Wojciech Broniowski Jan Kochanowski U., Kielce and Inst. of · PDF file 2014. 10....

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Transcript of Wojciech Broniowski Jan Kochanowski U., Kielce and Inst. of · PDF file 2014. 10....

  • Hydrodynamics in small and medium systems

    Wojciech Broniowski

    Jan Kochanowski U., Kielce and Inst. of Nucl. Phys. PAN, Cracow

    Hydrodynamics of Strongly Coupled Fluids, ECT*, 11-16 May 2014

    1. p-Pb (research with P. Bożek) 2. α-clustered nucleus-A (research with E. Ruiz Arriola and M. Rybczyński)

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 1 / 51

  • Collectivity in small and medium systems

    Main questions: What is the nature of the initial state and correlations therein? What are the limits/conditions on applicability of hydrodynamics?

    What is the ground state of light nuclei?

    Other analyses of collectivity in small systems:

    Romatschke, Luzum, arXiv:0901.4588, Prasad et al., arXiv:0910.4844, Bozek, arXiv:0911.2393, Werner et al., arXiv:1010.0400, Deng, Xu, Greiner, arXiv:1112.0470, Yan et al., arXiv: 0912.3342, Bozek, arXiv:1112.0912 Shuryak, Zahed, arXiv:1301.4470, Bzdak et al.,arXiv:1304.3403, Qin, Müller, arXiv:1306.3439, Werner et al., arXiv:1307.4379

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 2 / 51

  • Method

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 3 / 51

  • Flow develops

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 4 / 51

  • 3-stage approach

    Our three-phase approach (“Standard Model of heavy-ion collisions”):

    initial → hydro → statistical hadronization

    (successful in description of A+A collisions)

    Initial phase - Glauber model GLISSANDO Hydrodynamics - 3+1 D viscous event-by-event Statistical hadronization - THERMINATOR

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 5 / 51

  • Hydrodynamics [Bożek 2011]

    3+1 D viscous Israel-Stewart event-by-event hydrodynamics (viscous corrections essential due to large gradients)

    τinit = 0.6 fm/c, η/s = 0.08 (shear), ζ/s = 0.04 (bulk) Gaussian smearing of the sources, r = 0.4 fm – physical effect average initial temperature in the center of the fireball adjusted to fit the multiplicity realistic equation of state (lattice + hadron gas [based on Chojnacki, Florkowski 2007])

    freezeout at Tf = 150 MeV

    lattice spacing of 0.15 fm (thousands of CPU hours for one reaction)

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 6 / 51

  • Highlights of p-Pb

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 7 / 51

  • Size in p-Pb vs Pb-Pb

    fixed Npart = 19

    p+Pb compact

    p+Pb standard

    Pb+Pb

    0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    12 @fmD

    di st

    ri bu

    tio n

    smaller size in p-Pb → larger entropy density → more rapid expansion standard - source positioned at the center of the nucleons compact - source at the CM of the colliding pair

    [see also Bzdak, Schenke, Tribedy, Venugopalan, arXiv:1304.3403] All in all, initial conditions in most central p-Pb not very far from those in peripheral Pb-Pb

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 8 / 51

  • Typical evolution in p-Pb

    standard compact

    pPb 5020GeV Npart=19

    -4 -2 0 2 4

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    x HyL @fmD

    Τ @f

    m

    cD

    pPb 5020GeV Npart=19

    -4 -2 0 2 4

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    x HyL @fmD

    Τ @f

    m

    cD

    isotherms at freeze-out Tf = 150 MeV for two sections in the transverse plane

    evolution lasts about 4 fm/c - shorter but more rapid than in A+A

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 9 / 51

  • Ridge in p-Pb, ATLAS

    φ∆ 0

    2

    4

    η∆

    )η∆,φ∆ C

    ( 1

    1.1

    -4

    -2

    0

    2

    4

    (a)

    φ∆ 0

    2

    4

    η∆ )η∆,φ∆

    C ( 1

    1.04

    -4

    -2

    0

    2

    4

    (b)

    ATLAS =5.02 TeVNNsp+Pb -1bµ 1 ≈ L ∫

  • Projection on 2 ≤ |∆η| ≤ 5, ATLAS

    Y (∆φ) =

    ∫ B(∆φ)d(∆φ)

    N C(∆φ) − bZYAM

    The near-side ridge from our model:

    φ∆ 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

    )φ∆ Y

    (

    0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0.6

    < 4.0 GeV T

    0.5 < p

    c=0-3.4%

    red - standard, blue - compact

    [CGC: Dusling, Venugopalan, arXiv:1210.3890, 1211.3701, 1302.7018]

