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Handbook for Community Orchestra Librarians ~ 1 ~

Handbook for

Community Orchestra Librarians

Marilyn Bone Kloss

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Thanks to Christina Edmonds, Manager of Information Resources of the American Symphony Orchestra League (ASOL); the Major Orchestra Librarian Association (MOLA) including Marcia Gittinger Farabee, Clinton Nieweg at the Resource Center, intern Jennifer Johnson, and John Perkel of the Boston Symphony Orchestra; conductor, composer, and librarian Jerome D. Cohen; percussionists Dean Anderson and Russ Girsberger; conductor Richard Pittman; and my sister, Janet Bone, librarian at the Morris (NJ) County Library. Thanks to conductor Max Hobart for suggesting the project.

About the author

Marilyn Bone Kloss is an amateur horn player and volunteer librarian for the Concord (MA) Orchestra. She earned BME and MM degrees from Indiana University and a BS in Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Certificate in Technical Writing from Northeastern University (Boston). She has free-lanced, taught in public schools, worked for Raytheon Company, MGA Software, and SolidWorks (a mechanical design software company). She is the Assistant Editor and has written several articles for The Horn Call, the official journal of the International Horn Society.


©1999-2008 by Marilyn Bone Kloss Ninth Edition, November 2008 Permission to copy this booklet is given with the condition that no money beyond expenses be charged for the copies. Copies are also available for $10 including shipping from:

Marilyn Bone Kloss 1 Concord Greene #8 Concord MA 01742-3170 978-369-0011 [email protected]

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Table of Contents

1. Community orchestra librarians ...................................... 5

1.1 Responsibilities ............................................................. 5

1.2 Supplies ......................................................................... 6

1.3 Scheduling and budgets ................................................. 7

1.4 Expenses ........................................................................ 9

1.5 Communicating with the orchestra ................................ 9

1.6 Collecting the music .................................................... 10

1.7 Help ............................................................................. 10

2. Sources of music ............................................................... 11

2.1 Finding music .............................................................. 11

2.2 String count ................................................................. 14

2.3 Wind, brass, and percussion count .............................. 14

2.4 Rental periods .............................................................. 15

2.5 Contracts ..................................................................... 16

2.6 Cancellations ............................................................... 16

2.7 Lost music ................................................................... 16

2.8 Errors in the music ...................................................... 16

3. Numbering parts .............................................................. 17

3.1 Where to number ......................................................... 18

3.2 Wind, brass, and percussion set ................................... 18

3.3 Percussion .................................................................... 20

3.4 Harp, piano, voice, solo ............................................... 20

3.5 Strings ......................................................................... 21

3.6 Bowing string parts ..................................................... 21

3.7 Sign-out sheets ............................................................ 21

3.8 Photocopies ................................................................. 24

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4. Shipping and Receiving ................................................... 25

4.1 Receiving ..................................................................... 25

4.2 Shipping containers ..................................................... 25

4.3 Shipping ...................................................................... 25

5. Licensing and copyright .................................................. 27

5.1 Licensing ..................................................................... 27

5.2 Licensing organizations ............................................... 28

5.3 Licensing fees .............................................................. 28

5.4 Copyright ..................................................................... 29

6. Managing the library ....................................................... 31

6.1 Cataloging ................................................................... 31

6.2 Database software ....................................................... 32

6.3 Storage ......................................................................... 32

6.4 Folders ......................................................................... 34

6.5 Borrowing and lending ................................................ 34

6.6 Commissions ............................................................... 34

7. Other resources ................................................................ 35

8. References ......................................................................... 37

Index ........................................................................................ 39

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1. Community orchestra librarians

The Major Orchestra Librarians Association (MOLA) defines the orchestra librarian as a specialist in music who works in a performance library setting. This person must be a "musician in the widest sense of the word and also a specialist in the care and management of an orchestra's music collection."

So states the President of MOLA, Marcia Gittinger Farabee, in a column for an American Symphony Orchestra League (ASOL) publication, Progressions. [7] This lofty definition may apply to major orchestras where the librarians typically have professional performance or music history backgrounds, but community orchestra librarians are usually volunteers (although sometimes paid!), often with no training or background as a librarian. In fact, everyone learns on the job (even the major orchestra librarians) since there is no formal program for training specifically as an orchestra librarian. The booklet you are reading aspires, by providing resource information and describing accepted procedures, to help community orchestra librarians do the job as well and efficiently as possible. From conversations with major orchestra librarians, it has become apparent that the job is not standardized even for the major orchestras; i.e., there is no one way to do it. However, there are some general guidelines and procedures, and you can follow those that you find helpful. Consistent library procedures are important for many reasons, but ultimately to save money. If parts are lost, the costs can be as little as a few dollars, but as much as $25 for a string part, $100 for a wind part, and $250 for a score for a work that is out of print. Having such procedures as numbering the parts and using sign-out sheets helps keep track of the parts and avoid losses.

1.1 Responsibilities

Gittinger Farabee recommends that the orchestra have a written job description for the librarian. The minimum items of such a description would include:

• Catalog and maintain the orchestra's music collection. • Develop a budget for each season. • Order music for each concert (rentals and/or purchases). • Number parts. • Bow string parts (if required). • Enter purchases into the orchestra library database and/or listing. • Distribute parts by a sign-out system. • Distribute and collect parts at each rehearsal as necessary. • Collect parts after concerts. • Ship rentals back to their distributors with copies of programs.

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Some of the duties mentioned for a professional librarian are outside the scope of most community orchestra librarians; the following, for example:

• Research and obtain repertoire (the conductor chooses repertoire in most community orchestras)

• Proof, edit, repair, mark bowings on, and fix page turns in, all parts and scores (parts are usually given to community orchestra members "as is", with section leaders handling bowings and any errors worked out between the conductor and the players).

1.2 Supplies

The list of supplies recommended for a professional librarian is an unattainable dream for the community orchestra librarian (one generally makes do with a photocopying service and/or the occasional copy at the office in place of a photocopying machine, for example). However, the following supplies, along with a work space with desk, telephone, etc., are probably reasonable:

1. Stamp with name (and possibly address) of the orchestra 2. Pencil for numbering and bowing music 3. Large manila or accordion envelopes for holding music in your library 4. Shelves or large file cabinets for storing the library (see Chapter 6) 5. Black marker for marking envelopes and boxes 6. Shipping materials (see Chapter 4) 7. Computer for database, word processing, email, etc. (optional) 8. VPC Report Master Binding System (optional)

Notes about supplies

1. A stamp is used to stamp the orchestra name on purchased parts. Stamps are not expensive and can be ordered at copy and print shops.

2. As you certainly know, only soft, black (#1 or HB lead) pencil should be used to mark music; i.e., no ink, no markers, no colored pencil.

3. We hang on to our old worn and frayed envelopes because it seems impossible to replace them. The manila envelopes available today seem so insubstantial, intra-office envelopes with string ties are too small for most music sets, and accordion type envelopes are usually the wrong dimensions. We just do the best we can to find something of approximately the right weight and dimensions for each piece.

5. Black felt-tip markers are useful on boxes and envelopes – not on the music, of course.

6. Boxes, tape, and labels are the sorts of supplies needed for shipping. 7. If you have a computer, you will find it useful for keeping a database of

your library, word processing of letters, forms, etc., and email. 8. The VPC binding system is very useful when you have to copy many-

page parts. It comes with a little manual machine and a supply of tape. The procedure is simple and results in parts that lie flat. See Chapter 7 on Other Resources for the address.

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1.3 Scheduling and budgets

The program for the following season is normally available before the end of the previous season (May or June) so that the orchestra can print subscription brochures and sell subscriptions before the beginning of the new season. The librarian should receive a copy of the program listing as soon as it is available (perhaps even a draft version) in order to develop a budget, gathering detailed information as to where the music is to be purchased or rented and how much it will cost. See Chapter 2 on Sources of music for information on how to find the music. This is the time to be sure that the music will be available when needed. Sometimes performing rights will not be ceded to an organization because the composer or publisher wants the premiere to be performed by a more prestigious organization. Sometimes the music is simply not available anywhere (an arrangement of a popular or show tune, for example). Sometimes a work costs more than expected and/or more than the budget can stand. Works by contemporary composers are more expensive than works in the public domain. With the budget information, the music director can adjust the program, if necessary, before you start ordering the music. The budget is also handy for the librarian to have available when planning and ordering music. Include the dates of the concerts, composers and works, publishers (with any known catalog numbers), and costs. Following is a typical (partial) budget for the Concord Orchestra followed by notes on issues encountered by our orchestra as we carried it out during the season.

