Water scarcity 2010

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November 2015 Spain

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Transcript of Water scarcity 2010


November 2015Spain

Water scarcityis the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands ofwater usagewithin a region.Water scarcity involveswater stress,water shortageor deficits, andwater crisisWater scarcity OCCURS WHEN the amount of water withdrawn from lakes, rivers or groundwater is so great that water supplies are no longer adequate to satisfy all human or ecosystem requirements, bringing about increased competition among potential demands.Water scarcity has been defined as a situation where water availability in a country or in a region is BELOW 1000 m3 /person /year. However, many regions in the world experience much more severe scarcity, living with LESS THAN 500 m3 per person per year.

Water scarcity: The next world war will be about water


Pinios riverWater scarcity is among the main problems to be faced by many societies of the 21st century. Water use has increased surpassing AT TWICE the population growth rate in the last century.

Water scarcity can be a result of two mechanisms:physical (absolute) water scarcityandeconomic water scarcity, where physical water scarcity is a result of inadequate natural water resources to supply a region's demand, and economic water scarcity is a result of poor management of the sufficient available water resources.

The water level drops graduallyLake Kerkini Serres,Macedonia

But what are the water resources of Greece?

Huge water scarcity problem the next fifty yearsgazette

Intense and prolonged water shortages will face over the next 50 years, Greece with tragic social and economic consequences. Scientists are sounding the alarm bells about climate change and point out that our country must be consistent with its obligations to the international community for limiting pollution it produces. The first problems, moreover, are already being felt throughout the Mediterranean.The president of the National Observatory of Athens and professor of the University of Athens. Christos Zerefos, the Associate Professor at NTUA, John Ziomas and Rep. Ibrahim, responsible for the campaign of the environmental organization Greenpeace on Climate Change, spoke yesterday at the Environment Committee House. "The most important consequence is the disruption of water balance, evolution observed in Greece with dramatic way," he explained. "The descent of the aquifer is noticeable even in areas of the country where there is no over-pumping." The second noticeable change is the change of behavior of weather systems. "We accept the same rain in a much shorter time," he said, leading to increased flooding. "Over the past 30 years rainfall in the Mediterranean have fallen by 20%. This reduction will continue over the next fifty years, when the water shortage problem would be huge for Greece, "he concluded.

The majority of the countries of the Mediterranean region are characterized by a strong seasonal distribution of precipitation, which may be one of the main reasons for the water scarcity problems that they are facing.

The likely effects of climate change on the water resources of the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region have been investigated using a high-resolution regional climate model (PRECIS) by comparing precipitation simulations of 20402069 and 20702099 with 19611990 (29). The projected change in internal water resources is assumed to be the same as the projected change in precipitation. Greece is expected to have an 18% precipitation decrease by midcentury, and 22% by the end of the century. With modest population decline expected, Greeces per capita water resources are expected to decline somewhat by midcentury but still remain high compared to the majority of surrounding countries. Thus, climate change is likely to necessitate modest changes to Greeces water resources management.

In Greece, the main problem is the lack of management practices and consumption, due to the lack of wise use.

River Nestos

Doirani Lake

North of Lemnos, in Gomati, on the slopes of the village Katalakko, the spectacle is absolutely unexpected: A smalldesert.

Water Scarcitydesertificationthe nightmare is hereAnte portasdrought

Vulnerabilities of Greece

Magnesia,Almyros Lake

Although Greece has one of the greatest water resources potentials per capita in the Mediterranean area, and should theoretically have ample water for its population and traditional water uses, water is not evenly distributed in space and time. The maximum precipitation is recorded in the western parts, where the available water resources are consequently plentiful, while in other regions of the country precipitation is much lower and available water resources are insufficient to meet the demand. Due to this inequality in water distribution, both in space and in time, some areas of Greece such as Attica and the Aegean Islands are facing long-term water shortage problems.

