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Yagi-Uda antennaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Drawing of Yagi-UdaVHFtelevision antennafrom 1954, used for analog channels 2-4, 47 - 68 MHz. It has five elements: three directors(to left)one reflector(to right)and a driven element which is afolded dipoleto match the 300 impedance of thetwin leadfeedline. Its beam direction (direction of greatest sensitivity) is off the support boom to the left.
A modern high gain UHF Yagitelevision antenna. It has 17 directors, and 4 reflectors shaped as acorner reflector.
A three-element Yagi-Uda antenna used for long-distance (skywave) communication in theshortwavebands by anamateur radiostation. The longerreflectorelement (left), thedriven element(center), and the shorterdirector(right) each have a so-calledtrap(parallelLC circuit) inserted along their conductors on each side, allowing the antenna to be used at two different frequency bands.AYagi-Uda antenna, commonly known simply as aYagi antenna, is adirectional antennaconsisting of multiple paralleldipoleelements in a line,usually made of metal rods.It consists of a singledriven elementconnected to thetransmitterorreceiverwith atransmission line, and additionalparasitic elements: a so-calledreflectorand one or moredirectors.The reflector element is slightly longer than the driven dipole, whereas the directors are a little shorter.This design achieves a very substantial increase in the antenna'sdirectionalityandgaincompared to a simple dipole. The antenna was invented in 1926 byShintaro UdaofTohoku Imperial University,Japan,with a lesser role played by his colleagueHidetsugu Yagi.However the "Yagi" name has become more familiar with the name of Uda often omitted. This appears to have been due to Yagi filing a patent on the idea in Japan without Uda's name in it, and later transferring the patent to theMarconi Companyin the UK.Yagi antennas were first widely used duringWorld War IIinradarsystems by the British, US and Germans.After the war they saw extensive development as hometelevision antennas.Also called a "beam antenna",the Yagi is very widely used as a high-gain antenna on theHF,VHFandUHFbands.It has moderate gain which depends on the number of elements used, typically limited to about 17 dBi,linear polarization,unidirectional (end-fire) beam patternwith highfront-to-back ratioof up to 20 db. and is lightweight, inexpensive and simple to construct.Thebandwidthis narrow, a few percent of the center frequency, and decreases with increasing gain,so it is often used in fixed-frequency applications. The largest and most well-known use is as rooftop terrestrialtelevision antennas,but it is also used for point-to-point fixed communication links,in radar antennas,and for long distanceshortwavecommunication by shortwave broadcasting stations andradio amateurs.
HistoryThe Yagi-Uda antenna was invented in 1926 byShintaro UdaofTohoku Imperial University,Sendai,Japan, with the collaboration ofHidetsugu Yagi, also of Tohoku Imperial University.Yagi and Uda published their first report on the wave projector directional antenna. Yagi demonstrated aproof of concept, but the engineering problems proved to be more onerous than conventional systems.Yagi published the first English-language reference on the antenna in a 1928 survey article on short wave research in Japan and it came to be associated with his name. However, Yagi always acknowledged Uda's principal contribution to the design, and the proper name for the antenna is, as above, the Yagi-Uda antenna (or array).
