Dil ireann ( ) 166 5 Seanad ireann, 60 . 1997 2005 . . : :) 2% . , 2009 5.438.385 ( ). 126.974 . , .) ( ) . ( ), Party Leaders Allowance. 2009, 8.169.179. ) ( ) , , , 25% . 8.700 , 38.092 260.000 . , , . 2009, :

    Party Leaders

    Allowance Electoral

    Acts Fianna Fil 2.915.876 2.329.418 5.245.294Fine Gael 2.921.386 1.574.916 4.496.302Labour Party 1.564.039 663.557 2.227.596Progressive Democrats 47.223 0 47.223Green Party 383.509 375.621 759.130Sinn Fein 332.846 494.873 827.7198.164.879 5.438.385 13.603.264 , 4 , 14,3 77.

    77 2,5 , 4 . 101

  • : , ( ). : 6.350 2.540 . 5.078,95 634,87, ., . . ., . 126,97. , . , . . , 30.150 45.200 ( 2007). 2009 230.000. , 2004, 1.300.000. : ) , ) , ) ) . , , : ) 126,97 (Standards Commission), ) ) . GRECO, , . - : ( ) ( site) ( site) ( site)Electoral Act, 1997Electoral Act , 2005 Standards in Public Office Commission (Standards Commission) ( site) : GRECO ( 2009)Sustainable Governance Indicators Ireland Report 2011

    102

  • Reino de Espaa

    . (Cortes Generales) : (Congreso de los Diputados), , 350 , (Senado), 50 . . 17 (Comunidades Autnomas)78, . 5 1985, 8 2007. : :) .) .) .) .) . ( ) . , . , . . . , , . 8/2007, 2008, 20% 2007. , 2008, () 82,1 . 2009 83,0 2010, 85,0 . , . 24 , GRECO . 78 A : Andalusia, Aragon, Asturias, Balearic Islands, Basque Country, Canary Islands, Cantabria, Castille-La Mancha, Castile-Leon, Catalonia, Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarre, Valencia.

    103

  • , 25 26 . . 80% 95% . , , . , , , ., . : , . : :

    . . ( 100.000 ). . . ( 100.000 .. ). ( ). . . . : ) , ) , ) ) . , . ,

    , 600 . : , . : , , , , . , : , , , . , .

    104

  • : , . , , . , , . , . , : , , , , 79. , , 30 . : , . . . , . , 6 . .: :) , , ) , . - : ( )- ( )- ( ) ( site): GRECO ( 2009)The evolution of party funding reforms in Spain (1976-2011) ()79 . . GET ( GRECO), 2005, 145 . , , , .

    105

  • Repubblica Italiana

    . : ) (Parlamento), 630 5 ) (Senato) 315 , , 5 80. , , . : 49 : , , , . , , . , 1974, 195/1974, . 1970, 2% , , . , , ., 1990, ( Watergate), 1993, 81, , 90% , , ., , , , . , , ( , ) . , , . , , 1997, : , 80 . . 25 18 . , 40 25 .81 1993.

    106

  • ( 0,4%) . , . 0,5% , ! , , 82. 1997, , , . 1999, , ( ) 4%, , , . , : 1,00 x . , 2008 47.041.814 , 47 , . .83., , , 2000 2010 188 84. 2010, 10%. 2010 10%, , 2011 170 . , 6 2011, , 0,70 , . . ( ) 80%. , 5% , ., ( ), 2,6 , .82 Forza Italia Silvio Berlusconi.83 13 2008 , 7 . (, , ) 7 .84 , .

    107

  • 1999 , 41 0,05 , 0,04 . , 11.182. , . : , 1993. :

    5.000 , . (Collegio di controllo sulle spese

    elettorali presso la Corte dei Conti) . , ( 30 ) . , , . , : , , , . 85, 25.822 103.291. , , 86. , .

    - : ( ) - ( ) 1993 ( L. 10 dicembre 1993, n. 515 ) ( ) Controlling political party funding in Italy ( Massimo Siclari, Universit di Teramo)Party Finance and Political scandal in Latin Europe ( Vronique Pujas and Martin Rhodes)

    85 1993, . , 1993, .86 , , (1995), , , .

    108

  • , 1991, . o . , , . , 2010 , 4.470.000 , : 27.000 94.000 3.879.000 , . 20(I)/2011, , . .

    : . 2011, . , , , . , . . 87. , , 87 59 . 56 , , . , 24 , 1964.

    109

  • . 2011, , . : , , .: . . . 45 , . , . GRECO, . , . , , , 8.000 . 2003(4) : . , . , . , . .

