XHMEIA B LYCHEUM

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CHEMISTRY B LYK

Transcript of XHMEIA B LYCHEUM

  • . .

  • .............................................................1

    1.1 ...........................................................................11

    1.2 -

    ...........................................................................36

    1.3 ...............................................................64

    2.1 ...........86

    2.2 ..........................................................................................117

    2.3 ..........................................................................129

    3.1 ..........................................................................154

    3.2

    ......................................................................................172

    4.1 ............................215

    4.2

    LE CHATELIER.235

    4.3 ..........................................................261

    5.1 .......................................................................................341

  • 1

    : pi pi .

    : H2, O2, N2, F2,Cl2, Br2, I2.

    : K, Ba, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Sn, Pb, Cu, Hg,

    Ag, Pt, Au.

    : , ,

    , pi

    ().

    : H2, O2, N2, F2,Cl2 , Br2, I2, C, S, P.

    : Br pi ,

    ,

    pi ().

    pi : pi pi

    . pi

    pi pi .

    pi : pi

    .

  • 2 pipi

    pi pi

    pi

    1. pi

    ( ).

    1. pi

    (

    )

    .

    2.

    pi

    (pi

    pi ).

    2.

    , pi

    .

    3.

    (Coulomb).

    3.

    .

    4. pi

    pi pi pi .

    4. .

    pi pi

    pi

    1. pi pi

    ( pi pi

    pi

    ).

    1. pi pi (

    ).

    2.

    .

    2. ,

    .

    3.

    .

    3.

    .

    4. 4.

    ( 2

    pi pi ).

  • 3

    5. ,

    ,

    .

    5. pi

    : ,

    , pi

    NH3.

    :

    pi pi .

    : , , ,F O N Cl Br I S C P H> > > > > > .

    pi: pi

    pi pi pi .

    pi pi: pi

    pi pi.

    : pi pi .

    pi pi

    pi .

  • 4 pipi

    , , ,K Na Li Ag +1 F -1

    , , ,Ba Ca Mg Zn +2 H +1, (-1 )

    Al +3 O -2, (-1 pi, +2 F2O)

    ,Cu Hg +1, +2 , ,Cl Br I -1, +1, +3, +5, +7

    ,Fe Ni +2, +3 S -2, +4, +6

    ,Pb Sn +2, +4 N -3, +3, +5

    Mn +2, +4, +7 ,C Si -4, +4

    Cr +3, +6

  • 5

    pi

    pi- - - pi- -

    4Cl

    pi

    3ClO

    2ClO

    ClO

    pi

    4BrO

    pi

    3BrO

    2BrO

    BrO

    pi

    4IO

    pi

    3IO

    2IO

    IO

    pi

    3NO

    2NO

    24SO

    23SO

    4HSO

    3HSO

    23CO

    3HCO

    34PO

    24HPO

    2 4H PO

  • 6 pipi

    ....

    4MnO

    pi

    22 7Cr O

    OH

    CN

    ,

    ,

    24CrO

    4NH+

    : pi +. x

    :

    ) :

    pi.. H Cl :

    pi.. H CN :

    - .

    pi.. H Cl : .

    ) :

    pi.. 3HNO :

    2 3H SO : .

    : pi -. :

    ()y.

    :

    pi.. : .

    : MxAy.

    :

    ) : .

  • 7

    pi.. Na Cl

    2Fe Br

    ) .

    pi.. 3K NO

    3Cu CO

    : .

    : 2x pi x .. .

    : .

    pi.. 2K O .

    CO .

    2 3Fe O ()

    pi :

    : K, Ba, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Sn, Pb,

    H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Pt, Au.

    : F2, Cl2, Br2, 2, I2, S.

    : i) Me(1) + (1) (2) + Me(2)

    Me(1) Me(2)

    Ba + ZnCl2 BaCl2 + Zn

    Mg + CaCl2 x

    ii) Me + + H2

    Me 2

    Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2

    Ag + HBr x

  • 8 pipi

    iii) ) e + H2O Me + H2

    Me: (K, Na, Ba, Ca)

    + 22 ()2 + 2

    ) Me + H2O Me + H2

    Me: pipi 2 , , , Ca

    Mg + H2O MgO + H2

    iv) Ame(1) + (1) (2) + Ame(2)

    Ame(1) Ame(2)

    Cl2 + 2NaBr 2NaCl + Br2

    pi

    i) (1) + (2) (3) + (4)

    pi : (3) (4)

    AgNO3 + NaBr AgBr + NaNO3

    ii) (1) + (1) (2) + (2)

    pi (2):

    ! H2CO3 CO2 + H2O

    H2SO3 SO2 + H2O

    (2):

    CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

    Ba(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 2NaNO3 + BaCO3

    iii) (1) + (1) (2) + (2)

    pi : (2):

    (2): 3

    ! 4 3 + 2

    Ca(OH)2 + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2NaOH

  • 9

    2NaOH + MgCl2 2NaCl + Mg(OH)2

    NH4Cl + KOH KCl + NH3 + H2O

    i) + + 2

    2HCl + Ba(OH)2 BaCl2 + H2O

    ii) + + 2

    N2O5 + 2NH3 2NH4NO3

    iii) + + 2

    2H3PO4 + 3MgO Mg3(PO4)2 + 3H2O

    iv) +

    P2O5 + 3K2O 2K3PO4

    ! 3: 2

    Mole

    1 Mole Mr g

    ( 22, 4 )Vm L STP=

    pi 236,02 10AN =

    A m

    m N Vn n n

    Mr N V= = =

    : P V n RT =

    0,082 L atmRmol K

    =

    V: (1L=1000cm3) n: mol

    P: pi (1 atm=760 mmHg) =+273 (: C)

    : pi pi pi

    mpV

    = .

    x% w/w: 100 g x g .

  • 10 pipi

    x% w/v: 100 mL x g .

    x% v/v: 100 mL x mL .

    x molM

    L

    : 1000 mL x mol .

    ! m / = m / + m .

    ///

    mpV

    =

    . .

    1 1 2 2n n C V C V = =

    pi

    . .

    1 1 2 2n n C V C V = =

    pi pi

    . . .

    1 1 2 2n n n C V n C V pi + = + =

    . (1) . (2) . ( ) 1 1 2 2 T Tn n n C V C V C V + = + =

    pi

    .

    ' ( )A A A A BC V C V V= +

    ' ( )B B B A BC V C V V= +

    pi

    pi pi mol.

    mol /

    pi.

    pi mol pi .

  • 11

    1.1

    : pi

    .

    : .

    :

    : pi

    pi .

    : pi , , ,

    pi .

    : pi pi .

    :

    . pi - pi

    . London

    . , pi pi pipi pi - pi.

    : pi pi

    .

    : =r

    + Cl- r

  • 12 pipi

    pi :

    r: pi

    : pi pi (+) pi pi (-)

    pi.

    : pi pi pi (

    =0).

    :

    pi pi pi , pi.. H2 F2, ..

    pi , , ..

    : pi pi pi

    pi pi (0).

    :

    pi pi pi (

    ), pi.. HF, HCl, NO .. ( pi)

    pi (H2O), (NH3).

    pi pi pi .

    pi pi pi .

    pi

    pipi pipi pi 8

    4 pi

    pi. .

  • 13

    . CH4 pi

    pi pi .

    . NH3 pi .

    pi pi .

    . H2O pi .

    pi pi .

    3CHCl 4CCl pi

    pi ;

    pi

    pipi pi pipi

    pi.. O C O= = pi .

    pi pi .

    C C= pi .

    pi pi .

    H H

    C C= pi .

    Cl H

    pi pi .

  • 14 pipi

    pi

    pipi pi

    pi.. H C C H pi .

    pi pi .

    H C N pi .

    pi pi .

    VAN DER WAALS

    1.

    : pi .

    : , .

    :

    :

    a. pi Mr. pi Mr pi

    .

    . pi pi pi ( pipi

    pipi ).

    pi pi

    : . ,

    , .

    , , ,

    .

    : pi ..

    Mr /D pipi, CH3CH2CH3 44 0,1 , CH3Cl 50 1,9 , CH3OCH3 46 1,3

  • 15

    , CH3CN 41 3,9 , CH3CHO 44 2,7

    2. LONDON

    : :

    . pi pi pi pi pi.

    pi ( pi )

    pi.

    . pi pi .

    :

    1. pi , Mr.

    , pi

    pi. ,

    .

    2. pi . pi

    pi pi (),

    pi - pi

    . pi pi (

    pi ).

    pi: pi pi pi.. .

    :

    1. .. pi CH CH CH CH CH3 2 2 2 3 2,2

    pipi

    CH3|CH - C - CH CH3 2 3|

    CH3

    .

    2. 2 77,34 121,39 .

    pi ;

  • 16 pipi

    3. 2 121,39 90,19 ,

    . pi ;

    : pi pi ,

    , F. , pi , pi

    pi pi

    F, O, N.

    : .

    : .

    : pi Van der Waals (pi pi,

    London).

    : 2 , F, NH3, ..

    pi:

    pi pi pi..

    ( ..), pi, pi pi pi

    pipi .

    pi ,

    ,

    . pi pi

    pipi ,