This late-WWII Me 110 night fighter features the prominent Yagi arrays of its FuG 220 radar.The Yagi was first widely used duringWorld War IIfor airborneradarsets, because of its simplicity and directionality.Despite its being invented in Japan, many Japanese radar engineers were unaware of the design until very late in the war, partly due to rivalry between the Army and Navy. The Japanese military authorities first became aware of this technology after theBattle of Singaporewhen they captured the notes of a British radar technician that mentioned "yagi antenna". Japanese intelligence officers did not even recognise that Yagi was a Japanese name in this context. When questioned, the technician said it was an antenna named after a Japanese professor.(This story is analogous to the story of American intelligence officers interrogating German rocket scientists and finding out thatRobert Goddardwas the real pioneer of rocket technology even though he was not well known in the US at that time.)Ahorizontally polarizedarray can be seen under the leading edge ofGrumman TBF Avengercarrier-basedUS Navyaircraft and theConsolidated PBY Catalinalong range patrol seaplane. Vertically polarized arrays can be seen on the cheeks of theP-61and on thenose conesof many WWII aircraft, notably theLichtenstein radar-equipped examples of the GermanJunkers Ju 88R-1fighter-bomber, and the BritishBristol Beaufighternight-fighter andShort Sunderlandflying-boat. Indeed, the latter had so many antenna elements arranged on its back - in addition to its formidable turreted defensive armament in the nose and tail, and atop the hull - it was nicknamed thefliegendes Stachelschwein, or "Flying Porcupine" by German airmen.The experimentalMorgensternGerman AI VHF-band radar antenna of 1943-44 used a "double-Yagi" structure from its 90 angled pairs of Yagi antennas, making it possible to fair the array within a conical, rubber-covered plywood radome on an aircraft's nose, with the extreme tips of theMorgenstern'santenna elements protruding from the radome's surface, with anNJG 4Ju 88G-6 of the wing's staff flight using it late in the war for its Lichtenstein SN-2 AI radar.Yagi-Uda antennas are routinely made with rather high gains (over 10dB) making them a common choice for directional antennas especially in VHF and UHF communications systems where a narrowband antenna is acceptable. Only at higher UHF and microwave frequencies are parabolic reflectors and other so-calledaperture antennasof a practical size; these can easily achieve yet higher gains.The Yagi-Uda antenna was named anIEEE Milestonein 1995.What is the origin of the antenna? I'm ruling out such early devices as compasses, because while they in some sense receive a magnetic field, it is not an electromagnetic field. Ben Franklin's kite experiment wasn't quite an antenna, as that captured lightning discharge, which is a direct current path where the energy is not transferred independent of the medium it travels. The human eye of course receives high frequency electromagnetic waves (light, to the layman). Technically the eye could be classified as an antenna; however since it can't transmit waves, it is really a sensor, so I'll exclude that as well.The first experiments that involved the coupling of electricity and magnetism and showed a definitive relationship was that done by Faraday somewhere around the 1830s. He slid a magnetic around the coils of a wire attached to a galvanometer. In moving the magnet, he was in effect creating a time-varying magnetic field, which as a result (from Maxwell's Equations), must have had a time-varying electric field. The coil acted as aloop antennaand received the electromagnetic radiation, which was received (detected) by the galvanometer - the work of an antenna. Interestingly, the concept of electromagnetic waves had not even been thought up at this point.
A painting of Michael Faraday. Being a great experimentalist, he naturally dabbled in chemistry, shown here.Heinrich Hertz developed a wireless communication system in which he forced an electrical spark to occur in the gap of adipole antenna. He used a loop antenna as a receiver, and observed a similar disturbance. This was 1886. By 1901, Marconi was sending information across the atlantic. For a transmit antenna, he used several vertical wires attached to the ground. Across the Atlantic Ocean, the receive antenna was a 200 meter wire held up by a kite .In 1906, Columbia University had an Experimental Wireless Station where they used a transmitting aerial cage. This was a cage made up of wires and suspended in the air, resembling a cage .A rough outline of some major antennas and their discovery/fabrication dates are listed: Yagi-Uda Antenna, 1920s Horn antennas, 1939. Interesting, the early antenna literature discussed waveguides as "hollow metal pipes". Antenna Arrays, 1940s Parabolic Reflectors, late 1940s, early 1950s? Just a guess. Patch Antennas, 1970s. PIFA, 1980s.Current research on antennas involves metamaterials (materials that have engineered dielectric and magnetic constants, that can be simultaneously negative, allowing for interesting properties like a negative index of refraction). Other research focuses on making antennas smaller, particularly in communications for personal wireless communication devices (e.g. cell phones). A lot of work is being performed on numerical modeling of antennas, so that their properties can be predicted before they are built and tested.References Balanis, Constantine. "Antenna Theory: A Review", Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 80, January 1992. W2AEE Antenna History. Arthur M. Kay (?), scanned by Alan Crosswell. http://www.w2aee.columbia.edu/history/antenna-history.html
TwitterNews feedNewsletterGoogle+Top of FormBottom of Form Home Antennas & propagation Cellular telecoms Circuit design Components Power management RF technology Test Wireless News Broadcast Embedded Design principles Distribution Formulae Manufacture Satellites Telecoms & networks HistoryANTENNAS AND PROPAGATIONYagi Antenna / Yagi-Uda Antenna- the Yagi antenna sometimes called the Yagi-Uda RF antenna is widely used where gain and directivity are required from an RF antenna design.IN THIS SECTION Yagi antenna Yagi antenna theory Yagi antenna gain Yagi impedance & matchingThe Yagi antenna or Yagi-Uda antenna / aerial is one of the most successful RF antenna designs for directive antenna applications.The Yagi or Yagi-Uda antenna is used in a wide variety of applications where an RF antenna design with gain and directivity is required.The Yagi has become particularly popular for television reception, but it is also used in very many other domestic and commercial applications where an RF antenna is needed that has gain and directivity.Not only is the gain of the Yagi antenna important as it enables better levels of signal to noise ratio to be achieved, but also the directivity can be used to reduce interference levels by focussing the transmitted power on areas where it is needed, or receiving signals best from where the emanate.
