Βιβλίο Χημείας Γυμνάσιο Γ

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Το σχολικό βιβλίο της χημείας Γ γυμνασίου.

Transcript of Βιβλίο Χημείας Γυμνάσιο Γ

  • XHMEIA

    21-0161.indb 1 27/3/2013 4:08:08

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    21-0161.indb 2 27/3/2013 4:08:09

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    21-0161.indb 3 27/3/2013 4:08:09

  • 21-0161.indb 4 27/3/2013 4:08:09

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    21-0161.indb 5 27/3/2013 4:08:09

  • 6EPIEXOMENA

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    1. T 1.1 I .................................................... . 131.2 O Arrhenius................................................... . 151.3 H pH ........................ . 161.4 T pH ......................................... . 161.5 T pH .................................. . 171.6 M pH ............................. . 17

    E ... X .......................................................... . 18H ........................ . 19

    3. E3.1 E ............................................................ . 27

    E ... X .......................................................... . 28P pH ............................................ . 29

    2. O 2.1 I ................................................. . 212.2 B Arrhenius ................................................ . 212.3 H pH ................... . 22

    E ... X .......................................................... . 23X ..................................... . 24O ..................................................... . 25

    4. T 4.1 ....... . 314.2 ................. . 324.3 T ..................................................................... . 324.4 E .............................. . 34

    E ... X .......................................................... . 34A M ................................................. . 35H ............... . 37

    5. E , 5.1 A ............................................ . 395.2 K ........................... . 405.3 A .......... . 425.4 .......................................................................... . 44

    21-0161.indb 6 27/3/2013 4:08:10

  • 72 E: T

    1. O 1.1 A ................................................................. . 491.2 : O .......... . 491.3 T ......................................................................... . 501.4 ; ..................................................................... . 51

    E ... X .......................................................... . 51

    3. M 3.1 M ............................................... . 573.2 O .......................................................................... . 583.3 H ............................................... . 593.4 T ................................................................. . 60

    E ... X .......................................................... . 61 ................................................. . 62

    2. T 2.1 ............................................................................ . 532.2 I ............................................... . 53

    A ................................ . 55

    4. O 4.1 ............................................................................ . 654.2 ........................................................ . 654.3 T ........................................................ . 664.4 T ............................................ . 664.5 A ......................................................... . 664.6 T .............................................. . 67

    E ... X .......................................................... . 67

    5. T 5.1 .......................................................................... . 695.2 T ...................................................................... . 695.3 T ................................................................ . 705.4 O ............................................................. . 705.5 O ............................................................... . 71

    E ... X .......................................................... . 71O .......................................................... . 72

    6. T 6.1 ............................................................................ . 756.2 ................................ . 756.3 ..................................... . 756.4 X ................................................ . 76

    T, ; .................................... . 77

    21-0161.indb 7 27/3/2013 4:08:11

  • 83 E: H X

    1. O 1.1 .......................................................................... . 811.2 T ................................. . 811.3 K .................................. . 821.4 O .............................. . 841.5 H ...................................... . 841.6 M . . 85

    E ... X .......................................................... . 86

    3. H 3.1 Z ..................................................... . 973.2 A ........... . 973.3 A .................................................... . 973.4 H .............................................. . 983.5 A ...................................................... . 983.6 H ........................ . 99

    2. 2.1 ; ................... . 892.2 .................................................... . 892.3 A .................................................................. . 892.4 ................. . 912.5 ......................................................................... . 912.6 ............................................................... . 912.7 ............................................................. . 922.8 T ; ................................................... . 922.9 - ................................................... . 93 2.10 ............................................ . 93

    E ... X .......................................................... . 94

    4. Y 4.1 .......................................................................... . 1014.2 Y .......................................... . 1014.3 .................................................................... . 1044.4 ............................................................ . 1054.5 O .............................. . 105

    .......................................................................... . 109B .................................................................... . 111

    21-0161.indb 8 27/3/2013 4:08:12

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    21-0161.indb 9 27/3/2013 4:08:12

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    21-0161.indb 10 27/3/2013 4:08:12

  • 21-0161.indb 11 27/3/2013 4:08:12

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    21-0161.indb 12 27/3/2013 4:08:13

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    21-0161.indb 14 27/3/2013 4:08:13

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    21-0161.indb 15 27/3/2013 4:08:13

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    21-0161.indb 16 27/3/2013 4:08:13

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    21-0161.indb 17 27/3/2013 4:08:13

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    21-0161.indb 18 27/3/2013 4:08:13

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    21-0161.indb 19 27/3/2013 4:08:14

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    21-0161.indb 20 27/3/2013 4:08:14

  • 2.1

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    21-0161.indb 21 27/3/2013 4:08:14

  • O

    22

    2:

    NaOH(s) H2O Na+(aq) + OH(aq)

    KOH(s) H2O K+(aq) + OH(aq)

    Ca(OH)2(s) H2O Ca2+(aq) + 2OH(aq)

    Ba(OH)2(s) H2O Ba2+(aq) + 2OH(aq)

    * NH3(aq) + 2(l) NH4+(aq) + OH(aq)

    * 3 .

    2.3 H pH

    :

    +(aq) = (aq)pH = 7 ( 25C)

    :

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    pH < 7 ( 25C)

    , , . , :

    : (aq) > +(aq)

    :

    ( 25C) : pH > 7

    pH 7 14.

