Xhmeia b Lykeioy

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Xhmeia

Transcript of Xhmeia b Lykeioy

  • B

    B

    X

    : 0-22-0217

    ISBN 978-960-06-4819-5

  • OIO II I

    22-0211-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 1 23/5/2014 9:46:05

  • & , - / & / .

    .

    :

    : , . , . , . , , / , / , /

    : , , , ,

    : , /

    :

    :

    : , , M.Ed, Ph.D, ..

    22-0211-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 2 23/5/2014 9:46:05

  • . , .

    , - , .

    , -, , .

    , .

    , . , : . . - , , , . . . -

    , .

    , , , - . , , .

    22-0211-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 3 23/5/2014 9:46:05

  • 1 1.1 91.2 - 111.3 151.4 191.5 22

    A - - - - 27

    2 - : O -

    37

    2.1 - . . - 392.2 - 442.3 - , , 452.4 - 512.5 - 532.6 - 602.7 - 642.8 - - 67

    : CFCs Greenpeace 72 - - - - 73

    3 3.1 883.2 - 903.3 97

    : 100 : 101 : 102 - - - - 103

    4 o4.1 - 1124.2 2 - 1164.3 118

    : 120 : 121 - - - - 123

    22-0217-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 4 4/6/2014 5:05:03

  • 5 5.1 1015.2 1065.3 1105.4 - 1155 .5 120

    : H 122 - - - - 123 133 145

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  • 22-0211-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 6 23/5/2014 9:46:05

  • : . ,

    .

    : ) ) ) ) .

    , IUPAC, , , , , , .

    , (, ) . .

    , .

    ( ) .

    1

    1.1

    1.2

    - -

    1.3

    1.4 1.5 -

    -

    22-0217-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 7 4/6/2014 6:02:06

  • 8 1828. Whler , . , , . Whler , . , . , . 300.000 . O Whler . : . , , .

    22-0211-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 8 23/5/2014 9:46:06

  • . (CO), (CO2) (.. CaCO3), ( C).

    18 , , , . O , Scheele (1742-1786), , .. .

    18 , , , (vis vitalis), . , , , . To 1828 Whler , . , , NH

    4OCN ( ).

    , , .

    , - .

    . , ,

    TO

    H Fredrch Whler , 1828, - . 19o , - - , Brande , 1848, - ... ... - . H . . To . , - , ... .

    John McMurry

    -

    1.1

    1

    NH4OCN C=ONH2

    NH2

    22-0217-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 9 4/6/2014 5:14:15

  • 10

    , , - .

    C Si

    6C (2,4)

    14Si (2,8,4)

    , , , , , , .

    . , . .

    , . , , .

    , , . , , , , , , , ..

    12.000.000, 1.000.000, . ; ; ;O : ()

    , , ( ). ( H, O, N, S, ) . , (.. ) (.. ).

    ( - , ).

    , , :

    22-0217-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 10 4/6/2014 6:05:20

  • 11

    . .

    H-C-C-O-H

    H-C-C=O

    , , , . O . , , .

    H-C=C-Cl :

    -

    , , . H :1. . .

    1.2

    , , .

    . C C H H-C-C-H

    . C C C=C

    . C C H H-C C-H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H H

    H } K

    H H

    22-0217-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 11 4/6/2014 5:15:49

  • 12

    2. ( ) :

    1.1

    . ( ), . ..

    , . .

    =

    To .

    1.1 ( ), -

    H-C-C-C-C-H , H-C-C_____C CH H H H

    H H H H

    H H

    H H H-C-HH

    H

    H

    22-0217-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 12 4/6/2014 5:16:31

  • 13

    , , O, N.

    () .O ( ) , .

    1.2 H ( ) , .

    .

    3. , , . :

    , .

    H2C CH2

    CH2

    CH2

    H2C

    H2C CH2

    CH2

    N H

    H2C

    22-0217-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 13 4/6/2014 5:16:51

  • 14

    4.

    , . , ( ) :

    1. .2.

    .3. ,

    o.

    4. (M

    r )

    .5. .6.

    -CH2-.

    .

    1.2

    vo

    -OH -CH=O

    -COOH -C-O-C- -COOC-

    C H

    C=O-C-C

    TN

    (). . . .

    H -CH2- o .

    22-0217-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 14 4/6/2014 5:19:46

  • 15

    IUPAC, . H , . To

    1.3

    1.3

    ..

    CvH2v+2

    CvH2

    CvH2v-2

    CvH2v+1X

    CvH2v+2O

    CvH2vO

    CvH2vO2

    1

    2

    2

    3

    1

    (R-OH) 1

    (R-O-R) 2

    (RCHO) 1

    (R-CO-R) 3

    (RCOOH) 1

    (RCOOR) 2

    /

    CH3CH2CH3

    CH3CH=CHCH32-

    CH3CH2CH2C CH1-

    CH2=CHCH=CH21,3-

    CH3CH2CH2I1-

    CH3CH2CH(OH)CH32-

    CH3-O-CH2CH3

    CH3CHO

    CH3CH2COCH2CH33-

    CH3CH2COOH

    CH3COOCH3

    H R- (Radical) - C

    H

    2+1- ( 18).

    :RCOOR - - .

    22-0217-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 15 4/6/2014 5:20:05

  • 16

    , . .

    1. ME

    O , , , ( ). H : 3 C: - : -- : -, .

    4 C: - 1 : -- : -

    IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) 1947. - , IUPAC. To (IUPAC) , - (.. ).

    : .

    , .

    1.4

    1 C: - : -- : -

    2 C: - 1 ..: -- : -

    3 C: - 1 ..: -- : -

    4 C: - 2 ..: -- : -

    5 C: - :

    6 C: - -

    ...

    .-C-C-C- CH3CH2CH3

    H H

    H H

    4CH33CH2

    2CH3=1CH2.

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  • 17

    O : 1, : 1-.

    H .

    5 C: - : -- : -.H -OH 2. : 2-.

    H , .

    3 C: - : -- : -. : . , (XO) , -CHO -COOH, ( 1). XO.

    H 3--2-.H .

    H 3- . -COOH, , 1. IUPAC:

    Av ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    5CH3-4CH2-

    3CH2-2CH-1CH3OH

    CH3CH2CHO

    CH2=CHCHCH3OH

    CH CCH2COOH

    22-0217-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 17 4/6/2014 5:21:18

  • 18

    .1CH3-

    2CH-3CH2-4CH3

    CH3

    2-

    2. ME

    , IU-PAC:

    H . , , (C

    2+2)

    . T CvH2+1-, R-. T CH3- CH3CH2- . T , , ( ). Av , (-, -, ..) .

    .

    H CH3- . H () . , ,

    Av (XO) () (), XO. Av XO XO, . , XO, .

    : XO > > . ,

    . CH3CH2CHCH2CHCH3CH3

    2,4-

    CH3

    H CH3-

    CH3CH2-

    CH3CH2CH2-

    CH3-CH-

    .

    CH3

    , , . -COOH -CH=O 1

    , .

    22-0217-XHMEIA_B_LYKEIOY_IEP.indd 18 4/6/2014 5:21:53

  • 19

    CH3

    .CH3CHCH2CH2

    CH3

    .CH3CHCH2CH3

    Cl

    .6CH3

    5C=4C-3CH22CH=1CH2

    CH3 Cl

    3--1-

    2-

    T (Cl-, Br-, F-, -) , .

    4--5--1,4