Typical Yagi Uda antenna used for television reception
Yagi antenna historyThe full name for the antenna is the Yagi-Uda antenna. The Yagi antenna derives its name from its two Japanese inventors Hidetsugu Yagi and Shintaro Uda. The RF antenna design concept was first outlined in a paper that Yagi presented in 1928. Since then its use has grown rapidly to the stage where today a television antenna is synonymous with an RF antenna having a central boom with lots of elements attached.The design for the Yagi antenna appears to have been initially developed not by Yagi who was a student, but his colleague Professor Shintaro Uda. However all the original papers were all in Japanese and accordingly the design was not publicised outside Japan.It was Hidetsugu Yagi who wrote papers in English and as a result the design is often incorrectly only attributed only to Yagi.Yagi himself did not aim to steal the publicity, in view of his English papers, and as a result the design now bears the names of both men and is known as the Yagi-Uda antenna.
Yagi antenna - the basicsThe Yagi antenna design has a dipole as the main radiating or driven element. Further 'parasitic' elements are added which are not directly connected to the driven element.These parasitic elements within the Yagi antenna pick up power from the dipole and re-radiate it. The phase is in such a manner that it affects the properties of the RF antenna as a whole, causing power to be focussed in one particular direction and removed from others.
basic concept of Yagi Uda antennaThe parasitic elements of the Yagi antenna operate by re-radiating their signals in a slightly different phase to that of the driven element. In this way the signal is reinforced in some directions and cancelled out in others. It is found that the amplitude and phase of the current that is induced in the parasitic elements is dependent upon their length and the spacing between them and the dipole or driven element.
Yagi Uda antenna showing element typesThere are three types of element within a Yagi antenna: Driven element: The driven element is the Yagi antenna element to which power is applied. It is normally a half wave dipole or often a folded dipole. Reflector : The Yagi antenna will generally only have one reflector. This is behind the main driven element, i.e. the side away from the direction of maximum sensitivity.
Further reflectors behind the first one add little to the performance. However many designs use reflectors consisting of a reflecting plate, or a series of parallel rods simulating a reflecting plate. This gives a slight improvement in performance, reducing the level of radiation or pick-up from behind the antenna, i.e. in the backwards direction.
Typically a reflector will add around 4 or 5 dB of gain in the forward direction. Director: There may be none, one of more reflectors in the Yagi antenna. The director or directors are placed in front of the driven element, i.e. in the direction of maximum sensitivity. Typically each director will add around 1 dB of gain in the forward direction, although this level reduces as the number of directors increases.The antenna exhibits a directional pattern consisting of a main forward lobe and a number of spurious side lobes. The main one of these is the reverse lobe caused by radiation in the direction of the reflector. The antenna can be optimised to either reduce this or produce the maximum level of forward gain. Unfortunately the two do not coincide exactly and a compromise on the performance has to be made depending upon the application.