Figure 1. Sample Concord Orchestra Music Budget (1998-99)

Concert date Composer Work Source Cost Oct 23/24

Joyce Mekeel Beethoven Bartok

Toward the Source Symphony No. 8 Violin Concerto No. 2

library library Boosey&Hawkes

- - 830

Dec 6

Paul Patterson Anderson

Little Red Riding Hood Christmas Festival

Boosey&Hawkes library

410 -

Jan 29/30


Symphony No. 5 Young artist concerto

Luck 08881 (buy)

650 100

Mar 26/27


A Masked Ball *Vocal scores $6 each

Kalmus A2346


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Notes on the sample Concord Orchestra budget

Following are some comments on issues of cost and scheduling that we encountered in carrying out the budget above.

• Even the best laid plans for a season's budget can go awry, through no fault of the librarian, the conductor, or anyone else. The budget is really just a working document, not carved in stone.

• Typically, we order the music in time to distribute it at the last rehearsal of the previous concert so orchestra members have a chance to look at the part before the first rehearsal. We can't order much in advance of that because we rehearse six to eight weeks for a concert and music distributors don't allow more than that in their rental fees. Of course, purchases can be made as far in advance as you like.

• When there are several works on a program, we usually obtain and collate all parts before distributing them to orchestra members; however, sometimes this is not possible. It is more work to distribute the pieces separately, and there is more opportunity for parts to be mixed up and eventually lost, but sometimes music is not available in time.

• Items in the orchestra library usually are no additional cost. If the set is very old, however, it may have been purchased for a smaller ensemble, so check the parts and copy or order parts as necessary. Our copy of the Beethoven Symphony #8 was old and needed additional string parts.

• Fees are partially based on the number of performances. The Bartok is expensive, partly because it is still under copyright and partly because there are two performances, $470 for the first, and $360 for the second. The orchestra cannot replace this piece with a cheaper one since the it has signed an agreement with the soloist specifying this particular concerto.

• The Patterson Little Red Riding Hood had been programmed in two previous seasons, but the estate of the story author (Roald Dahl) refused to grant us permission to perform it until a more prominent organization had given the US premiere. We made sure that we would have permission this year before the season subscription program was printed. This piece is also performed at two concerts, both on the same day, and the price is reduced from the full concert price because they are children's concerts.

• The concerto to be played by the Young Artist is not known at the time of making up the budget. An audition is held part way through the season. For budgeting purposes, $100 is allocated. This is usually sufficient since the winner often plays a concerto in the public domain that can be rented for less than that. Recently, one of our winners played the Barber Violin Concerto, and this year the winner played Rachmaninoff Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini; both of these works cost considerably more than $100 to rent.

• The Mahler symphony was purchased the previous summer so orchestra members could have the parts to practice. We often purchase a difficult work for this reason, especially if it is a standard work that is a good addition to the library and/or can be practiced over the summer.

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• The opera music is rented. The choral scores will be purchased by the individual chorus members, so no amount appears in the price column, but it's handy to have the cost information available. In some cases, the orchestra will purchase the choral scores, especially if the orchestra parts are purchased.

• Shipping costs have not been included in the music budget, but the orchestra is responsible for them, in both directions. The treasurer can determine where this extra item should be allocated in the overall budget.

1.4 Expenses

Most community orchestras handle expenses (such as office supplies, photocopying, shipping costs, etc.) by having the librarian get receipts to be reimbursed. For renting and purchasing music, orchestras maintain accounts with the publishers and distributors, who invoice the orchestras at their billing address, which is usually the orchestra office to the attention of the Treasurer. Occasionally, a publisher (Music Theatre International, for example) will demand payment up front; in this case, ask the treasurer to write a check to send with your order.

1.5 Communicating with the orchestra

Let the orchestra members know your policies. Remind them at appropriate intervals of:

• When music is to be distributed (at the first rehearsal or before the previous concert, for example.) and how (from a table or box at the front of the hall, from the librarian(s), etc.)

• How much music costs to replace (in other words, don't lose it)

• How to mark music (lightly in pencil only, and don't mark on the staff itself since the printing will come off when marks are erased)

• When music is to be collected (after the concert or at the next rehearsal, for example) and how (put in a box in the Green Room, left on the stand or chair, handed to a section leader, etc.)

Use sign-out sheets to keep track of who has what music. This may not be necessary with the wind and brass parts since it is clear who is playing what part (just be sure you have the players' names and phone numbers), but for strings it can be very helpful. Even if players generally take the same number each time, there are often exceptions, new players, players hired just for a concert, etc. See Chapter 3 on Numbering Parts for an example of sign-out sheets.

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1.6 Collecting the music

Do not wait until the next rehearsal to collect the music! Collect the music immediately after the [last] concert so you can start tracking down lost parts immediately. If you wait, you may never get all the parts back. When you find that a part is missing, start phoning as soon as possible. You should send the music back to the publisher with days, a week at the most, so you don't have time to wait for several rehearsals for people to remember to bring the music in. Remind the orchestra members at the last couple of rehearsals when the music is to be collected and how; this is also a reminder for string players to bring in their practice parts. Pile on the guilt! Make sure they know that if they don't bring in their parts and leave them for you, they should tell you so and arrange to get their music to you somehow by the next rehearsal (or your shipping date). Some orchestras have a box in the Green Room for everyone to put their music in. We prefer that music be left on the stand (or chair, if appropriate). Then it can be collected in order, saving time and effort in sorting. Don't forget to check around the stage and Green Room for stray parts before leaving the hall. Sometimes we take the music home and sort it the next day, but other times it works well to quickly sort the music into piles for each piece, then put them in order and see if anything is missing. The orchestra members may still be in the hall (partying!), so we can check with them before they go home. We do less partying, but we may save time and grief in the long run. If everything is accounted for, so much the better – then we can party with no worries.

1.7 Help

Sometimes you can get help in the form of an Assistant Librarian. I have been fortunate to have an assistant – actually a series of assistants over the years – from the string section, essentially a "string" librarian. The job of librarian is daunting enough, especially if you also play in the orchestra and have a full-time job besides, and splitting up the task of distributing and collecting the music is a big help. The string librarian keeps track of who takes out which numbered part within each section, then collects and sorts the music, phoning errant players when necessary. Naturally, having someone from within the section to handle these duties has the advantage of knowing the players involved. Our string librarians have generally enlisted help from each section when it comes time to collect the music. Someone from each string section picks up and puts the music in order for the section. If you are a string player, you could do it the other way around – find someone in the wind or brass section to handle those sections. Another aspect of getting help is to be able to ask questions of a more experienced librarian, perhaps one from the nearest major orchestra. The librarians in the Major Orchestra Librarians' Association are eager to help train librarians in smaller orchestras. See Chapter 8 on Other Resources for information on contacting this group.

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2. Sources of music

Following is an alphabetical list of publishers, distributors, libraries, and services that may be helpful (see Figure 2 on the next pages). A current list of publishers, including most of those on this list, can be found on the Internet at (Music Publishers' Association). The table here covers most organizations that a community orchestra librarian would need. Everyone has their favorites. Kirstin Dougan [2] likes Educational Music Service. My own orchestra tends to use Kalmus for rentals and some purchases, Luck for many purchases, and other publishers for their exclusive composers. Another local orchestra has Yesterday Service collect all the music they require. Dougan recommends building a "good working relationship" with the suppliers. She says, "If you consistently speak to the same sales representative, chances are your group and your orders will be remembered and you will find it easier to get parts in a hurry if necessary." We have worked with particular people in certain special circumstances, and our music director has some connections at some companies, but I can't say that we've built relationships in general. We've found service by the publishers and distributors to be generally of a very high level.

2.1 Finding music

As you gain experience, you will have much information in your head on where music is to be found; i.e., which distributors handle which composers and/or publishers. But if you are just starting out, where can you go for the information you need? First, in a community orchestra, your music director may be a good resource. (In a professional orchestra, the conductor may ask for a particular edition or version of a work, but it is entirely up to the librarian to locate it.) Your conductor likely checked through catalogs in putting together the program and/or is knowledgeable about publishers and distributors. Second, check any catalogs you have on hand. You should have at least Kalmus and Luck catalogs, which cover most of the public domain literature. Third, there are published resources. The most useful and least expensive is David Daniels' Orchestral Music: A Handbook[1], available from EMS. It lists not only the music, but also the distributors for various publishers. Also available from EMS but more expensive and needing a new edition (last published in1979) is Orchestral Music in Print[4] by Margaret K. Farish. See Chapter 8 References for details. Professional orchestras also make use of the EMS database, which is updated periodically for $60/year.

