Ypostiriktiko Biblio Gia Ta Diktya

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2010

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.

()

(2009-10) :

. & 20/2/2010

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. &

,

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. &

: . - . 2 . . 2 . . 4 . . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . . 1 .

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. &

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, .

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6 . 2161. . . . ( . 196 6.1, 1 ). .. ( . 197, 6.2, 2 ). modem : . . . . . ( . 197, 6.2 1). Internet WAN . , , / . ( ) 1 .. . ( ) , -

2. 3.

4.

5.

6. 7. 8.

. ( ) .25, . ( ) .25 ; ( ) . . ISDN , -

9.

10. ISDN; ISDN : . ' ' , . , (common channel signaling). (, , ).

1

modem . 198, 6.3, 2 . , .11

. . ( . 203)

11. ISDN , . . . . ( . 205, 2 ). 12. Frame Relay ( ) .

13. Frame Relay ; . ( ) 14. CIR; ( ) 15. , ; ( ) 16. : . . . 43 byte. . . ( ) 17. : . . ( ) 18. CD 622 Mbps; ( ) 19. xDSL; xDSL . (loading coils) , . 3 8 KHz (voice band). ( . 210, ). 20. ADSL SDSL; ADSL (downstream, upstream). SDSL .. , . ( . 211, 212).12 . &

21. . ( )

WAN .

,

22. 4 . ( ) 23. , , 64 Kbps. , . 24. , Internet Web, . ISDN , ; ( )

7 INTERNET . 2901. : . . . . . . ( 7.1.1, 2 , . 220). 2. : ( . 222 . 224) 3. : TCP/IP internet Internet Intranet , TCP/IP TCP/IP , Internet WWW

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TCP/IP internet Internet Intranet

, TCP/IP TCP/IP , Internet WWW

4.

OSI TCP/IP .

, M. TCP/IP ) ) OSI TCP/IP ) ) ) OSI. 5. , , : . . . . . , . . . . , . TCP port ; TCP , 16 bit TCP . TCP TCP (TCP port) . , TCP port , . TCP port . TCP port . 14 . &

6.

TCP port : TCP port . , , (File Transfer Protocol, FTP) TCP port 21. , , TCP port 21. O FTP , TCP port 21 . 7. TCP; TCP, . , TCP. . , . . , . . , 12001 1000, 12001Byte 13000 Byte. , TCP port. , :

8.

( , , ) TCP port . TCP port TCP , 15

. , TCP port , . 9. TCP TCP , :

10. TCP ; O TCP , TCP . , . , , , . , ( , IP ) , . TCP , . TCP : . TCP port . 11. UDP port ; UDP (UDP port) UDP . UDP port 16 bit, UDP . UDP, UDP port. UDP port . UDP port UDP , TCP port. 12. : . To UDP . To UDP TCP . To UDP TCP . To UDP , TCP . ( 7.4 . 240, , 2 ). . ( 7.4 . 240, ). . ( 7.4 . 240, , , ).16 . &

. ( 7.4 . 240, ). 13. , UDP, TCP; . , (7.4 . 240, 1 ), (7.4 . 240, 2 ). 14. , IP: . 64 byte . 64 Kbyte . 64 Mbyte . 128 Kbyte . ( 7.5 . 242, 2 ). 15. P . :

, . 243, 244. 16. , , DF, MF 5.000 byte 20 byte, 820 byte. , , . 5000 byte , 820 byte. 820 byte. T , , 20 byte. 800 byte. 5000 800 , 5000/800=6 7 5000 byte 6X800 byte = 200 byte. DF 0 . MF 1, , 7 220 byte (200 + 20 ), MF 0.