Yagi antenna radiation pattern
Yagi antenna advantagesThe Yagi antenna offers many advantages for its use. The antenna provides many advantages in a number of applications: Antenna has gain allowing lower strength signals to be received. Yagi antenna has directivity enabling interference levels to be minimised. Straightforward construction. - the Yagi antenna allows all constructional elements to be made from rods simplifying construction. The construction enables the antenna to be mounted easily on vertical and other poles with standard mechanical fixingsThe Yagi antenna also has a number of disadvantages that need to be considered. For high gain levels the antenna becomes very long Gain limited to around 20dB or so for a single antenna
Typical Yagi Uda antenna used for television receptionThe Yagi antenna is a particularly useful form of RF antenna design. It is widely used in applications where an RF antenna design is required to provide gain and directivity. In this way the optimum transmission and reception conditions can be obtained.ByIan PooleYagi-Uda antennasPhysical descriptionA Yagi-Uda antenna is familiar as the commonest kind of terrestrial TV antenna to be found on the rooftops of houses. It is usually used at frequencies between about 30MHz and 3GHz, or a wavelength range of 10 metres to 10 cm. (There are some obsessional amateur radio enthusiasts who construct Yagi-Uda antennas for the 80 metre wavelength band. This is rather impractical as spacing them from the ground by more than half a wavelength is difficult.) The rod lengths in a Yagi-Uda are about a half wavelength each, and the spacings of the elements are about 1/3 of a wavelength. This puts the overall sizes of Yagi-Udas in the rangesfreq transverse length length length dimension 3 elements 5 elements 15 elements (lambda/2)
30MHz 5 metres 6 metres 13 metres 47 metres100MHz 1.5 metres 1.8 metres 3.9 metres 14 metres300MHz 50 cm 60 cm 1.3 metres 4.7 metres1GHz 15 cm 18 cm 39 cm 1.4 metres3GHz 5 cm 6 cm 13 cm 47 cm
From this table one can get a very good idea of the approximate frequency of the link by looking at the antenna from afar.A diagram of a 7 element Yagi-Uda layout is given here:-
There are three kinds of elements (or rods) mounted on a longitudinal connecting bar or rod. It doesn't matter if this connecting rod conducts, as it is orientated at right angles to the currents in the elements, and to the radiating electric fields; it supports little or no current, and does not contribute to the radiation. It does not matter what it is made of other than that it should have good structural properties. If it is made of conducting metal as are the elements, it can be connected electrically to the directors and to the reflector (but not to the driven element) without disturbing any of the properties of the antenna.The three types of element are termed thedriving element, thereflector(s)and thedirector(s). Only the driving element is connected directly to the feeder; the other elements couple to the transmitter power through the local electromagnetic fields which induce currents in them. The driving element is often a folded dipole, which by itself would have a driving point impedance of about 300 ohms to the feeder; but this is reduced by the shunting effect of the other elements, so a typical Yagi-Uda has driving point impedance in the range 20-90 ohms.The maximum gain of a Yagi-Uda is limited to an amount given approximately by the gain of a dipole (1.66 numerical) times the total number of elements. Why is the power gain proportional to the total number of elements? Well, in an end-firearrayof N elements the gain is proportional to N. Consider N isotropic sources, all phased such that the field contributions in the end-fire direction from each element all add up in phase in the far field. The field strength (E-field or H-field) of the sum of the phasors will be N times the field from a single element, so the radiated power density, which is proportional to the square of the fields, will be N^2 times larger. However, the total POWER delivered to the N elements will be N times larger than that delivered to a single element, so the power gain in the far field is (N^2)/N = N . Now this argument becomes suspect when the radiation resistance of an element in the array is different from the radiation resistance of an isolated element, for it is the currents in the elements which contribute to the far field strengths. In a longish Yagi-Uda, however, the end elements will not see a very different environment for the addition of an element in the middle of the directors, and the elements in the middle of the directors are not much affected by how long the array may be. Thus, as a rough "rule of thumb", the factor N (which is empirically about right) may be justified theoretically.Many people believe that the gain of a Yagi-Uda rises proportional to the boom length, rather than the number of elements. These two criteria boil down to the same thing for "sensible element spacings". Clearly, taking the reductio-ad-absurdum of a three element yagi with indefinitely increasing element spacing, the gain will not rise as the spacing is increased, beyond a certain amount. On the other hand, placing a great many elements within a short boom length can plainly be seen not to increase the gain.Thus, a single element has maximum gain 1.66 = 2.2dBi, a driving element with a single reflector has maximum gain 3.3 (numerical) or 5.2dBi, a three element antenna consisting of a single director, driving element, and reflector has maximum gain about 5 (numerical) or 7dBi and a 15 element Yagi-Uda with 13 directors has maximum gain about 25 (numerical) or 14dBi. There may be compromises in the design to achieve the required front/back ratio, driving point impedance, and bandwidth, so the gains may be somewhat less than these numbers in a practical antenna.At a meeting of the RSGB at Sandown Park Racecourse on 21 Feb 1999 I looked at a stand advertising a 9 element Yagi-Uda antenna with a stated gain of "11.4 dBd" or 11.4dB over the gain of a single dipole. We note that the array factor for this antenna is limited to the number of elements, in this case 9, and so we would expect the maximum gain to be 10log9 or 9.54 dBd. If we add the gain of the dipole elements over isotropic as about 2.2dBi we are limited in gain to at most 11.8 dBi. So we deduce that the people advertising this antenna were either misinformed, or they didn't appreciate the difference between dBd and dBi.Of course, a naive comparison between a simple dipole antenna and a Yagi-Uda just substitutes one for the other, and then the "gain" may be measured from some field strength measurements on boresight. However, since the radiation resistances will be different, and recalling that the definition of relative gain is the ratio of radiated power levels in a certain direction produced by two antennas having the same TOTAL ACCEPTED INPUT POWER, there is a potent source of confusion here. This is because the antenna is connected via a feeder to a transmitter whose output level may be determined in terms of the voltage at its terminals. Thus for the same transmitter and feeder, the accepted powers for the two antennas may be quite different. If one assumes they are the same, one makes an error in deducing the gain figure from the field strength measurements.To broadband a Yagi-Uda, sometimes the individual elements are split into two in an approximation to a primitive "biconical antenna". An example is shown here; this shows part of a UHF television receive Yagi-Uda to cover a fractional bandwidth of around 30 percent. It is vertically polarised.