[continued on Page 14]

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Figure 2. Publishers, distributors, libraries, and services

Name and address Phone, fax, email Comments Boosey & Hawkes 35 East 21st Street New York NY 10010-6212

212-358-5379 tel 212-358-5307 fax [email protected]

Copland, Bartok, Britten, John Adams, Bernstein, Patterson, Respighi

Broude Brothers Ltd 141 White Oaks Road Williamstown MA 01267

413-458-8131 tel/fax [email protected]

Handle purchases from all publishers, rentals of works they publish from Bloch, Messiaen, others

Jerome D. Cohen 12 Pat Road Hanover MA 02339

781-826-5587 tel/fax [email protected]

Reasonable rates for many Pops arrangements. 2008 – distributing library.

EMS Music Service Foreign Music Distributors 13 Elkay Drive Chester NY 10918

914-469-5790 tel 914-469-5817 fax [email protected]

All-inclusive purchasing service, music from all publishers; rentals from the Mapleson Collections

European American Music Distr. 254 West 31st Street, Floor 15 New York NY 10001

212-461-6940 tel 212-810-4565 fax [email protected]

Distributor of Schott and Universal editions; Martin, Milhaud, Stravinsky, Janacek

Bill Rhoads, Dir. Serious Music Carl Fischer Inc. 65 Bleeker Street New York NY 10012

800-762-2328 212-777-0900 tel 212-477-6996 fax

Brant, Siegmeister

Free Library of Philadelphia Edwin A. Fleisher Collection Logan Square Philadelphia PA 19103

215-686-5313 tel 215-686-5314 fax [email protected] Kile Smith, Curator

Rental is free, but there are many restrictions

Edwin F. Kalmus & Co., Inc. 6403 West Rogers Circle Boca Raton FL 33487

561-241-6340 tel 561-241-6347 fax 800-434-6340 orders only [email protected]

Eight week rental period, broad catalog

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Luck's Music Library 32300 Edward Madison Heights MI 48071

248-583-1820 tel 248-583-1114 fax 800-348-8749

Most all music in Kalmus plus Pops music not available at Kalmus

Music Theatre International Broadway Concert Library 421 West 54th Street New York NY 10019

212-541-4684 tel 212-397-4684 fax [email protected]

Require complete fee plus a deposit before sending music, can be slow to return deposit; Sondheim, Broadway shows

Oxford University Press (USA) 200 Madison Avenue New York NY 10016

212-726-6049 212-726-6441 [email protected]

British composers such as Vaughn Williams

Theodore Presser Company 588 North Gulph Road King of Prussia PA 19406

610-592-1212 tel 610-592-1229 fax [email protected] [email protected]

Distributor for Peer Southern; Ives, Poulenc, Ravel, McCabe, Still, Messiaen, Revueltas, Daugherty, Loevendie, Ibert, Augusta Read Thomas, Grofe, Schuman, Shapero, Stucky

RYTVOC, Inc. 39 West 54th Street New York NY 10019

212-246-5757 tel 212-977-8408 fax (Attn: Peter Sylvestri)

Publisher of Tubby the Tuba; distribution is now with Music Theatre International

ECS Publishing (E.C. Schirmer) 138 Ipswich Street Boston MA 02215-3534

617-236-1935 tel 617-236-0261 fax [email protected]

Felciano, Bridge

G. Schirmer Performance Department 445 Bellvale Road Chester NY 10918

845-469-2271 x216 tel 845-469-7544 fax [email protected] Ella Winfield

Virgil Thompson; Gershwin, Joan Tower, deFalla, Sibelius, Barber, Bloch, Karel Husa, Honneger, Elliott Carter, Morton Gould, Harbison, Rachmaninoff, Prokofiev, Shostakovich,

Spectrum Music 1844-B Massachusetts Avenue Lexington MA 02473

781-862-0088 tel 781-861-1335 fax [email protected]

Service to handle ordering music for you; discounts for organizations and educational institutions.

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Fourth, your colleagues (fellow orchestra librarians) might be able to supply the information you need, or at least clues as to where to start. As a last resort, contact a distributor you think might handle a particular work. If they don't, they may be able to direct you to the correct one (or you may need several calls to locate it).

2.2 String count

Be prepared to specify the number of parts for each string section when you order music; for example, 12-10-8-10-6 for 12 first violins, 10 seconds, 8 violas, 10 cellos, and 6 basses – one for each player (some orchestras provide one part per stand in the strings). Sometimes a set has only a limited number of string parts – typically 9-8-7-6-5 or 8-7-6-5-4 or 8-8-4-4-4. Then you may have to make photocopies (see the section in Chapter 3 on photocopying). Some publishers charge extra for additional string parts (i.e., anything over a specified total).

2.3 Wind, brass, and percussion count

For ordering, you won't need to specify the wind, brass, and percussion instrumentation (it is pre-determined) unless, for example, there is more than one version of the work. However, you will need to know it as you hand out the parts, and often members of the orchestra ask if their instrument is required for a particular concert (bass clarinet, harp, keyboard, contrabassoon, third trumpet players, for example). If your conductor does not give you an instrumentation list automatically, you might ask for one so you can be prepared for what music will arrive as well as to answer questions. You will be able to check the conductor's list against the catalog to be sure you have the desired version. The usual way instrumentation is listed, in catalogs and between librarians, conductors, musicians, etc. is in a format such as the following:

2,2,2,2 - 4,2,3,1 timp, perc, str which means 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons; 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba; timpani, percussion, and the usual strings. A larger orchestra might have:

2+1,2+1,2+1,2+1 4,3,3,1 timp,perc,hp,str,solo where the +1's in the winds are piccolo, English horn, bass clarinet, and contrabassoon, and hp is harp. The "+" indicates that a separate player is required for the part. Sometimes parts are doubled, which is indicated with a "d".

3d1+1,2+1,3d1(+Eb),3+1 - 8d4,4+2,4,2d1, 2timp ... indicates 3 flutes, one of which doubles piccolo, plus a fourth player playing piccolo only; 2 oboes plus a third player for English horn; 3 clarinets, one doubling bass clarinet, plus a fourth player for E-flat clarinet; 3 bassoons plus a contrabassoon; 8 horns, 4 doubling Wagner tuba; 4 trumpets plus 2 cornets; 4 trombones; 2 tubas, one doubling euphonium; 2 timpanists, etc.

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These conventions are described in the introduction to the Kalmus Orchestral Catalog[11].

2.4 Rental periods

Rental periods vary from publisher to publisher. Kalmus has a base of eight weeks. Luck has a base of six weeks and charges extra for any additional time. Most other companies will extend the rental period to cover a community orchestra's rehearsal cycle if the music is available. Professional orchestra librarians can get the music ready weeks before rehearsals begin since rehearsals usually take place only a week or so before the concert(s). Community orchestras usually rehearse once a week over several weeks (six to eight or nine is typical), so they need the music longer.

2.5 Contracts

Some publishers and distributors require that contracts be signed and returned before they will ship out music. Others require a contract to be signed but send it out any time up to shipping the music. Contracts and performance fees are for works still under copyright; works in the public domain do not require performance fees (see Chapter 5 on Licensing and Copyright). Some companies do not use contracts at all (Kalmus and Luck, for example). Here are paraphrases of some of the points of a typical contract (Boosey & Hawkes or G. Schirmer, for example).

• Contracts typically spell out the conditions under which the works can be performed; i.e., live performances only, with no right to stage or choreograph the music.

• Radio or television broadcasts, recording, transcription, and synchronization are not allowed.

• The contracting organization can not make any arrangements, transcriptions, or scores.

• Rental fees are not sufficient for public performance; a performance license is required; i.e., the fees quoted do not include performance fees to ASCAP or BMI.

• Reproduction is not allowed without express written permission. The materials may not be sold, loaned, or distributed to any other party.

• A cancellation fee will be charged if the performance is cancelled after the materials have been shipped.

• Shipping charges, including insurance, are the responsibility of the orchestra.

• Markings must be made only in pencil, and must be erased before the music is returned (see Section 4.3 on Shipping).

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• Materials must be returned in the same condition as received, immediately following the last performance. Late returns will incur additional charges.

• The orchestra is liable for the replacement of lost or damaged parts.

• Fees are to be paid within a specified time after the last performance date; a specified number copies of the program (two or three) are to be provided.