Given the water scarcity observed in parts of the country, conflicts are unavoidable:

In urban centers, where the main area for conflict is the transfer of water from other, richer in water resources regions, or the exploitation of water resources that would be used for irrigation. Cases of water deficient urban centers are the Metropolitan Athens area and Thessaloniki (or Thessalonica).

The Mornos dam was completed in 1979 to meet the water needs of Attica and after the construction of an artificial lake. The waters sank Christmas 1980 Kallio village first appeared in 1989 because of drought. Since then it has revealed three more times. A few days ago it came back to the surface to take a breath before ... sank again to its wet prison.A total of forty houses of the old settlement Kallio brought up because of drought and last year, lean in winter rains. Covered with seaweed and mussels, they look like they have come out of the fairy tale or a book pages with Celtic legends, fairies and sea monsters.

In agricultural areas, where conflict arises due to the excessive usage for irrigation purposes of water that could be used for domestic supply, tourist activities, and for maintaining the ecological characteristics of the surface and ground water of the area. The agricultural activities and practices in Greece have neither been modernized nor adapted to current requirements and standards. One consequence is the vast amounts of water used for irrigation (irrigation uses almost 85%, while domestic uses are 13% and industrial uses are 2%), that could be drastically reduced through the introduction of more efficient irrigation networks and better selection of crops to suit the climate.

The water levels of Lake Plastiras recede dramatically

Water resources in the Greek islands are very limited, and with few exceptions consist of groundwater contained in the local aquifers. The amount of water that can be abstracted is limited, as overabstraction of those aquifers leads to salinization of the water rendering it mostly unusable. The soils in the islands are extremely vulnerable to erosion, with resulting problems in the water resources (reservoir sedimentation, stream bed stability etc.).

annual rainfall and temperatures

in particularAtticaCyclades islands


Each one of these three regions suffers water deficits for a different reason, which makes them good candidates for reference:1. Attica, the area of Attica, that hosts over half of the countrys population in the Capital city and the surrounding areas, suffers water deficits because of the permanent population size, which is too big for the available local water resources to cover. Water for the supply of the capital city originates mostly in other Water Regions, as the underground aquifers of Attica not adequate since ancient times are overall polluted and eutrophic. The water deficit in this case is permanent and caused by increased domestic demand.

2. The Thessaly plains are intensively cultivated, requiring large amounts of irrigation water. Therefore large amounts of water are used for irrigation in Thessaly that could be drastically reduced by the introduction of more efficient irrigation networks and a more organized approach to the selection of crops. The water deficit in this case is seasonal, and caused by demand for irrigation.

The farmers use to irrigate the ground water, thus depleting stocks.In Thessaly the irrigation conducted by boreholes that reach 300 meters deep and destroy the aquifer, costing both the environment and their holders.


Water scarcity killed hundreds of fish

In areas dependent on tourism, and particularly in the Aegean islands, conflicts are very intense. During the summer months, water demand reaches its peak both for irrigation and domestic supply; in some islands the summer peak can reach up to thirty times the domestic needs of the permanent population. As the domestic supply takes priority over the use for irrigation, conflicts invariably arise between the municipal water suppliers and the local farmers.


The "nightmare" of water shortage on the Aegean islands

At least 10 islands depend another year by boat - water lorries to make the summer.

Despite record-rainfall recorded this year in our country, at least 10 Aegean islands depend for another year by boat - water lorries to make the summer. The stories are almost the same.Desalination purchased but do not work because they have made the necessary supporting projects, others having maintenance problems and remain inactive, reservoirs with failures. Somewhat so, water, although commodity remains again sought mainly for small islands inhabitants.

