Word formation

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  • 1. WORD Formation

2. Around 1900, J. Murray Spangler , a department-store worker invented a device which he called an electric suction sweeper. Mr. Spangler sold his invention to A businessman named William H. Hoover , an owner of Hoover Suction Sweeper Company. He named the machine called Hoover. INTRODUCTION 3. from Greek - (no-), meaning "new", and (lgos), meaning "speech, utterance") is a newly coined term, word, or phrase, that may be in the process of entering common use, but has not yet been accepted into mainstream language. Neologisms are often directly attributable to a specific person, publication, period, or event. NEOLOGISM 4. The study of origin and history of words. Derived from the Greek word etymon which means original form + logia which means study of . Examples : Etymology of the Word God: The root-meaning of the name (from Gothic root gheu; Sanskrit hub or emu, "to invoke or to sacrifice to") is either "the one invoked" or "the one sacrificed to." ETYMOLOGY 5. The invention of totally new terms(usually without capital letters. The least common processes of word formation. Examples : aspirin, nylon, vaseline, zipper and xerox. COINAGE 6. Google is a misspelling for the word googol. It became the name of the company Google which become a widely used expression meaning to used the internet to find information. New words based on the name of a person or a place is called eponyms. Examples : hoover, spangler, sandwich, jeans, fahrenheit, volt and watt. 7. One of the most common sources of new words in English. The process of taking over words from other languages. BORROWING 8. Examples : croissant(French), dope(Dutch), lilac(Persian), piano(Italian), pretzel(German), sofa(Arabic), tattoo(Tahitian), tycoon(Japanese), yogurt(Turkish) and zebra(Bantu). Japanese use a suupaa or suupaamaaketto (supermarket) and taipuraitaa (typewriter). 9. Is a special type of borrowing. In this process, there is a direct translation of the elements of the word into the borrowing language. Word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root- for-root translation. CALQUE OR LOAN-TRANSLATION 10. Examples : English (skyscraper) French term gratte-ciel (scrape-sky) Dutch wolkenkrabber (cloud scratcher) German Wolkenkratzer(cloud scraper). 11. Combining two different words with different meaning that will result to a new word with one meaning. Examples : Pill + box = pillbox Under + ground = underground High + way = highway Kill + joy = killjoy Earth + quake = earthquake COMPOUNDING 12. Examples : Hand-me-down out-of-date forget-me-not out-of -order PHRASE ODDITIES 13. The combination of two different forms to produce a single new term or joining parts of two or more words. It is typically accomplished by taking only the beginning of one word and joining it to the end of the other word. Combining two different words to produce a new form by fusion. BLENDING 14. In USA, a word gasoline but is made from alcohol, so the blended word referring to this word is gasohol smoke and fog = smog breakfast/lunch = brunch information/entertainment = infotainment fact and fiction = faction Bat and mash = bash EXAMPLES: 15. Compounding is the combination of two words with different meaning to produce a new one. Blending is combining the first and last word of a two different terms. The terms combined has the connection with each other. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMPOUNDING AND BLENDING 16. A process in which the element of reduction that is noticeable in blending is even more apparent. Occurs when a word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form, usually in casual form. Examples : chemistry chem examination exam gymnasium gym Emmanuel Emman CLIPPING 17. Hypocorisms is the process in which a longer word is reduced to a single syllable, then y or ie is added to the end. Examples : moving pictures - movie barbecue - barbie television - telly Cookie , sweetie , sugarpie 18. A very specialized type of reduction process. A word of one type (usually a noun) is reduced to form a word of another type(usually a verb). Examples : television televise donation - donate emotion - emote babysitter -baby sit BACKFORMATION 19. Backformed verbs in English is based on the common pattern. The assumption seemed to have been that if there is a noun ending in er (or something close in sound), then we can create a verb for what that noun er does. Examples : burglars will burgle editor will edit peddlers will peddle worker will work 20. Conversion, also called zero derivation, is a kind of word formation; specifically, it is the creation of a word (of a new word class) from an existing word (of a different word class) without any change in form. It is a change in a function of a word, as for example : Noun comes to be used as a Verb Verb comes to be used as a Noun Verb comes to be used as an Adjective Adjective comes to be used as Verb Adjective comes to be used as a Noun CONVERSION 21. bottle We bottled the home-brew last night. butter Have you buttered the toast? chair Someone has to chair the meeting. vacation Theyre vacationing in Florida. NOUNS AS VERBS 22. Guess a guess Spy a spy Must a must Phrasal verbs To printout a printout To takeover a take over VERBS AS NOUNS 23. Stand-up stand up comedian See see through VERBS AS ADJECTIVES 24. Dirty floor to dirty An empty room to empty ADJECTIVES AS VERBS 25. Some crazy ideas a crazy Those nasty people the nasty ADJECTIVES AS NOUNS 26. New words formed from the initial letters of a set of other words. The pronunciation consist of saying each separate letter. Examples : CD- compact disk DVD- digital versatile disk RAM- read access memory ROM read only memory WAR women against rape ACRONYMS 27. Some acronyms came into general use so quickly that some speakers do not think of their component meanings. Example: ATM automatic teller machine PIN- personal identification number I sometimes forget my PIN number when I go to ATM machine. 28. The most common formation process to be found in the production of new English words. It is accomplished by means of a large number by means of a large number of small bits of the English language which are not usually given separate listings in the dictionaries. These small bits are generally described as affixes. It is derived from or having a root word. DERIVATION 29. un- mis- pre- -ful -less -ish -ism -ness Unhappy Mistrust Prejudge Joyful Careless Childish Terrorism sadness Affixes Use in word SOME FAMILIAR EXAMPLES ARE : 30. Prefixes are affixes have to be added to the beginning of the word. Examples : un-, pre- and mis- Suffixes are affixes have to be added to the end of the word. Examples : -less, -ish and ism Disrespectful both prefix and suffixes. Foolishness has two suffixes. Retake has prefix. PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 31. It is an affix that is incorporated inside another word. It is possible to see the general principle at work in certain expressions , occasionally used in fortuitous or aggravating circumstances by emotionally aroused English speakers. Examples : Unfuckinbelievable INFIXES 32. It is the case in which two or more processes are involved in forming a neologism. For example carphone is a new form in which telephone is shortened to phone (clipping) and then it is combined with car (compounding). MULTIPLE PROCESSES 33. Identify the processes involved in the creation of the following forms. 1. I just got a new car-phone. 2. James wants to be a footballer. 3. The negotiators blueprinted a new peace proposal. ENRICHMENT ACTIVITY 34. Identify the type of word formation ENRICHMENT ACTIVITY 35. Footobooru(Japanese) football (English) Luna de miel (Spanish moon of honey) - honeymoon (English) Thats really fandamntastic! When Im ill I want to see a doc, not a vet. ? 36. Carelessness Unfaithful Terrorism Prepackaged Reincarnation IDENTIFY THE PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES USED IN THESE WORDS 37. 1. How much RAM do you have? 2. Your friend Jason is Such a techie! 3. Were paying too much attention to Bloggers. 4. You should bookmark that site. DESCRIBE THE WORD-FORMATION PROCESSES INVOLVED 38. Questions? Clarifications? Reactions? 39. Thank You! Study well. Quiz Next Meeting 40. Mark Ariel T. Artiaga Irish Joy