• The contract must be signed and returned within a specified time.

2.6 Cancellations

If your orchestra decides not to perform a work after you have received the music, you can cancel. Thus you will not be liable for the full performance fees (which may be several hundred dollars for contemporary works); generally you will pay a cancellation fee, which is much lower ($50 or $75 is typical). If you have not distributed the music when you learn of a change, you can send it back immediately. If the music has been distributed, it may be difficult to collect it all, especially from string players who do not attend every rehearsal. Even if you do not perform the work, extra fees may be charged if the music is returned after the contracted rental period; in fact, the full performance fee may be charged if the music is kept after the scheduled performance date.

2.7 Lost music

The orchestra is responsible for the replacement costs of any lost or damaged music, no matter what the cause. Responsible orchestra members who have lost their music (often the whole folder) may offer to pay for the parts themselves. This is the fairest solution, and it has happened in our orchestra. Professional players are less likely to volunteer to pay for a lost part, but amateurs recognize the tight budgets under which their organizations operate; they usually contribute to it. However, some players may be students and not have the financial resources to pay; a compromise may be worked out, but in any case the orchestra has the ultimate responsibility and must be sure that all music is paid for.

2.8 Errors in the music

Many people bemoan the errors in Kalmus and Luck editions. However, Clinton Nieweg of the Philadelphia Orchestra library says that the mistakes in the Kalmus editions (often reprints of Breitkopf and Härtel) are simply copies of the mistakes found in the original publications. Kalmus is the only one of the reprint publishing companies to actually make corrections in new editions.

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3. Numbering parts

Parts are numbered in score order (see Figure 3). The winds, brass, percussion, keyboard, and harp are numbered as a set, and each string section is numbered separately. Solo and vocal parts are not numbered within the orchestra set; vocal parts may be numbered separately.

Figure 3. Instruments in score order English Italian German French

piccolo flauto piccolo kleine Flöte petite flûte flute flauto Flöte flûte oboe oboe Hoboe hautbois English horn corno inghlese Englisch Horn cor anglais clarinet clarinetto Klarinette clarinette bass clarinet clarinetto basso Bassklarinette clarinette bass bassoon fagotto Fagott basson contra bassoon contrafagotto Kontrafagott contrebasson [French] horn* corno Horn cor trumpet tromba Trompete trompette trombone trombone Posaune trombone tuba tuba Tuba tuba timpani, kettledrums timpani Pauken timbales percussion ** glockenspiel chimes xylophone bass drum snare drum tenor drum tambourine triangle cymbals tam-tam, gong

percussione campanelle campane silofone gran cassa tamburo militare cassa rullante tamburino triangolo piatti tam-tam

Schlagzeug Glockenspiel Glocken Zilofone grosse Trommel kleine Trommel Rührtrommel Tamburin Triangel, Dreieck Becken Tam-tam, Gong

batterie jeu de timbres cloches tubulaire claquebois, patouille grosse caisse petite caisse caisse roulante tambourin triangle cymbales tam-tam, gong

piano pianoforte Klavier piano celeste celesta Celesta céleste harp arpa Harfe harpe [solo, vocal parts] [solo] [solo] [solo] violin violino Violine violon viola viola Bratsche alto cello violoncello Violoncell violoncelle [double] bass contra basso Kontrabass contrebasse

* Most scores correctly identify the instrument as "horn", although colloquially it is often referred

to as "French horn". ** Percussion parts are not standardized, and there are more than are listed here.

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Numbering each part in sequence in a set is invaluable for keeping track of parts, especially when collecting them, putting them in order to return them to your library or to the publisher, and sometimes when there is a question during rehearsal as to whether there is a bass clarinet, tuba, or third trumpet part, for example.

3.1 Where to number

Number in:

• upper left corner • pencil • Arabic numbers (1,2,3, etc.).

Some librarians prefer numbering in the upper right corner, but most music I have seen, including that numbered by the publisher, has used the left corner. Some librarians use Roman numerals, especially on string parts. It is certainly an option, but Arabic numerals are more common, and naturally easier to read. Determine the total number of parts in the set and use that number for the first and last part in the set; for example, if there are twelve first violin parts, label the first one:

1/12 and the last one:

12/12 Those in between can given their sequential numbers (2,3,4, etc.). Some librarians include the set number on all parts (2/12, 3/12, etc.). The disadvantage of this approach is that if the total number changes, then all the part numbers have to be revised. Other librarians recommend against writing in the total numbers, citing the difficulties when the totals change.

3.2 Wind, brass, and percussion set

The music is usually in score order when it arrives from the publisher, although often one each of the string parts is included in the "set", with "extra" strings then in separate batches. Sometimes the parts are already numbered (Broude Brothers numbers the parts in their publications). If not, be sure the parts are in score order (check against the score) and count to see how many parts there are in the wind, brass, and percussion set (including harp and keyboard).

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Flute and piccolo

The piccolo appears first in the score, but it usually is inserted after the flutes in the set of parts since it is an auxiliary part. Often the piccolo part is printed in the third and/or fourth flute part. Of course, many times there is no piccolo part. For all these reasons, flute rather than piccolo is first in the set.

Different keys

One question is whether to number wind and brass parts in different keys; for example, Horn in C (the original key) and Horn in F (transposed). It makes some sense to number them 11 and 11A; however, if you're not aware that there is an 11A, you might not realize you have to look for it. One solution is to use 11 A/B and 11 B/B, which shows clearly that there are two separate parts. I prefer giving each part, even if it is the same part in a different key, its own number. Photocopied practice parts, however, I do not number separately; if they are lost, additional photocopies can be made.

Classical example

As an example, a typical Classical symphony might have the following wind, brass, and percussion parts, numbered as indicated below.

1/13 flute 1 2 flute 2 3 oboe 1 4 oboe 2 5 clarinet 1 6 clarinet 2 7 bassoon 1 8 bassoon 2 9 horn 1 10 horn 2 11 trumpet 1 12 trumpet 2 13/13 timpani

Romantic example

A Romantic symphony usually has a larger list.

1/27 flute 1 2 flute 2 3 piccolo 4 oboe 1 5 oboe 2 6 English horn

7 clarinet 1 8 clarinet 2 9 bass clarinet 10 bassoon 1 11 bassoon 2 12 contra bassoon 13 horn 1 14 horn 2 15 horn 3 16 horn 4

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17 trumpet 1 18 trumpet 2 19 trumpet 3 20 trombone 1 21 trombone 2 22 trombone 3 23 tuba 24 timpani 25 percussion 1 26 percussion 2 27/27 harp

3.3 Percussion

Percussion parts are not standard, and there are many more instruments than shown in the table – wood block, cow bell, whip, auto horn – the list is endless. Timpani is usually (but not always) a separate part; if separate, it is numbered first in the sequence of percussion parts. Percussion parts may have one, two, or sometime more parts with combinations of instruments, often laid out for one person to play several instruments from one part. In other pieces, each instrument – or perhaps with one other instrument – has a separate part. If there are several copies of one part labeled "Percussion", they can each be given a separate number or they can be given the same number but multiple copies indicated by 23 A/D, 23 B/D, 23 C/D, and 23 D/D. Then it is clear on the first copy that three other copies need to be collected. The librarian does not need to be concerned with how all the parts are handled by the players. It is enough to number the parts sequentially as they are distributed by the publisher; then be sure that all the parts are collected after the concert, which is not always as simple as it sounds!

3.4 Harp, keyboard, voice, solo

After the percussion parts come the harp, piano, harpsichord, celeste, voice, and solo parts. The harp, orchestral piano, orchestral harpsichord, and celeste are numbered as part of the wind, brass, and percussion set. Vocal, choral, and solo parts are not numbered in any set. They are separate, as are any scores. However, if you have multiple copies of choral scores, for example, number them as a set. Soloists always have their own parts, so most of the time solo parts stay in the shipping container. However, occasionally soloists play from the music (not from memory), and if they lose the part, they may go to the librarian in a panic for a backup. This happened in our orchestra once, and although the soloist's own part was soon located, having the backup was reassuring.

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3.5 Strings

The string parts are numbered within each section. For example, if there are six bass parts, they are numbered: 1/6 2 3 4 5 6/6. Some librarians advise including the set number on each part (2/6, 3/6, etc.); the disadvantage is having to change all parts if the number in the set changes. Others advise not using the set number at all, for the same reason. Our orchestra uses the system described above. See the below for a discussion on handling photocopied parts. If the cellos and basses are on the same part, on some circle "cello" and cross out "bass", and vice versa for bass parts. Number the parts appropriately for the correct number of cello and bass parts.