Estimated needs of the islands this year:

-Donousa 8,600 cubic

-Patmos 48,500 cubic

-Agathonisi 7,800 cubic

-Symi 4,500 cubic-Kastelorizo 22,600 cubic-Kimolos 33,700 cubic

-Irakleia 13,000 cubic

-Amorgos 30,000 cubic

-Syros 19,000 cubic

-Leipsoi 29,800 cubicEthnos news 16/05/2015

Dozens of drought stricken Greek islands in the Aegean are being forced to import greater amounts of water every year . Faced with a water shortage crisis on its hands, the Greek government is currently trying to tackle the problem by importing millions of cubic metres of water to the islands of Milos, Nisyros, Amorgos, Koufonisia, Shinoussa, Folegandros, Tinos, Sikinos, Thirasis, Donoussa, Patmos, Symi, Halki and Palionissos .According to local governors, the problem is not just that there is not enough rainfall to fill up the dams and rivers for irrigation but that the area also suffers from a 70% reduction in the replenishment of the aquifer, and this has had a catastrophic effect on agriculture.

Crete is in danger

Water shortage and in AchaiaThe sea has entered the aquiferCounty Achaia will be added to the list of areas threatened by water scarcity this year, as all wells used for irrigation have brackish water because of the entry of the sea in the underground aquifer.

Moreover, farmers are forced to carry water from the highlands and the pumping is at a depth of 300 meters.

Lake CarlaEspecially in our country, chronic is the aqueous "wounds" that remain open and must be urgently addressed: the Asopos, Acheloos, Aoos, Aliakmonas, Nestos, Evros, Pinios, Prespes, the Koronia, the Vistonida the Nestos delta and Axios, small wetlands, the salination of groundwater bodies, the lack of drinking water in the islands.

The main constraints and problem issues are the following:vStrong dependence on irrigation. Even with the best management techniques and strategies, agriculture will remain the major user of water in the country, due to the hot and dry climate.vPronounced seasonality of demand, which makes the provision of water services harder, as it is not always possible to ensure adequate supply.The demand that is due to tourism peaks in the summer when a major influx of tourists is observed.The demand for agriculture peaks in the dry hot season, the same time as the domestic demand peaks due to tourism.vUneven distribution of resources. Both precipitation and surface water resources are concentrated in the western and northern parts of the country which are self-sufficient, while the eastern and southern parts of the country face water shortages.vUneven distribution of population. Overall, the population is concentrated in the eastern coastal areas which tend to be under stress. Furthermore, the concentration of almost half the Greek population in Athens, in the poorest water region of the country, and the seasonal influx of visitors to the Greek islands, exacerbate the water shortage problems.vOverexploitation and salinization of aquifers, a common problem in the areas dependent on groundwater and particularly in coastal areas.vWater quality deterioration due to human activities.vFocus on short-term developmental policies rather on the actual water resource management.vLack of inter-ministerial coordination and overlaps in areas of authority. Instead of an organized, coordinated approach to water resources management, measures taken are only partial and generally ineffective.vAbsence of master plans or national guidelines for comprehensive planning and management in the past, despite recent efforts for responding to that problem.

The geothermal heat machines that produce electricity, but also any renewable source is in abundance in our country, could be a solution to water scarcity.

This pointed to speaking in SKAI, the professor of mechanical engineering at the TEI of Halkida Michalis Vrochopoulos.

Mr. Michalis Vrochopoulos added that desalination of water by using waste heat recovery from power plants is a method especially widespread in Iceland and Italy.Scientific methods for water scarcityNew scientific methods, can provide solutions to the problem of water scarcity

Solutions to water scarcityDesalination unit operating in Milos, and use of water by biological purification in Thessaloniki

The desalination plant with wind in Milos

Solution to water scarcity for 33,000 acres of arable EYATH

Dams against water scarcityWith the construction of small and large dams in Greece, water scarcity will be confronted and climate change, said in a statement the Technical Chamber of Greece. The Chamber notes that the construction of new dams will increase the power rate from hydroelectric projects and is proper management of water resources. Also, dams effectively contribute to the damping of floods as has happened in the river Acheloos.