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 11 / 51

  • v2, v3 vs CMS

    0 50 100 150 200 250 300 3500

    0.02

    0.04

    0.06

    0.08

    0.1

    0.12 p-Pb 5.02TeVCMS

    |>2η∆ |{2}2v

    2, Nη∆ |{2}2v

    |>2 3+1D Hydroη∆ |{2}2v

    trackN

    2v

    0 50 100 150 200 250 300 3500

    0.01

    0.02

    0.03

    0.04 p-Pb 5.02TeVCMS

    |>2η∆ |{2}3v

    2, Nη∆ |{2}3v

    |>2 3+1D Hydroη∆ |{2}3v

    trackN

    3v

    v3 somewhat too large for lower-multiplicity collisions → limit of validity of the model

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 12 / 51

  • LHC: v2 vs ATLAS

    20 40 60 80 100 1200

    0.02

    0.04

    0.06

    0.08

    0.1

    0.12 p-Pb 5.02TeV ATLAS {2}2v {4}2v {2PC}2v

    hydro Glauber{2}2v hydro Glauber+NB{2}2v hydro Glauber+NB{4}2v

    GeV〉 EΣ 〈

    2v

    (NB – additional fluctuations of the strength of the sources, adjusted in such a way that the experimental multiplicity distribution is reproduced)

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 13 / 51

  • v2, v3 vs pT

    0 1 2 3 4 0

    0.05

    0.1

    0.15

    0.2

  • Identified 〈pT 〉 [Bożek, WB, Torrieri, PRL 111 (2013) 172303]

    20 40

    0

    0.5

    1

    1.5 >

    [G

    eV ]

    < p

    a) 3+1D Hydro

    p-Pb 5.02 TeV

    ALICE Data (preliminary)

    ηdN/d 20 40

    0

    0.5

    1

    1.5 b) HIJING

    -π+π

    -K+K

    pp

    ηdN/d

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 15 / 51

  • Identified v2 and v3

    0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0

    0.02

    0.04

    0.06

    0.08

    0.1

    0.12

    0.14

    0.16

    0.18 p-Pb 5.02TeV ALICE Data 0-20%

    π K p

    2v

    [GeV/c] T

    p

    0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0

    0.05

    0.1 p-Pb 5.02TeV 0-20%

    π K p

    3+1D Hydro3v

    [GeV/c] T

    p

    Resonance decays affect the mass ordering in v3

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 16 / 51

  • α clusters

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 17 / 51

  • Some history

    David Brink: After Gamow’s theory of α-decay it was natural to investigate a model in which nuclei are composed of α-particles. Gamow developed a rather detailed theory of properties in his book "Constitution of Nuclei" published in 1931 before the discovery of the neutron in 1932. He supposed that 4n-nuclei like 8Be, 12C, 16O ... were composed of α-particles

    G en

    er at

    ed b

    y C

    am S

    ca nn

    er fr

    om in

    ts ig

    .c om

    Generated by CamScanner from intsig.com

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 18 / 51

  • Shell model (and its problems)

    Eugene Wigner, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Hans Jensen, Nobel in 1963

    Michael P. Carpenter: However, in the 1960s, excited states in nuclei that comprise equal numbers of protons and neutrons, (e.g., 12C and 16O) were identified that could not be described by the shell model, and it was suggested by Ikeda and others that these states could be associated with configurations composed of α particles

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 19 / 51

  • Present theory status

    9Be 12C [M. Freer: WPCF13, H. Fynbo+Freer: Physics 4 (2011) 94]

    ground

    Hoyle 0+

    other excited, 2+ . . .

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 20 / 51

  • 16O

    Ab initio calculations of 16O with chiral NN force (Juelich 2014) → strong α clusterization

    ground state excited

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 21 / 51

  • Computational techniques

    (massive effort)

    Funaki et al.: certain states in self-conjugated nuclei ... can be described as product states of α particles, all in the lowest 0S state. We define a state of condensed α particles in nuclei as a bosonic product state in good approximation, in which all bosons occupy the lowest quantum state of the corresponding bosonic mean-field potential (αBEC)

    Another approach: Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD)

    Quantum Variational Monte Carlo (with 2- and 3-body forces) for A=2-12 [R. Wiringa et al., http://www.phy.anl.gov/theory/research/density/]

    All approaches to light nuclei give clusters

    Goal (not yet accurately reached): reproduce ground-state energy, excitation spectrum, EM form factor, ...

    WB (UJK, IFJ PAN) hydro for light and medium ECT* 2014 22 / 51