3.6 Bowing string parts

For most professional orchestra librarians, bowing the string parts is one of the expected duties. Usually the bowings are determined by the sections leader and copied by the librarians (or by bow markers; i.e., members of the orchestra hired for this extra duty). Occasionally there is not time for the section leaders to write in the bowings, so the librarians handle it. For community orchestra librarians, however, the concertmaster and other string section leaders may bow the parts without the assistance of the librarian. Professional librarians actually do much more than copy bowings. At the Boston Symphony Orchestra, for example, during rehearsals the section principals put an X in the margin where any change has been made in a line. After each rehearsal, the librarians search each principal part for Xs and copy the changes into all the parts. The changes may be articulations, dynamics, etc. in addition to bowings. Before the first rehearsal, bar numbers may be added to all the parts, especially if the distance between rehearsal numbers is great, for example. If the conductor indicates cuts, the librarians mark those in the parts. The librarians examine each work to see if fixing up of any kind is required. If you do bow the string parts, be careful to put each bowing mark directly over the correct note. Also be certain to transfer any specific directions pertaining to "on" or "off" the string, part of the bow to be used, etc. Don't be surprised if parts are sent back for changes; this is normal.

3.7 Sign-out sheet

When distributing parts, it's a good idea to have a sign-out sheet. Usually each string player takes the same number each time, but there are always exceptions so you can't count on it. Wind parts are easier because it's clear who is playing which part, so a sign-out sheet for winds is not usually necessary. Figure 4 is an example of forms that work for our orchestra. Having the forms all on one page (i.e., one for strings and one for winds and percussion) makes them easy to use.

[continued on Page 24]

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Figure 4. Sign-out forms

String Sign-out

Concert ____________________

Composer(s) ____________________

Work(s) ____________________

Violin 1

1 _________________________

2 _________________________

3 _________________________

4 _________________________

5 _________________________

6 _________________________

7 _________________________

8 _________________________

9 _________________________

10 _________________________

11 _________________________

12 _________________________

Violin 2

1 _________________________

2 _________________________

3 _________________________

4 _________________________

5 _________________________

6 _________________________

7 _________________________

8 _________________________

9 _________________________

10 _________________________


1 _________________________

2 _________________________

3 _________________________

4 _________________________

5 _________________________

6 _________________________

7 _________________________

8 _________________________


1 _________________________

2 _________________________

3 _________________________

4 _________________________

5 _________________________

6 _________________________

7 _________________________

8 _________________________

9 _________________________

10 _________________________


1 _________________________

2 _________________________

3 _________________________

4 _________________________

5 _________________________

6 _________________________

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Wind, Brass, and Percussion Sign-out

Concert ____________________

Composer(s) ____________________

Work(s) ____________________

Flute 1 _____________________

Flute 2 _____________________

Flute 3 _____________________

Piccolo _____________________

Alto flute __________________

Oboe 1 _____________________

Oboe 2 _____________________

Oboe 3 _____________________

English horn ________________

Clarinet 1 __________________

Clarinet 2 __________________

Clarinet 3 __________________

Bass clarinet _______________

E-flat clarinet _____________

Bassoon 1 ___________________

Bassoon 2 ___________________

Bassoon 3 ___________________

Contrabassoon _______________








Horn 1 _____________________

Horn 2 _____________________

Horn 3 _____________________

Horn 4 _____________________

Horn 5 _____________________

Horn 6 _____________________

Horn 7 _____________________

Horn 8 _____________________

Trumpet 1 __________________

Trumpet 2 __________________

Trumpet 3 __________________

Trumpet 4 __________________

Cornet 1 __________________

Cornet 2 __________________

Cornet 3 __________________

Trombone 1 _________________

Trombone 2 _________________

Trombone 3 _________________

Trombone 4 _________________

Tuba _______________________

Timpani ____________________

Percussion 1 _______________

Percussion 2 _______________

Percussion 3 _______________

Percussion 4 _______________

Piano ______________________

Celesta _____________________

Harpsichord _________________

Harp 1 _____________________

Harp 2 _____________________

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3.8 Photocopies

Copying music is a tricky issue. Some copy centers, in fact, have a policy of not copying music so they won't be in violation of copyrights. Certainly copying to avoid buying parts (extra string parts, for example) is indefensible – and illegal! However, making a copy for practicing at home is allowable, as is making a copy for an assistant wind player. The Boston Symphony Orchestra has a photocopy machine available for players to make any copies they need for practicing. The BSO provides only one copy for each stand of string players; the players are expected to share or make their own practice copies. Sometimes there are extra originals that can be signed out.

Official permission

If publishers or distributors are unable to supply as many string parts as the orchestra requires, they usually give permission for the parts to be photocopied. They may spell out conditions, such as outlined in this statement from European American Music:

Permission is hereby granted to photocopy string parts … to bring the standard set up to string count of … provided each part carries the line "used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. agent for Universal Edition Vienna" and that all such photocopies are returned with the originals after the last performance.

When such music is collected, I do send back any photocopies that are turned in (although I don't chase down any not turned in). If we've borrowed music from another orchestra, I try to include all photocopies for their future use, partly in thanks for being able to use the music for only the cost of shipping.

Numbering photocopies

Numbering the photocopies can be handled in various ways. The key is to have an original for each stand (assuming that you provide a part for each player). Some librarians number the originals consecutively, then give them out to the outside players first so that any photocopies end up with inside players. Our orchestra has long-standing number assignments going from the front of the section to the back, so our string librarian prefers to intersperse the photocopies (even numbers) with the originals (odd numbers). Thus, if there are two photocopies in the second violins, they are numbered 8 and 10/10; if there are five photocopies, they are numbered 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10/10. If the public domain work is in our library, we keep all the photocopies in order and catalog them all, indicating on the Instrumentation List how many are originals and how many are photocopies. Kirstin Dougan[2] recommends not recording any photocopies in the database.

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4. Shipping and Receiving

Sometimes it's difficult to keep track of all the bits and pieces between the time the music arrives and the time to collect it again and ship it back. Here are some suggestions to make the operation smoother.

4.1 Receiving

It may seem obvious, but the first thing to do is to check that you have actually received all the music you expect. Check against the score – and check all movements as sometimes instruments are used only in later movements and not listed at the front. It is not unknown for a part to be missing – the shippers are also only human! – and number them (see Chapter 3 on Numbering). Be certain to alert the publisher if the shipping list does not match what you received, but first check the packing list to see if the missing parts are on back order. If a missing part is a unique wind part, then call the publisher immediately. Publishers are cooperative about supplying missing parts quickly. If it is a string part, you may prefer to make a photocopy, if necessary, rather than have another part sent. If you are purchasing rather than renting the music, then stamp each part with the name of the orchestra, number the parts, and make up a folder for storage. An instrumentation list (see Chapter 6) should be included in the folder (and possibly also in a loose-leaf notebook).

4.2 Shipping containers

Rental music may be kept in the box or folder in which it was shipped (i.e., the parts can be distributed from the container, with any extra parts, instrumentation list, policy statements, etc. left in the container). If the shipping container is suitable for shipping the music back, then be sure to keep it. It's a good idea to mark the name of the composer or work on the side of the box so you can tell quickly which box to use when it comes time to return the music. Some distributors ship the music in a box that can be reversed, and the return address is already on the reverse side. One gives thanks for such thoughtfulness! Others wrap the music tightly in paper and tape. There is no way such packaging can be re-used; just throw it away (perhaps retaining the mailing label to have the return address handy at shipping time) and find an envelope or box for keeping documentation and extra parts. Keep any documentation such as instrumentation lists, policy statements, etc. that arrive with the music. One place to keep these items is in the shipping box, and one way to keep track of them is to use a couple of large rubber bands to secure them to a piece of cardboard.

4.3 Shipping

Shipping is the reverse of Receiving. Count everything one last time, check the documentation, include the two or three copies of the program that were requested, make out the mailing label, and tape up the box or staple the envelope.

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Condition of the music

The music is expected to be returned in the same condition as received. Naturally, there will be some small degree of deterioration with any use of the music, but as long as it is small, it will be acceptable. One need only see an old set of parts on rental to appreciate the effects of time and use. We have never had any complaints of music not being returned in the condition received.