In practice


Special Secretariat for Water of the Hellenic Ministry of the Environment, Energy and Climate Change and NAMA S.A.presentsDrought & Water Scarcity Management in E. Sterea ElladaActions


The PURE project is a proof program aimed at upgrading treated wastewater to an alternative water source to semi dried areas. Funded at 50% by the European Commission under the LIFE + Environment Policy and Governance, and 50% from the own resources of participating partners. The implementation of the program area is located in the Municipality of Hersonissos, in the northeastern part of the prefecture of Heraklion, Crete. In Life Pure involved four agencies specialized in different objects .The bodies should cooperate closely to achieve the program within the required timeframes. Meanwhile, experts freelancers will be invited to offer their knowledge and experience in their specialty.The partners of Pure Life are:1) Municipal Enterprise for Water and Sewage Peninsula(Project Manager)2) TEI Crete: School of Agricultural Technology3) Mediterranean SOS Network4) Cyprus University of Technology


The Gift of Rain. Educational material for ESD. MIO-ECSDE & GWP-MED, 2014 (3rd edition)

The educational material The gift of rain (produced in the Greek language) aims to raise awareness and educate students of late middle and secondary level (10-16 years old) towards the sustainable management of water. More specifically the material aims to cultivate in students the necessary skills to address the old, partly abandoned practices of rainwater collection, that have been traditionally applied in the Cyclades islands over the centuries, as well as the modern techniques that can be applied today in homes, hotels, etc. in order to collect, economise, or recycle water (through grey water reuse). Overall the material aims for students to acquire a positive attitude towards wise water use in their daily lives.

Not even a drop lost SOS Members The "Voluntary Commitment", which asked to sign, includes 12 practices that help save water.Farmers The "Voluntary Commitment" includes, practices such as avoiding water consuming crop plants, drip irrigation, avoid watering at midday, the reuse of water for irrigation.

Citizens "Voluntary Commitment" includes 12 tips for saving water in everyday life in order to change our habits so as not to waste water.MEDITERRANEAN SOS Agricultural University of AthensKATHIMERINI NEWSNational Technical University of Athens

WATERSAVE: The "Water conservation: a comprehensive educational program for schoolchildren." It is an initiative of the Network MEDITERRANEAN SOS :

Referenceshttp://medsos.gr/medsos/2008-08-12-07-11-15/2010-11-16-14-29-32/2010-11-16-14-32-56/620-2009-07-31-11-47-13.htmlhttp://www.tovima.gr/society/article/?aid=249980http://www.ethnos.gr/article.asp?catid=22768&subid=2&pubid=1370554http://environ.chemeng.ntua.gr/wsm/Newsletters/Issue2/CircumstancesInGreece.htmhttp://www.seven-solutions.eu/projects/drought-water-scarcity-management-plan-for-the-river-basin-district-of-eastern-sterea-ellada-gr07-greece/http://www.watersave.gr/files/PDF/10ekp.pdfhttp://ydrokritis.blogspot.gr/2014/08/blog-post.htmWWF , www.wwf.gr www.greenpeace.org/greecewww.eydap.gr www.ecocrete.grwww.oneearth.gr www.plefsis.gr/nero.htm, www.un.org

BIBLIOGRAPHYKoutsoyiannis, D., Zarkadoulas, N., Angelakis, A. N. and Tchobanoglous, G., (2008) Urban water management in Ancient Greece: Legacies and lessons,Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management-ASCE,134:1,pp.4554,Karamos, A., Aggelides, S. and Londra, P. (2004)Non-conventional water use in Greece, Cairo, Egypt: Centre International de Hautes tudes Agronomiques MditrannenneMimikou, M. A. (2005) Water Resources in Greece: Present and Future,Global NEST Journal, 7:3, pp. 313-322Sofios, S., Arabatzis, G. and Baltas, E. (2007) Policy for management of water resources in Greece,The environmentalist,28(3),pp.185-194Kitsantonis, N. (2007) Greece struggles with water shortage. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/03/world/europe/03iht-dry.4.6976449.htmlOur presentation is also hosted at :Emaze:http://www.emaze.com/@AICQZTOZ/waterscarcity-1Joomag: http://www.joomag.com/en/newsstand/water-scarcity-in-greece-water-scarcity-in-greece/0082226001445282729

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