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, : 1 =0. 2 =800/8=100. 3 =1600/8=200. 4 =2400/8=300. 5 =3200/8=400. 6 =4000/8=500. 7 =4800/8=600. : ( (byte) byte) (byte) 1 5 800 (20) 2 5 800 (20) 3

DF

MF

820

0

1

0

820

0

1

100

5 800 (20) 5 800 (20) 5 800 (20) 5 800 (20) 5 200 (20) 220 0 0 600 820 0 1 500 820 0 1 400 820 0 1 300 820 0 1 200

4

5

6

7

17. IP DF 1 , ; , . DF , , 1. .

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. &

, . , . 18. DF MF ; , MF 0. , DF 1 DF 0. 19. IP 0 MF 1. ; MF=1 . 0, . . 20. IP 200 MF 1. ; MF=1 . 200, . . 21. IP 1.500 DF 1 1.500 . 2.000 4.470 . ; DF 1. 2000 4470 1500 , . [ 1500 , ]. 22. IP 1.500 100 DF 0 1.500 . 2.000 . 1.500 . ; , , : , MF, DF . 1500 , . DF 0, 1500 . , 2000 1500 . 23. IP 1.500 100 DF 0 1.500 . 628 2 . 1.500 . ; , , 2

625. 5 (=20 byte) .19

: , MF, DF . 1500 628 , . , 5 = 5 32 bit = 160 bit = 20 byte. 1480 byte. H 608 byte (+20 byte , 628 byte). : 608 byte 1480 608 608 = 264 byte. DF 0 (fragment). MF 1 0. : 1 : 0. 2 : 608/8 = 76. 3 1216/8=152. 100. : 32 bit

(fragment)

(byte)

(byte) (byte)

DF

MF

1

5608 820 100 0 1 0

(20)

5608 820 100 0 1 76

2

(20)

5264 284 100 0 0 152

3

(20)

24. MAC . 48 bit. 24 bit OUI (Organization Unique Identifier). bit (/G) (0, 1 ). 1, , . bit OUI 1, , ). bit (U/L) . 0, IEEE, 1, . O , , , , IEEE, . 20 . &

, , , , IEEE. 22 bits , IEEE . 24 bits , . , (OUI) IEEE, , Ethernet, , , (24 bits ) . , , (OUI). 25. IP . , 187.164.72.38. 8bit. , 48=32, 32 bit. : , :

, . 26. IP , ; () , , B, C, D , . . , ( ) , (.. ). 27. . . . (.250,251 ), ( ) 0. , 7 bit ( ), 27=128 . , 00000000 01111111. 00000000 , , 00000001 01111111. 1 127. , 1.0.0.0 127.255.255.255

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. . 255.0.0.0. , (.250,251 ) . , 255.255.254 3 111111111111111111111110=16.777.214 host. , . , . host. 1: 1bit , : 11111111.10000000.00000000.00000000, ( 255.128.0.0). , .0 .1 , 0 1. 23 bit 8.388.606 host . 2: 21 bit ( 29 ), 2 21 =2.097.152 . 3 ( 001 110) 6 host. , , , host . 255.0.0.0 255.128.0.0 255.192.0.0 255.224.0.0 255.240.0.0 255.248.0.0 255.252.0.0 255.254.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.128.0 255.255.192.0 255.255.224.0 255.255.240.03

(host)/8 /9 /10 /11 /12 /13 /14 /15 /16 /17 /18 /19 /20 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1.024 2.048 4.096 16.777.214 8.338.606 4.194.302 2.097.150 1.048.574 524.286 262.142 131.070 65.534 32.766 16.384 8.190 4.094

255.255.254 255.255.255.255 broadcast , , . 0 . , 182.158.1.0 182.158.1.x, x 1 254.22 . &

255.255.248.0 255.255.252.0 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.192 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.240 255.255.255.248 255.255.255.252

/21 /22 /23 /24 /25 /26 /27 /28 /29 /30

8.192 16.384 32.768 65.536 131.072 262.144 524.288 1.048.576 2.097.152 4.194.304

2.046 1.022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2

28. , , IP . . . 32 bit , AND. : / 11000000.10101000.01111011.10000100 : 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 AND ------------------------------------------------------11000000.10101000.01111011.00000000 / : 192.168.123.0 : 00000000.00000000.00000000.10000100 0.0.0.132 29. 255.255.255.255 124.56.255.255. 255.255.255.255 , . , . 124.56.255.255 124.56. 30. IP - (CIDR); CIDR , . , ( ) . O . , 207.13.01.48/25 /25 , 25 bits 7 . CIDR (Internet Service Providers - ISPs), ,23

. , , ISP. ,