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1. Στοιχεία Τεχνικής Σεισμολογίας και Σεισμικής Μηχανικής2. Εισαγωγή στη Δυναμική- Μονοβάθμια Συστήματα122 σελίδες

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  • 1. 1.1 - 1.2 - 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 (Near-Fault seismic

    excitations)

    2. - 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

    2.6.1 2.6.2 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 - 2.12 2.12.1 2.12.2 2.12.3

    2.13 FOURIER FOURIER 2.13.1 2.13.2 2.13.3 Fourier 2.13.4

    2.14 2.14.1 2.14.2 2.14.3

  • 1.

    1. 1.1

    , , , . , , , . ( ), . , , . , , . , , .

    , . ( ) (, .) , , .

    . . , , . , , , . , .

    . , 80km , . 1.1.1. 1.1.2, . , . , . , , , (. 1.1.3).

    (. 1.1.2), .

    . & . 1

  • 1.

    . , , , .. , .

    1.1.1: , (Scawthorn, 2003).

    1.1.2: 1975-1995 (Scawthorn, 2003).

    . & . 2

  • 1.

    1.1.3: .

    , . , , , . , , , , .

    ( ), . . ( ) , .

    ( ), . , , .

    , : , , , . 1.1.4 (. ).

    . & . 3

  • 1.

    s

    d

    1.1.4: (s) (d)

    1.1.4,

    (hanging wall - ) (footwall - ).

    , . 1.1.5. , ( , dip-slip faults). , ( ). , ( ). (strike-slip faults) , . , . , . , , .., .

    . & . 4

  • 1.

    1.1.5: (Kramer and Scawthorn, 1999)

    . (beachball), , . ( ) ( ). 2.1.6, .

    B

    () () () () 1.1.6: , : ) , ) , ) , ) . 1.2 , , .

    . & . 5

  • 1.

    () (). . , , , . (.. , ) . . Mercalli, (), 1 12, Mercalli. Mercalli 1.1.1. 1.1.1: Mercalli (MMI).

    MMI

    I

    II

    III ( ) ,

    IV , ,

    V ,

    VI , , , ,

    VII , , , ,

    VIII , , , , .

    IX

    , , ,

    X , .

    XI , ,

    XII . , , .

    . ( ). C. Richter, Richter, , . :

    . & . 6

  • 1.

    1. (mL): , 100km . Richter, .

    2. (mb): (. ) , .

    3. (ms): (. ) , .

    4. (mw): , Mo=uA, u , (.. ).

    owlog Mm

    10.5= 10.7 (1.1.1)

    Nm. E : log(E) =11.8 + 1.5ms (1.1.2) ergs 1 erg=10-7 Joules. (1.1.2) , . , . 1.1.2 10 ( ) .

    1.1.2: 10

    1 22/5/1960 Valvidia, 9.5 2 26/12/2004 Sumatra, 9.3 3 27/3/1964 Alaska, ... 9.2 4 4/11/1952 Kamchatka, .... 9

    5 26/1/1700 .../ (Cascadia) 9

    () 6 31/1/1906 - 8.8 7 25/11/1833 Sumatra, 8.8 8 4/2/1965 Alaska, ... 8.7

    9 1/11/1755 , 8.7 () 10 28/3/2005 Sumatra, 8.6

    . & . 7

  • 1.

    . , . , , . (saturation). , . 1.2 , . , . , . ( x, y z), . : P ( ) S ( ). , . , , . , . , ( : [deviatoric] ) , . , P , , S . S : SV, , SH, . 1.2.1 ( y). , , xy, SV, , z, SH.

    . & . 8

  • 1.

    x

    y

    z

    SV SH

    1.2.1: y. , xy, y, SV, xz , SH. P :

    ( )

    ( )( )PE 1 v

    V = 1-2v 1 v

    + (1.2.1)

    , v Poisson . 1.2.1 , D, , 1.2.1 :

    PDV (1.2.2)

    = :

    GGV (1.2.3)

    = , . , P S. P S: , . P , P . ,

    . & . 9

  • 1.

    S, . ( ), P S , 1.2.2: P , P. , S . L , P S, t, , VP VS, ,

    P S

    Lt

    V V= (1.2.4)

    , , , . (1.2.4), L1, L2 L3 . , , 70km, . , , , ( 1.2.3). , , . , , , . , , .

    1.2.2: . P S P S.

    t

    t

    ug..

    PS

    . & . 10

  • 1.

    L2

    2

    E1

    L13 L3

    1.2.3: , 1, 2 3. , . , , , ( ) , . , , , . . , g (.. 0.20g) cm/s2 gal (.. 200gal 200cm/s2). m/sec, cm/sec kine (.. 0.6m/s 60kine). , cm. , , , (peak ground acceleration, PGA). : ( ) , . (peak ground velocity, PGV). , ( 0.01-0.1sec ) . (. ), . (peak ground displacement, PGD) , .

    . & . 11

  • 1.

    (, 0 , - ) . , , . . , . : Rayleigh Love. Rayleigh, ( , ), Love . , , (.. ) . , .. x, :

    ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )u x,t =f x-c t u x,t =f x+c t (1.2.5) c . x, x. , x t, : ( ) ( )i t-kxou x, t u e= (1.2.6) x,

    ( ) ( )i t kxou x, t u e += (1.2.7)

    , k :

    kV

    = (1.2.8) , ,

    2k

    = (1.2.9)

    . & . 12

  • 1.

    1

    2

    +x

    1.2.4:

    , ( ). , . , . +x , , 1 2 ( 1.2.4). . . , : ( x 1) ( +x 2). u, u u , , . , u, u u :

    ( )i t-k xu Ae

    = (1.2.10)

    ( )i t+k xu e

    = (1.2.10)

    ( )i t-k xu e

    = (1.2.10) x=0, :

    ( ) ( )1x=0 x=0u u= 2 (1.2.11)

    ( ) ( )1x=0 x=0 = 2 (1.2.12)

    : 1 2 . , , , . :

    2P

    u u = D= D V

    x x = (1.2.13)

    . & . 13

  • 1.

    (1.2.10-) 1 , 2 , (2.2.11) :

    i t i t i tAe Be e+ = (1.2.14) , (1.2.14) :

    = = = (1.2.15)

    A B + = (1.2.15) 1.2.15) , : , ( ) . (1.2.12) :

    2 21 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2k i V +k i V k i V = 2 (1.2.16)

    (1.2.15) (1.2.16) , , :

    1-=

    1+ (1.2.17)

    2= 1+

    (1.2.18)

    2 2

    2 1

    V=

    V (1.2.19)

    (impedance ratio), . (1) , =0, (1.2.17) (1.2.18) : =, =0. , . (1.2.10) (1.2.10) : u=u+u =+ 1, :

    ( ) itu x, t 2Ae cos kx= (1.2.20)

    . & . 14

  • 1.

    ( ) it x,t 2kiAe sin kx= (1.2.21) x=0, :

    ( ) itx 0u t 2Ae= = (1.2.22)

    ( )x=0 t 0= (1.2.23) ,

    . , . , , , ( . S, ( ) . , .. . , , . , . , SH ( 1.2.5) , , 1 2. 2, 2. , , , . , Snell, (, , .). Snell, 1.2.5 ( SH VS,1, SH VS,1 SH VS,2) :

    S,1 S,1 S,2

    V V Vsin sin sin

    = =

    (1.2.24)

    1.2.24 =, :

    S,2 S,1

    Vsin sin

    V= (1.2.25)

    . & . 15

  • 1.

    , VS,2

  • 1.

    : =90, cr, . . , P