Erasing markings

Contracts mention that any pencil markings should be erased. Some people take this literally and erase all markings; others erase nothing. Something in the middle makes more sense. Personal markings that have no relevance for any future player should be erased by the person who made them. If horn players who can't transpose write in note names (be sure they don't write notes on the staff!), they should erase those. If the orchestra has made cuts, those markings should be erased. However, corrections of any kind, markings such as VS and measures rest from the previous page, bowings, the set numbers in the upper left corners of the parts, and other such helpful markings should be left for the next player (and/or librarian). Again, in spite of the strong language in contracts, we have never had any complaints or fines because of markings in music returned.


Note particularly (in the information sent by the publisher or distributor) if the music needs to be insured for more than is already included in the shipping rates. Generally, $100 is covered automatically, and $200 (for most works) or $400 (for out of print, expensive works) is required by the publisher or distributor. Check with the shipper for the value covered automatically.

Shipping services

Music can be shipped through the US Postal Service or by UPS or other couriers. The important point is whether the package can be tracked. The US Postal Service can now track packages by arrangement, but the couriers track automatically and are considered more reliable by most shippers. There is anecdotal evidence that UPS is not entirely reliable overseas, and some shippers have had problems collecting when damage occurred or packages were lost (my father ships violin bows and won't use UPS). Tracking allows the service to determine if a package has been delivered and who signed for it, if necessary. If you don't have ready access to a courier service, a business such as Mail Boxes Etc can handle it. They can also help with packaging if you need that service.

Shipping to other orchestras

Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. When lending, help your fellow librarian by including an instrumentation list, the return address on a label, and an inside envelope (for holding the list, label, and any extra parts). For most inter-library loans, Priority Mail at the US Postal Service (using one of the Tyvek envelopes free at the post office) is a good solution. For a large work, a cardboard box can be cut to fit, and can then be used for shipping the music back to you. And when you return music to another orchestra, ship within a week (with all parts accounted for and in good condition, instrumentation lists, etc.) if you want to continue borrowing from that organization!

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5. Licensing and copyright

Licensing is the right to perform a copyrighted work, and it costs money in addition to the rental fees for the performance materials. Any time the orchestra plays a work that is still under copyright, a performance fee must be paid. For the United States, two organizations handle all the licensing, collecting of fees, and paying to composers. Orchestras pay once a year to cover all performances. When returning music to the publisher, include at least two copies of the program so that the publishers can report performances and their composers can receive their due royalties. Programs must also be collected during the year to be sent directly to ASCAP and BMI.

5.1 Licensing

Marcia Gittinger Farabee, in her column on licensing[5], addresses the question of whether your orchestra needs a license at all. She states that if any of your programs involve a "copyrighted work (i.e., rented or commissioned), you must have a performing license." She continues:

ASCAP, founded in 1914, and BMI, begun in 1939, represent thousands of composers and publishers and the performance of tens of thousands of pieces. While ASCAP and BMI are separate organizations, they have two common functions: 1) to protect the composer and/or publisher against unauthorized performances and to distribute the royalties collected on their behalf, and 2) to provide a clearinghouse for music users to perform the works of their respective members. These functions are true not only for American composers but also for foreign composers and publishers. (Rental fees for the printed music are separate from and in addition to licensing fees.) ASCAP and BMI both have what is called a blanket license. This covers all concerts during a season…. These licenses are for small rights performance; i.e., non-dramatic… Both organizations are eager to calm your fears, dispel rumors, and help you through the maze of copyright law…. It is imperative that your librarian tell the rental company the size and type of your group, as fees are based on four areas: length of piece, number of performances, type of concert, and size of the performing group. Small-budget orchestras should not be paying the same fee as those with larger budgets. For a thorough overview of performing rights, I urge all of you to call the League [American Symphony Orchestra League] and order two copies (one for you and one for your librarian) of their booklet Copyright Primer.

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The recommended booklet is now out of print but has been replaced by Copyright Q&A[i], also available from the American Symphony Orchestra League. Another reference, from the Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts, is Guide to Copyright for Musicians and Composers[12].

5.2 Licensing organizations

The two licensing organizations are:

ASCAP 212-621-6407 tel (American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers) Frances Richard, Director, Symphony & Concert Department One Lincoln Plaza New York NY 10023 [email protected] BMI (Broadcast Music Inc) 212-586-2000 tel Barbara Petersen, Ass't VP, Concert Music 212-830-2537 tel 320 West 57th Street 212-830-8329 fax New York NY 10019 10 Music Square East 800-925-8452 Nashville TN 37203-4310

5.3 Licensing fees

Fees are based on the orchestra's budget from the previous year; i.e., take the total income of the orchestra (receipts, subscriptions, contributions, etc.) and subtract salaries (conductor and concertmaster, for example). No expenses are subtracted, and no musicians' fees. For 1998-99, our orchestra paid $273 to ASCAP and $229 to BMI. Orchestras with larger budgets pay more.


The licensing requirements are:

• Make annual payments to each licensing organization • Collect programs to send to ASCAP and BMI once a year • Send programs to publishers when returning music

The treasurer should handle the payments. An orchestra manager may take care of collecting programs to send to ASCAP and BMI, or the librarian may do it. The librarian is always responsible for including programs when returning the music.

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5.4 Copyright

The Guide to Copyright for Musicians and Composers[12] gives the following background on copyright law.

Article I of the United States Constitution grants Congress the power "to promote the progress of science and the useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries." Since the late 1700s, Congress has enacted a series of federal copyright laws culminating most recently in the Copyright Act of 1976, which has itself been amended several times, most notably by the Berne Convention Implementation Action of 1988 (the "Berne Act"). The current copyright laws provide broad, easily obtained protection of creative works. Copyright is a "bundle" of rights rather than a single right, and these rights affect every aspect of an artist's work – its public display or performance, its reproduction, and its incorporation into other artworks. Ownership of the copyright in an art work is arguably more important than physical ownership of the work itself. Most artists are surprised to learn that since March 1, 1989, they automatically own the copyright in any work that they create – be it a painting, opera, novel, or song – without any need to register or place a copyright notice on the work.

Public domain

Works in the public domain help keep our costs down. The Guide gives the following explanation.

The public domain is a legal category applying to music that is not protected by copyright. Music may enter the public domain if the copyright term has expired, if copyright protection was lost by failure to satisfy requirements regarding copyright notice, or if the music was originally ineligible for copyright protection. Music in the public domain is not subject to the composer's or musician's control, and may be used without limitation by any party. Once music falls into the public domain, copyright on that work cannot be renewed or revived.

Fair use

Fair use can be important to any orchestra in such areas as publicity, criticism, and teaching; it is also a concern for many others in the music community.

The Copyright Act specifies several limitations on the owner's exclusive control over a work. The first and most significant of these is the "fair use" limitation, which provides that the use of copyrighted work for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship or research is not an infringement of copyright even if the use is against the copyright

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owner's wishes…. In general, the fair use limitation allows only limited use of copyrighted material without permission, and it should be assumed that permission must be obtained for the use of any musical material unless a qualified attorney advises otherwise [italics theirs].

Length of copyright

The length of copyright is controlled by various legislation, especially the 1976 Act mentioned above, and most recently Public Law 105-298, signed in October 1998. The provisions of the 1976 Act, as summarized in Copyright Q&A[i] are:

For works written on or after January 1, 1978, the U.S. term of copyright is the life of the last surviving composer plus 50 years. For works published before January 1, 1978, the renewable term provisions gave as much as 75 years of copyright protection.

Public Law 105-298, known as the Mickey Mouse Act in recognition of its principal beneficiary, extends the protection of all currently copyrighted works by an additional twenty years. Thus, nothing will enter the public domain again until January 1, 2019. Under this law, any work registered before January 1, 1978 has copyright protection for a total of 95 years from the date of first registration; works published after January 1, 1978, are protected for life plus 70 years. Anything first copyrighted in 1922 or earlier is now in the public domain; 1923 or later is still protected by copyright for at least twenty more years. This law affects works by composers such as Debussy, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Sibelius, Warlock, and Webern. Kalmus announced a list of about fifty Soviet scores (not performance material) that have become available by arrangement with G. Schirmer, including works by Gliere, Kabalevsky, Khachaturian, Miaskovsky, Prokofiev, and Shostakovich. Many Eastern European copyrights have been affected by the GATT treaty.

Small rights versus grand rights

"Small performing rights" authorize concert performances before an audience in the US; i.e., no performances with actors or scenery. "Grand performance rights" apply to ballets, operas, and musical comedies; they must be licensed directly by the proprietor of the copyright, usually the music publisher. Most community orchestras do not get involved with grand rights, but they should be aware of the obligations if they plan any staged works. Concert performances of opera or ballet are not considered grand rights if no scenery or costumes are involved. Foreign performances require special agreements. Our orchestra performed a copyrighted work outside the US; we were required to pay a performance fee to the copyright proprietor in England. The US rental agent can assist your organization with this process. Broadcast rights may cost extra but can usually be negotiated for no cost at the time of rental. Broadcast rights generally have a time limit that is defined in the rental agreement.

