œ™“‘‌™£œ™ £¤—...

download œ™“‘‌™£œ™ £¤— ’™œ—§‘‌™‘ ¤¦™œ©‌

of 75

  • date post

    08-Nov-2015
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    16
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

description

μικροοργανισμοι στα τροφιμα

Transcript of œ™“‘‌™£œ™ £¤—...

  • . . .

    &

  • CO2, NH4, H2S, H2O

  • (Black Box)

    PresenterPresentation NotesNot long ago, a normal cell was like a molecular black box. In 1971, when Congress declared the War on Cancer, scientists knew the major parts and functions of a cell, but they did not understand what was happening at the molecular level. Some fundamental questions about what makes a normal cell change into a cancer cell remained unanswered.

  • (Open Box)

    PresenterPresentation NotesUsing exciting, new advances in the technology of molecular biology, scientists have opened the molecular black box and are making discoveries today that were unthinkable just a generation ago.

  • /.

    70%

    : E. coli Yeast

    C O N H P S K

    Na

    50% 20% 14% 8% 3% 1% 1% 1%

  • u moles /g

    (mg) /g

    MW u moles / L

    5081 643 50,000 12.9

    RNADNA

    630100

    21633

    100,0002,000,000

    2.20.000016

    - 218 40 1,000 40

    166 28.4 10,000 2.8

    41 2.2 1,000 2.2

    6236 962.6 NA NA

  • C, N, P, SH2O H+

    O2

    CO2

  • (Inputs)

    , , , : ,

    :

  • )

    ()

    ()

  • ( 500 )

  • = :

    (CO2, NH3)

    = :

    , ,

  • 12

  • ( )

  • :

    - ( ) - ( , , , ,, , .)

    , , , ..

  • , ,

    , :

  • - ,

    , , , , , ,

    .

    . . .

    Novel Foods

    , , .

  • 1.

    1.

    * ,

    * , * , * * , , * * , , ,

    ..* , ..

    1.

    * , , ..

    * , *

    2. * * *

    3. * * ,

  • 4. NOVEL FOODS ( ) . . NOVEL FOODS , . , ,

  • 5.

    5.

    5. , Penicillium Chrysogenum , Streptomyces rimosus , X Streptomyces Venezuelae

    5.

  • ( - )

    . . ,. . .

    , (..)

    .. , , , ..

    , , . .

    , , , , .

  • * ,

    * ,

    * *

    * ,

    ,

    * ,

    *

  • 1-

    2-

    24

  • .

    .

    , .

    .

    .

  • .

    .

    , .

    .

    .

  • :

    ( ) ( = ) ( ) : ( ) : ( , )

    28

  • , .

    , .

  • ,

    .

    .

    .

  • /gr

    109 /g 4C

    (spray dried)

    0-5* 1011 /g 4C

    Freez-dried109 /g

    4C 6 -25C >1

    (deep-frozen)

    109 /g

    1011-1012 /g

    -40C >1-196C >

    ( ) DVS

    1011-1012 /g

  • 35

  • 36

  • 38

  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae et carlbergensis

    Lactobacillus

    () () ( .)

    Penicillium roquefortii, Penicillium camembertii

    Aspergillus flavus (sak)

    39

  • :

    S. ellipsoideus, S. oviformis, S. cerevisiaeTorulospora roseiKloeckera apiculata : S. ellipsoideus & S. oviformis

    40

  • 41

  • : & + CO2100 - 250 g/L 60 - 170 g/L

    (6 17%)

    42

  • - -

    -

    : 2 5%-

    Kloeckera Saccharomyces uvarum S. ellipsoideus

    Lactobacillus

    43

  • - ()

    - (, , )

    - 2 (cidre) ( )

    () 2

    :

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae :Saccharomyces carlsbergensis

    - CO2:

    sak : 44

  • , (

  • /

    47

  • :- Saccharomyces cerevisiae ()

    ( )

    + CO2

    CO2

    :

    CO2

    48

  • :

    1. 2. 3. & 4.

    &

  • C2 .

  • ( )

  • .

    .

    ( , )

    .

    .

    .

    .

    CO2

  • , 1 42.000 , !

  • 24 h

    24 h 500g

    24 h 300g

    40C

    - (1)

    /

  • 10 g 400g12 h

    8000 g 48000g16 h

    400 g 8000g16 h

    (2)

    //

  • (70-75% )

    (3)

  • ( )

  • ()

  • Streptococcus thermophilus Lactobacillus bulgaricus, pH

    S. thermophilusL. bulgaricus

    61

  • 62

  • /

    .

    ()

    + () pH < 4,6 : + ()

    - : (.: , ,

    cottage) (.: ,

    camembert,)-

    (.: , ,Gouda)- (ex:

    , , ..) ( 1 - 12)

    . .

    - : , , , ,

    63

  • 1- : : Streptococcus, LactobacillusLeuconostoc, LactococcusPropionibacterium ( )

    2- Saccharomyces lactis

    3- Penicillium : brie, camembertroquefort, bleusGeotrichum : camembert

    64

  • choucroute + NaCl 2 - 3% Gram Leuconostoc

    Lactobacillus ( ) pH

  • ()

    : Acetobacter, Gluconobacter

    ( ), , (),

    , , ,

    66

  • , jambons Pediococcus cerevisiae ; Lactobacillus plantarum

    67

  • :

    : ().

    :

    68

  • :

    -

    * ()* ()

    ( ) Lactobacillus delbrueckii ( )

    * ( )- (. : (), , , ) - , , Leuconostoc, Xanthomonas

    . 69

  • (Saccharomyces /

    ) , .

    70

  • (,

    , )

    (pnicilline par Penicillium, Cephalosporium)

    ( Streptomyces..)

    71

  • ():

    73

  • novembre 2006

    74

    (): 12% 10%

    2104

  • C: Cheddar, LC: Low fat CheddarM: mozzarella, LM: Low fat mozzarella

    75

    Slide Number 2Slide Number 3Slide Number 4 Slide Number 7 (Inputs) ) Slide Number 10 Slide Number 16 Slide Number 19Slide Number 20Slide Number 21Slide Number 22Slide Number 23Slide Number 24 . Slide Number 28 Slide Number 34 Slide Number 40Slide Number 41Slide Number 42 Slide Number 46Slide Number 47 :Slide Number 50 ( ) Slide Number 55Slide Number 56Slide Number 57Slide Number 58Slide Number 59Slide Number 60 Slide Number 63Slide Number 64Slide Number 65 : : Slide Number 73Slide Number 74Slide Number 75