and here is a horizontally polarised example....
How does a Yagi-Uda antenna work?The objective of the design is to make a "travelling wave" structure with currents in the elements all contributing to the far field in the forward direction. The contributions are designed to add up in phase in the forward direction, and to cancel in the reverse direction. The director elements are cut shorter than the driving element, which is itself a little shorter than a half wavelength at the design frequency. The reflector is cut to be about a half wavelength and it is longer than the driving element, and spaced closer than are the directors. The directors present a capacitative impedance, acting like two lengths of open circuit transmission line each a little shorter than a quarter wavelength to a hypothetical generator at the centre formed from the "induced emf" set up by the impinging fields. See theSMITH chart. Similarly, the reflector presents an inductive impedance to a hypothetical emf generator at its centre. The effects of the spacings and the current progressive phase shifts mean that the contributions of the current in the various elements to the radiated fields all add up in phase.For a closely spaced driving element and parasitic element, isolated from each other as far a electrical conduction currents are concerned, the currents are oppositely directed as can be seen in the discussion onfolded dipoleswith the folds cut off. As the spacing is increased, the currents remain oppositely directed until when the spacing is a half-wavelength, the contributions to the far field add up in phase in the "endfire direction", as can be seen from the discussion onarray antennas.If the director elements are cut a little short, their self-impedance is capacitative and they have to be spaced a little closer than a half-wavelength in order to maintain equality of phase in the radiation contribution with the wave arriving from the previous director. The currents in successive elements thus roughly have the pattern....up down up down up down ......but will all be very nearly equal in magnitude to each other. There is also some progressive phase shift as the wave advances, caused by the fact that the directors are cut short (capacitative).The field pattern on the yagi directors therefore advances as a travelling wave in the forward direction, with wavelength approximately equal to three director spacings. This can be seen in the table at the top of this page; at 30MHz the wavelength (lambda) is 10 metres so for a 15 element Yagi array, the length given as 47 metres is nearly five wavelengths, or 15 elements divided by 3.So the travelling wave structure supports a non-attenuating wave in the forward direction, and the currents in the directors are all approximately the same size, although with a progressive phase delay. It is for this reason that, for moderate numbers of elements, the forward gain is proportional to the number of elements.The reflector has an induced current in it that contributes a wave in the backwards direction that just cancels the backward wave from the driven element. Only a little power is radiated backwards. The net power radiated by the reflector current has to go somewhere, so it appears as a contribution in the forward direction. The length and the spacing of the reflector have a strong influence on the residual backward radiation from the Yagi-Uda. Typically the reflector will be spaced by 1/8 to 1/4 of a wavelength, and the directors by about 1/3 wavelength each.The array factor gain of a Yagi-Uda is therefore limited to the number of elements, and the element gain is that of a dipole of length about half a wavelength, which is 1.66.Therefore the maximum gain we can reasonably expect from the Yagi-Uda is 1.66 times the number of elements, over isotropic, (or just a factor [equal to the number of elements] over the gain of a single half-wave dipole).Properties of interest to the designerThe properties of a receive-mode Yagi are relatively uncritical. The bandwidth and VSWR preformance matters less than the gain of the antenna and its discrimination against unwanted signals. However, for a transmit Yagi such as is commonly used by Hams and short-wave broadcasters, the accepted power depends critically on getting a good match to the feed. This will vary across the band, and is susceptible to variations in local environment and geometry distortions.The lore of the Yagi designer has it that the gain of a Yagi is governed more by the overall boom length than by the number of elements. For an HF Yagi, the boom length can be a critical design factor, and the Ham is usually seeking to optimise the forward gain, the front-to-back ratio, and the construction techniques required. Yagis