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6. Managing the library

Managing the library includes cataloging and listing works belonging to your orchestra, storing the music owned by the orchestra, and instituting policies for commissioned works and for lending to and borrowing from other orchestras.

6.1 Cataloging

When you store and list the works in your orchestra library, you are faced with decisions on what order to use. For example, will you go by composer and work (as the Concord Orchestra does) or use sequential numbers (as the Boston Symphony does)? Our physical library takes up one set of shelves on the wall of a piano storage room plus some boxes in another storage room, and it can be listed (one work per line, single-spaced) on two pages. Alphabetizing by composer and work has been possible so far, even with fitting in new works (usually two or three works per year). Even considering questions about how titles are to be alphabetized, it is pretty easy to scan the shelves (or the two-page listing) and find any work. The Boston Symphony Orchestra works on quite a different scale. They have cabinet after cabinet of shelves stacked with large envelopes of music. They enter the works in chronological sequence, then have lists by composer and title to correlate with the sequential numbers. The Pops repertoire is computerized, and they often use the list by title; usually it's easier to remember the title of a song than its composer. The Pops repertoire also has duplicates of some of its music since they often have a touring orchestra at the same time as the regular orchestra plays at Symphony Hall. The rules for alphabetizing the music catalog are likely to be as confusing as alphabetizing any other list. For example, does one use the original language or the English translation? French, German, Italian may not be so difficult, but what about languages with Cyrillic alphabets like Russian? The following rules are a combination of those proposed by Kirstin Dougan in her guide[2] with suggestions from Marcia Farabee and John Perkel of MOLA:

• Pieces that have arrangers come after those by the composer (for example, Bach/Stokowski comes after all pieces by Bach).

• If a piece is part of a larger work, list the work first (Ma Vlast : Die Moldau) including overtures.

• List concertos under "C" (Concerto for Violin in E Major) and alphabetically within concertos by instrument.

• Just as in English, foreign titles omit initial articles for purposes of alphabetization (e.g., Massenet's Le Cid is filed under "C")

Don't forget about works of some composers that have been renumbered, notably Schubert and Dvorak (the New World was originally published as No. 5 but is now No. 9, for example). Try to use opus numbers as much as possible, as well as keys; Brahms: Symphony #2, Opus 73 in D Major, for example.

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6.2 Database software

Any database software such as Access, dBase, FileMaker, etc. can be used for cataloging the library. These software programs have sophisticated and flexible printout capabilities. For even a fairly small collection, a computer database is useful. Our database has been in dBase but will be converted to Access. We had dBase programs to print out extremely detailed listings, also listings by category, but these proved to be less useful than a simple list of one line with composer and title for each work. A second person such as the music director, orchestra manager, or assistant librarian should be familiar with the database and have a copy of the data if possible. (We have failed to live up to this dictum.) If you don't have a computer – or even if you do – you can keep copies of the instrumentation lists in a loose-leaf notebook. This is a good manual backup, and also a handy reference. The listing of the orchestra catalog can be kept in a brief typed list or in Rolodex form if necessary, even though it's harder to maintain than a database or word processor list on a computer. For a small library, it may not be necessary to be highly technical.

6.3 Storage

Unless your orchestra is exceptionally lucky, finding a place to store music is difficult. We have some shelves in a room where our grand piano is stored, but they are overflowing. Try to find someplace where you can lay the music down flat. Legal size or X-ray size file cabinets may work. Use manila envelopes, accordion folders, and/or boxes. Include an instrumentation list (see Figure 5) in the container.

Fire and water protection

You should always have a fire extinguisher handy, especially if your storage area does not have a sprinkler system. Also, try not to pile your music (or boxes) on the floor, in case of flooding.


We use a combination of envelopes, accordion folders, and boxes to hold the music – whatever fits the particular work. Many old envelopes and folders were good sizes; now they're falling apart and we can't find good replacements, so we continue to keep the old ones as long as we can. We like envelopes and folders with ties or other closures, but some librarians use open envelopes.


Label everything on the outside so that you know without opening a container what is inside. Try to have labels visible when the music is stacked; i.e., on the edge of the envelope, the side of the box, etc.

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Figure 5. Instrumentation form

Instrumentation List

Composer ___________________________________ Arranger ____________________ Title _______________________________________________________________________ Publisher _____________________________________ Date ________________________ _____ Full score _____ Minature/Condens. score _____ Narrator score _____ Piano score _____ Solo __________ _____ Violin 1 _____ Violin 2 _____ Viola _____ Cello _____ Bass _____ Flute 1 _____ Flute 2 _____ Flute 3 _____ Piccolo _____ Alto flute _____ Oboe 1 _____ Oboe 2 _____ Oboe 3 _____ English horn _____ Clarinet 1 _____ Clarinet 2 _____ Clarinet 3 _____ Bass clarinet _____ E-flat clarinet _____ Bassoon 1 _____ Bassoon 2 _____ Bassoon 3 _____ Contra bassoon _____ E-flat alto saxophone _____ B-flat tenor saxophone _____ ______________________ _____ ______________________ _____ ______________________ _____ ______________________ _____ ______________________ _____ ______________________ _____ ______________________ _____ ______________________

_____ Horn 1 _____ Horn 2 _____ Horn 3 _____ Horn 4 _____ Horn 5 _____ Horn 6 _____ Horn 7 _____ Horn 8 _____ Trumpet 1 _____ Trumpet 2 _____ Trumpet 3 _____ Trumpet 4 _____ Cornet 1 _____ Cornet 2 _____ Cornet 3 _____ Trombone 1 _____ Trombone 2 _____ Trombone 3 _____ Trombone 4 _____ Tuba _____ Timpani _____ Percussion 1 _____ Percussion 2 _____ Bass drum _____ Snare drum _____ Cymbals _____ Triangle _____ Xylophone _____ Glockenspiel _____ Chimes _____ ______________________ _____ Harp 1 _____ Harp 2 _____ Piano _____ Celeste _____ Organ _____ Harpsichord _____ Vocal parts _____ Choral parts

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6.4 Folders

Folders are usually provided for the orchestra members so that they will be uniform. Most community orchestras have one set of folders, and players are encouraged to use them to protect the music at home as well as at the hall. Professional orchestras such as the Boston Symphony have five or six sets of folders, color coded, and although the players take the music home, the folders never leave the hall. The BSO folders are of hard material with wide tape bindings; they cost around $300 per set and are decorated with the BSO colophon. Many music stores provide folders for free; these folders are usually colorful cardboard with advertisements for the store. Our orchestra wanted black folders that would blend in with the black stands; such folders are available from various suppliers through music services at prices ranging from $2.65 - $7.75 and up.

6.5 Borrowing and lending

You may find other orchestras in your area with which you can share music. It is important in this situation to establish procedures and expectations. For example, agree that string players will not change bowings, other players will make only generally helpful marks (or carefully erase anything personal), and, if the conductor needs the score, will not mark it. The borrower should replace any missing parts. If the orchestra cannot agree to your conditions, don't lend to them. Keep careful track of works that have been lent and when they are returned. If a librarian is late in returning music, consider not lending to that orchestra again. When you borrow music from another orchestra, warn your orchestra members (probably more than once) of the conditions (not changing bowings, not marking parts, etc.). Of course, you will never be late in returning music you have borrowed, and you will always take good care of the music! There is always a risk that music will be lost or defaced or otherwise degraded, but some risk is acceptable with the idea that everyone is able to save money, which is good for the growth and health of the orchestra community. Most music that you are lending can be replaced if necessary and charged to the borrowing organization. If you are not willing to lend, then you may not be able to borrow!

6.6 Commissions

If your orchestra commissions a work, you need to know the details as they affect your schedule. Marcia Gittinger Farabee, in her column about commissions and consortiums[4], mentions many items that should be spelled out in a commission agreement. She suggests that the librarian be allowed to see a sample part by the copyist to be sure that it is readable, and that the librarian be informed with a copy of the agreement and/or notice of timelines. If your orchestra is planning a commission, you might ask to be included in discussions of the details, especially agreements as to who will be allowed to use the music and under what conditions. Will there be a rental fee? What will be charged for lost or damaged parts?