    110

  • , , . . . : 8.000 , 20.000 30.000 . . . , , . . - , . : , , , . 5.000 25.000 . , . , , , , , . , (). . , , . 2006 35 ! GRECO, .

    111

  • (/)88, 2011, . . , , . , . , , , 89. GRECO: , (GRECO) . GRECO, 2011, , ., , , , , , . , , , , . - : ( site) ( site) ( site) - ( ) ( site): GRECO ( 2011) : 22 201188 /, , 1990 1991. . , () , , .89 , , (/). /

    112

  • Latvijas Republika

    . (Saeima) 100 , , . . 1992 . , . 1995 1995 . : 1995 , , . , :

    ( ) . ( ) LVL 25.00090 ( 35.715) . , , , , 50% . , , .

    : . , , . , . . , . . ( ) ( ). , . . 4.000 . .90 31/12/2011, 1 Euro = 0.69965 LVL (Latvian lats) 1 LVL = 1,43 Euros.

    113

  • , . , . . , 2008 ( 400.000 ), . 1995, . . , , (Latvijas Vstnesis). . . . . , . , ( ) , , .' , , , . , , , . . , . . , . , . - : ( ) - ( ) - ( )The President of Latvia ( site) - Saeima ( site)The Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia ( site)Latvijas Institute : GRECO ( 2008)The World Factbook - Latvia

    114

  • Lietuvos Respublika

    . (Seimas) 141 . . , , :

    (Seimas) ( 1999 2004). .

    : : ( ) . . ( ) 50 . , , , . 1000 LTL ( 290) . . , 5 , . . . 2008, :- : 3,06%- : 42,43%- : 52,21%

    115

  • - : 2,30% : 2000. 3% . 0,1% . . 201091 4,35 . , 25% ( ) 3% . 2.000 . : , , . , . 2000 , 9% . : , . , . , . , . . , , . , . :- 2007 21.800 .91 2010 .

    116

  • - 5.800 249.300 ( )- 2009 1,16 , ( , 500.000). : ( ) , . , . . , . , . , , . , . , , . , , . . , 1 , . , , . , . 92 , ( ). : , . , , , . , 92 , , .

    117

  • . , . , , , . , , . , . , . , . , . 2006 ( 323.000), , ( ) , 1,45 , , . - : ( ) - ( ) - ( ) ( site) ( Seimas ) ( site) ( site): GRECO ( 2009) ( Wikipedia) ( Wikipedia) ( Wikipedia) ( site) ( site)Party and Campaign Funding in Eastern Europe ( IFES, 2001)

    118

  • Grand-Duch de Luxembourg

    , . 60 , , 5 . ( 5 ) ( 6 ). 2007 1/1/2008 ( 237/28-12-2007)93. : , : ) 4 , ) 2% , ) , 18 2003, :

    100.000. 11.500 1% . 11.500 1% . , 75% 94. , . 95 2009 ( , ), 6 , 2,9 . 1999, ( ) 1,6 , 2003, 800.000 .. , 5 , , 4,0 .

    93 , 7 1999, 18 2003, . , .94 , 1999 2003. , , 75% .95 7 2009.

    119

  • . , 1976, , . , 2007 6,7 . , , . , . , , . , 250, . , , , , . , 96 . , ( ), () . . , , . , , , , . 31 , , , . , , . - : ( ) - ( )Cour grand - ducale de Luxembourg ( site - FR) ( site - FR) ( Wikipedia)Le gouvernement du Grand - Duch de Luxembourg ( site - FR) ( site - FR): GRECO ( 2008): GRECO ( 2010)Contemporary Constitutionalism and the Regulation of Political Parties: A Case Study of LuxembourgSGI - SGI - 96 2007, . .

    120

  • Repubblika ta' Malta

    . 69 , 5 . 5 . . ., . 100.000 . . : , , . . . . , . , , . . . . . , . . , , , . . , , . , 1880,

    121

  • , 1987, . , . , 1921, . , , . , . GRECO 2009, ( , , ). , , , , 10.00097. - : ( site) ( ) ( site) ( site) ( Wikipedia ) ( Wikipedia): GRECO ( 2009)

    97 : Political party members to be exempt from party financing law 122

  • Nederland

    . : (Eerste Kamer), 75 , (Staten - Generaal ), 150 , . , . . . (WSPP) 17/5/1999 . , 1.000 . , , , . , 1.000 , 12. :) : , 187.990 , .) , 54.526 98.) , , . 2010, 2.058.386. , , . , . 1.058.538 : ) (529.269) ) , . , , 132.034 13,570 .98 . , , .