    ,

    21-0161.indb 22 27/3/2013 4:08:14

  • O

    23

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    122

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    EPTHEI AKHEI TOXOI

    21-0161.indb 23 27/3/2013 4:08:14

  • OY

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    020-025.indd 25 4/4/2013 11:56:43 pi

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    21-0161.indb 26 27/3/2013 4:08:15

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    21-0161.indb 27 27/3/2013 4:08:15

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    21-0161.indb 28 27/3/2013 4:08:15

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    29

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    21-0161.indb 30 27/3/2013 4:08:16

  • :

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    31

    4.1 , , Na+ Cl HCl NaOH, ;

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    21-0161.indb 31 27/3/2013 4:08:16

  • T

    32

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    21-0161.indb 32 27/3/2013 4:08:17

  • , :

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    33

    3: O

    1

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    21-0161.indb 33 27/3/2013 4:08:17

  • T

    34

    4.4 Y . , (NaCl) , 100 g 25C 36 g .

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    EPTHEI AKHEI TOXOI

    4: E

    2

    AgNO3 217

    NaNO3 87

    CaCl2 74

    NaCl 36

    CuSO4 20,5

    CaSO4 0,21

    CaCO3 0,0013

    AgCl 0,0002

    g

    100 g 25C

    21-0161.indb 34 27/3/2013 4:08:17

  • T

    35

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    030-037.indd 36 4/4/2013 12:03:28

  • T

    37

    H OA KAI OI AAPXE TH XHMIKH BIOMHXANIA

    18(,Na2CO3) , , . , 20-33% .

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    030-037.indd 37 4/4/2013 12:03:50

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    38

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    21-0161.indb 38 27/3/2013 4:08:17

  • 5.1 A

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    39

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    21-0161.indb 39 27/3/2013 4:08:18

  • 5.2 K : ,

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    40

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    21-0161.indb 40 27/3/2013 4:08:19

  • E

    41

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    21-0161.indb 41 27/3/2013 4:08:19

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    42

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    5: T pH

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    21-0161.indb 42 27/3/2013 4:08:19

  • E

    43

    1. pH 7 8. ;

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    21-0161.indb 43 27/3/2013 4:08:19

  • E

    44

    5.4 1980 , , , . , , pH 4. 10 , pH 5 6 ( ).

    , (SO2, SO3)

    (, 2), SOX NOX.

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    , SO2 .

    NOX , . , .

    21-0161.indb 44 27/3/2013 4:08:20

  • E

    45

    , .

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    21-0161.indb 45 27/3/2013 4:08:20

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    46

    M

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    6. . , . , . , . pH = 13.

    2. .3. .4. .

    T 3. K+(aq) + Cl(aq) KCl(aq) Ba2+(aq) + 2Cl(aq) BaCl2(aq) Ca2+(aq) + SO4

    2(aq) CaSO4(s)4. Na2SO4.

    038-046.indd 46 4/4/2013 12:06:33

  • 21-0161.indb 47 27/3/2013 4:08:21

  • , . . . . , . ' . , . , . .

    48

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    21-0161.indb 48 27/3/2013 4:08:21

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    49

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    T ..... ..... .3. ;4. N

    . A + ................ ................ ................ +

    CH3CH2OH (I) + ....O2(g) ........................ + ........................5. , 300 mL

    12 1L 5 ; N .

    EPTHEI AKHEI TOXOI

    H - . N. A, , - ( ).

    21-0161.indb 99 27/3/2013 4:08:33

  • . , . , , . . .

    100

    4. Y--

    , :1. .2. .3. .4. .5. ,

    .6. .7.

    , .

    :

    ,

    .

    21-0161.indb 100 27/3/2013 4:08:34

  • Y--

    101

    4.1

    H , . E, . .

    .

    : ,

    ,

    .

    . .

    4.2 Y (C12H22O11) , . , , .

    6:

    /g

    (4 kcal/g)

    (4 kcal/g)

    (9 kcal/g)

    kcal 1kcal = 4,184 kJ

    1. , 5 , .

    2. 34 , .

    ;

    .

    .

    21-0161.indb 101 27/3/2013 4:08:34

  • Y--

    102

    2/1, (2).

    + , 2/1 . . : ,

    C6H12O6. , , . , . .

    :

    6CO2 + 6H2O

    C6H12O6 + 6O2

    , , . , , . 75110 mg/100mL, ( ).

    , :1. ,

    , , , C12H22O11.

    C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 C12H22O11 + 2 + +

    7: X

    +

    +

    +

    ,

    21-0161.indb 102 27/3/2013 4:08:34

  • Y--

    103

    , . , . . ,

    . H .

    2. , , , . , (C6H10O5)v. .

    + + + ( ) +

    . . , , . ,

    , , , , . 50 80% .

    . , ' . .

    . , , ( ), , , . , , . .

    21-0161.indb 103 27/3/2013 4:08:34

  • Y--

    104

    4.3 , . .

    (C), (O), (H), (N) (S), (P), (Fe), (Cu), (Mg), (Zn) (I). . , . . 20 , 10 . , , , , , , .

    : ,

    ,

    , , ,

    , , , , ,

    , , .

    (Fe)

    (P)

    (COOH)

    2.

    8: A

    21-0161.indb 104 27/3/2013 4:08:34

  • Y--

    105

    4.4 . . , ( ) . .

    . , : , .