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8. Other resources

American Symphony Orchestra League (ASOL) Provides many services to member orchestras, including a periodical, resource center, and annual conference, and also lobbies Congress extensively for performing arts. 1156 Fifteenth Street NW, Suite 8000 Washington DC 20005-1704 202-776-0212 tel 202-776-0224 fax [email protected] Christina Edmonds, Manager of Resource Center (x273) [email protected] Publication: Symphony (bimonthly) Melinda Whiting, Editor [email protected]

Major Orchestra Librarians' Association (MOLA) Eager to help aspiring orchestra librarians, services include resource center, periodical, and annual conference. Laura Lake, President (2008) 1530 Locust Street Philadelphia PA 19102 Publication: Marcato (quarterly) Shelley Friedman, Editor Washington National Opera 6925 Willow Street Washington DC 20012 202-448-3407 tel 202-448-3475 fax

Percussive Arts Society

[email protected] Percussive Arts Society 701 NW Serris Avenue Lawton OK 73507-5442 580-353-1455 tel 580-353-1456 fax [email protected]

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Vital Presentation Concepts, Inc. Binding systems that use tape, simple non-electric machines. Machine and tape can be for standard 8½ x 11" size, or larger systems that handle up to 14 or 17 inches. The tape comes in tabbed rolls. The small machine costs about $50 and the tape is about $4 per rolls of 25 lengths. I have found this system to be very useful. Vital Presentation Concepts, Inc. PO Box 21247 4870 Biscayne Avenue Eagan MN 55123 800-447-1944 or 612-322-4500 tel 800-648-2320 or 612-322-4504 fax [email protected]

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8. References

1. Daniels, David, Orchestral Music: A Handbook, Third Edition, © 1996, Scarecrow Press, Lanham MD & London, $50 ISBN 0-8108-3228-3 (available from EMS, includes a list of American agents for both American and foreign publishers).

2. Dougin, Kirstin, "A Guide to the Orchestra Library", © 1997, 1998, available from the author at 1126 Alrita Court #1, Madison WI 53513, 608-294-0170 or [email protected]. The author is a violist with a master's degree in performance and experience with university, festival, and community orchestra libraries.

3. Del Mar, Norman, Anatomy of the Orchestra, University of California Press, Berkeley, © 1981, 1983.

4. Farish, Margaret K., Orchestra Music in Print, © 1979, MUSICDATA, Philadelphia ISBN 0-88478-010-4 (available from EMS; expensive and not up-to-date).

5. Girsberger, Russ, A Practical Guide to Percussion Terminology, ©1998 (First Edition) Meredith Music, 170 NE 33rd Street, Fort Lauderdale FL 33334, 954-563-1844, $14.95 plus $4.00 shipping and handling (credit cards not accepted). ISBN 1-57463-059-8

6. Gittinger [Farabee], Marcia, "Commissions & Consortiums: Working Together", Progressions, January 1992, available from the American Symphony Orchestra League Resource Center.

7. Gittinger [Farabee], Marcia, "Do you know where your license is?", Progressions, October 1991, available from the American Symphony Orchestra League Resource Center.

8. Gittinger [Farabee], Marcia, "Getting the most from your orchestra librarian", Progressions, August 1991, available from the American Symphony Orchestra League Resource Center.

9. Gittinger [Farabee], Marcia, "Questions and answers from an orchestra librarian", Progressions, April 1992, available from the American Symphony Orchestra League Resource Center.

10. Green, Richard G., Copyright Q&A, © 1996, 6 pages, available from the American Symphony Orchestra League Resource Center for $15, including shipping (credit cards accepted).

11. Kalmus, Edwin F., Edwin F. Kalmus Orchestral Catalog, 6403 West Rogers Circle, Boca Raton FL 33431, 561-241-6340 tel, 561-241-6347 fax, [email protected], (a new catalog is published every year).

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12. Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts, Nancy Adelson, Editor, Guide to Copyright for Musicians and Composers, © 1987, 1993, 1 East 53rd Street, Sixth Floor, New York NY 10022, 212-319-2787, ISBN 0-917103-08-4. (This guide was published before Public Law 105-298 was enacted and so is not entirely current, but it does explain many details of copyright.)

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alphabetizing works 31 announcements to orchestra 9 arrangements 15, 31 assistant librarian 10 assistant wind player 24 ASCAP 15, 27, 28 ASOL 5, 27, 37


binding system 6, 36 BMI 15, 27, 28 Boosey & Hawkes 12, 15 borrowing from other orchestras 34 Boston Symphony Orchestra 21, 24, 31, 34 brass

count 14, 18-20 listing 14 numbering 18-19 score order 17 sign-out sheet 9, 21, 23

broadcast rights 15, 30 Broude Brothers 12, 18 budgets 7-8


cancellations 15, 16 cataloging 24, 31, 32 catalogs 11 Cohen, Jerome D. 12 collecting music 10 commissions 34 computer 6, 32 condition of music 26 conductor 11 containers 6, 25, 32 contracts 16 copyright 29-30 Copyright Q&A 28, 30, 37


Daniels, David 11, 37 database software 32 definition of orchestra librarian 5 distributing music 8, 25 distributors 11-13 doubling 14 Dougan, Kristin 11, 24, 31, 37


EMS Music Service 11, 12, 37 envelopes 6, 25, 32 erasing music 15, 26, 34 errors 16 European American 12, 24 expenses 9


fair use 29 Farabee, Marcia Gittinger 5, 27, 31, 34, 35 Farish, Margaret K. 11, 37 fees

cancellation 16 license 8, 27-28 performance 8, 27-28 replacement 16 shipping 8, 15

finding music 11-14 fire protection 32 Fischer, Carl 12 flute 19 folders 34 foreign performances 30 forms

instrumentation 33 sign-out 21-23

Free Library of Philadelphia 12

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GATT treaty 30 Gittinger

see Farabee grand rights 30 Guide to Copyright for Musicians 28, 38


harp 20 help 10, 11, 14


instrumentation list 14, 32, 33 insurance 26


job description 5


Kalmus, Edwin F. 11, 12, 15, 16, 19, 30 keyboard 17, 20


labels 32 lending to other orchestras 34 library 8 licensing 27-28

fees 8, 28 organizations 28

lost music 16, 34 Luck's Music Library 11, 13, 15


Mail Boxes Etc. 26 Mapleson Collection 12 marking music 9, 15, 16, 34 Mickey Mouse Act 30 MOLA 5, 10, 27, 31, 34, 35 music

collecting 10 condition 16, 26 distributing 9 erasing 15, 26 locating 11-14 lost parts 16, 34 marking 9, 15, 16, 34 missing parts 11, 25 shipping 26

Music Publishers' Association 11 Music Theatre International 9, 13


Nieweg, Clinton 16 numbering parts 17-24

photocopies 24


Orchestral Music: A Handbook 11, 37 Orchestral Music in Print 11, 37


paying bills 9 pencil 6, 15, 18, 26 piano 17, 20 payment 9 Peer Southern 13 percussion

count 14, 20 listing 14 numbering 18, 20 score order 17, 20 sign-out sheet 9, 21, 23

Percussive Arts Society 36 performance fees 8, 28

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performance rights see rights

photocopies 15, 24 piano 17, 20 piccolo 19 practice parts 24 Presser, Theodore 13 professional librarian duties 5-6 public domain 7, 24, 29 Public Law 105-298 30 publishers 11-13 purchase vs. rental 8


receiving 25 recordings 15 rehearsal cycle 8 references 37-38 rental

period 15 versus purchase 8

reproduction 15, 24 resources 35-36 responsibilities 5, 21 rights 7, 27-30 RYTVOC Inc. 13


scheduling 7 Schirmer, E.C. 13 Schirmer, G. 13, 15 Schott 12 score 25 score order 17-20 services 11-13

shipping 26 shipping 25-26

containers 25 costs 9 insurance 26 services 26 supplies 25 to other orchestras 26

sign-out sheets 9, 21-23 software 32 solo parts 17, 29 small rights 30 Spectrum Music 13

strings bowing 21 count 14 numbering 21 sign-out sheet 21, 22

stamp 6, 25 storage 32 supplies 6


tables score order 17 sources 12-13

tracking shipments 26 training 5 transcriptions 15 transposed parts 19


Universal Editions 12, 24 UPS 26 US Postal Service 26


VPC binding system 6, 36 vocal parts 8, 9, 20


water protection 32 where to number 18 winds

count 14, 18-20 numbering 18-20 score order 17 sign-out sheet 9, 21, 23


Yesterday Service 13