having thick rod elements (in terms of a wavelength) are better-behaved than those made from thin wires.The gain of a Yagi-Uda is only moderate, but for the frequency range given above it is cheap and relatively simple to build. It is reasonably tolerant to variations in construction, and indeed, many Yagi-Uda designs have been arrived at by cut and try empirical methods. This is why antenna design is often seen as a black art. With proper numerical simulation, useful improvements have been made to the empirical designs. Trade-offs may be made between the various factors, such as bandwidth, impedance, front-to-back ratio, gain, sidelobe performance, and ease of mounting. A vertically polarised Yagi-Uda often is mounted on the top of a vertical conducting mast which, being in the near field, and also polarisation- matched, will modify the electrical properties. There is less of a problem with mounting a horizontally polarised Yagi-Uda.For moderately long Yagis with several directors, the reflector spacing and size has little effect on the forward gain, providing that there IS a reflector, but being close to the driving element it has a strong effect on the front-to-back ratio and on the driving point impedance of the antenna. The driving element has of course a big effect on the impedance of the structure and it can be tuned to make this impedance nearly real. The directors form the majority of the travelling wave structure and amply repay care in design.As with all antenna simulation exercises, it is very easy to fall into the trap that one can calculate properties which one cannot reliably measure. It is therefore questionable as to the utility of such calculations at present. There are a large number of parameters to be chosen by the designer; the individual spacings, lengths, and diameters of the elements give three adjustable parameters per element.There is a fashion in 1999 to write simulation papers (for the academic journals on antennas), which are unsupported in any way by measurements. As a warning to the reader, if you see an antenna design based on simulation only, and unsupported by any experimental verification, it is wise to be very skeptical about its applicability to a real antenna construction, and you should certainly not believe the performance figures it quotes for such an antenna, without investigating the performance further.Pitfalls in design and construction of Yagi-Uda antennasThere are many published "cookbook" style designs for Yagi-Uda antennas. Often these have been arrived at by empirical "cut-and-try" methods, or else simulations. If one plays around with the lengths and spacings of the elements, using different tube diameters, with, for example, a NEC simulation package one rapidly realises that it is much easier to make a Yagi-Uda structure which has broadside boresight max-gain directions than it is to make an endfire Yagi-Uda. There are many more combinations of parameters which give broadside main beams than give end fire main beams. One deduces from this observation that many, if not most, practical Yagi-Uda antennas do not work "as advertised" or "as desired", particularly if the build process departs from the exact specifications. Caveat emptor!HISTORY
The Yagi-Uda antenna was invented in 1926 by Shintaro Uda of Tohoku Imperial University, Sendai, Japan, with the collaboration of Hidetsugu Yagi, also of Tohoku Imperial University.
Yagi published the first English-language reference on the antenna in a 1928 survey article on short wave research in Japan and it came to be associated with his name.
However, Yagi always acknowledged Uda's principal contribution to the design, and the proper name for the antenna is, as above, the Yagi-Uda antenna (or array).
The Yagi was first widely used during World War II for airborne radar sets, because of its simplicity and directionality.
The Japanese military authorities first became aware of this technology after the Battle of Singapore when they captured the notes of a British radar technician that mentioned "yagi antenna". Japanese intelligence officers did not even recognise that Yagi was a Japanese name in this context.
Despite its being invented in Japan, many Japanese radar engineers were unaware of the design until very late in the war, due to internal fighting between the Army and Navy. A horizontally polarized array can be seen under the left leading edge of Grumman F4F, F6F, TBF Avenger carrier based Navy aircraft.
Yagi-Uda antennas are widely used by amateur radio operators worldwide for communication on frequencies from shortwave, through VHF/UHF, and into microwave bands. Hams often homebrew this type of antenna, and have provided many technical papers and software to the engineering community.