    123

  • 2010, 15.783.377, 2009, 15.446.341 ( 2,1%). , . , 400.000 . 2009 2010, , :

    2009

    CDA 41 54.746 844 2.742.932 669.732 181.781 3.594.445PvdA 33 58.334 1.277 2.343.807 564.116 169.013 3.076.936SP 25 45.867 2.143 1.822.751 387.004 172.693 2.382.448VVD 22 36.832 1.294 1.609.026 418.894 129.489 2.157.409GL 7 17.789 628 679.361 220.864 49.416 949.641CU 6 26.766 1.517 689.471 207.662 79.531 976.664D66 3 9.418 997 408.283 168.056 48.825 625.164SGP 2 26.663 4.176 476.563 154.854 165.922 797.339PvdD 2 7.123 680 339.091 154.854 22.329 516.274OSF 1 1.095 0 236.449 133.572 0 370.021 142 284.633 13.556 11.347.734 3.079.608 1.018.999 15.446.341

    2010

    CDA 41 54.548 985 2.811.694 685.305 192.448 3.689.447PvdA 33 55.471 976 2.384.215 577.233 162.196 3.123.645SP 25 43.856 1.569 1.864.999 373.251 155.929 2.394.179VVD 22 36.678 1.294 1.649.642 421.066 133.763 2.204.470GL 7 16.847 625 690.357 225.999 51.058 967.414CU 6 25.378 1.550 698.498 212.490 75.731 986.719D66 3 11.604 1.661 434.879 171.963 77.388 684.230SGP 2 28.874 3.977 492.328 158.454 165.925 816.707PvdD 2 7.649 587 351.662 158.454 30.861 540.977OSF 1 1.144 0 238.869 136.720 0 375.589 142 282.049 13.224 11.617.143 3.120.935 1.045.299 15.783.377

    19 . SGP . 124

  • . , :- ( )- 99 - - - , . , ( 4.537,80 , ), . 2008, . , , 1% 10% . , 270.000 10% . , . 10 . , 6 . . . . , . ( ) . . . . , 11, 5, PPSA, . ( ) .99 , . , , , .

    125

  • , , . , , . , 100 . , . , , . - : ( ) - ( ) ( site) ( site): GRECO ( 2008): ( Wikipedia)SGI - SGI -

    100 , , , Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij (SGP), , , . , SGP. , , , , . ( ) 126

  • Magyar Kztrsasg

    . (Orszggyls) 386 , 4 . . , 5% . , . 1990 ( 1994) 1990. : , , , 1% . , :

    ( ). . . , , . , . , , 60% 65% ( 2009).

    : . , , 1% . 25% (58 ).

    127

  • 75% , 1% . 2007 2,6 HUF ( 10,4 ). . , , , . . . , . 2010 400.000, 180 . , . 2009, 780 HUF ( 3,12 ).

    2009 HUF ()Magyar Szocialista Part 953,7Fidesz-Magyar Polgari Szovetseg 833,2Szabad Demokratak Szovetsege Amagyar Liberalis Part 261,1Magyar Demokrata Forum 227,6Keresztenydomkrata Neppart 235,4Miep-Jobbika Harmadikut 37,9 2.548,90

    ( 10,2 ) , . . 2009, 1.274 HUF 5,09 . . , , 19,0 . : .

    128

  • . . : . , . , , . : , . ( 4.000) . . 386 , 386 ( 1,5 ) . , . : , , , 31 . HUF 500.000 ( 2.000) , HUF 100.000 ( 400) , , . , . , , , . , , 60 . : ) (llami Szmvevszk - ASZ) . , . ) , . ) , .

    129

  • ASZ , ( 12 ), . ASZ 600 . : , . ASZ , . , , , . , 1990, ASZ , . , , 1990, . , Janos Zuschlag, ( 280.000 ) . : , . Rec(2003)4 . , , . . 1990, ( , 24%, , 80% 93% ). , , ., , . . , .

    130

  • , , . , , . , . , , , , . - : ( site) ( site) ( Wikipedia) ( site) ( ) - ( ) ( ASZ ) ( site) ( site): GRECO ( 2010)SGI - SGI - Hungary ( Wikipedia) ( Wikipedia) ( Wikipedia)Sustainable Governance Indicators - Report on Hungary Transparency International - Party and Campaign Financing in Hungary Party Funding in Hungary ( Zsolt Enyedi)The black hole of party financing ()Global Integrity Report - Hungary

    131

  • Rzeczpospolita Polska

    . , , : ) (Sejm), 460 , , 41 ) (Senat), 100 . 5%. 199