Water scarcity 2010

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Transcript of Water scarcity 2010


November 2015Spain

Water scarcityis the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands ofwater usagewithin a region.Water scarcity involveswater stress,water shortageor deficits, andwater crisisWater scarcity OCCURS WHEN the amount of water withdrawn from lakes, rivers or groundwater is so great that water supplies are no longer adequate to satisfy all human or ecosystem requirements, bringing about increased competition among potential demands.Water scarcity has been defined as a situation where water availability in a country or in a region is BELOW 1000 m3 /person /year. However, many regions in the world experience much more severe scarcity, living with LESS THAN 500 m3 per person per year.

Water scarcity: The next world war will be about water


Pinios riverWater scarcity is among the main problems to be faced by many societies of the 21st century. Water use has increased surpassing AT TWICE the population growth rate in the last century.

Water scarcity can be a result of two mechanisms:physical (absolute) water scarcityandeconomic water scarcity, where physical water scarcity is a result of inadequate natural water resources to supply a region's demand, and economic water scarcity is a result of poor management of the sufficient available water resources.

The water level drops graduallyLake Kerkini Serres,Macedonia

But what are the water resources of Greece?

Huge water scarcity problem the next fifty yearsgazette

Intense and prolonged water shortages will face over the next 50 years, Greece with tragic social and economic consequences. Scientists are sounding the alarm bells about climate change and point out that our country must be consistent with its obligations to the international community for limiting pollution it produces. The first problems, moreover, are already being felt throughout the Mediterranean.The president of the National Observatory of Athens and professor of the University of Athens. Christos Zerefos, the Associate Professor at NTUA, John Ziomas and Rep. Ibrahim, responsible for the campaign of the environmental organization Greenpeace on Climate Change, spoke yesterday at the Environment Committee House. "The most important consequence is the disruption of water balance, evolution observed in Greece with dramatic way," he explained. "The descent of the aquifer is noticeable even in areas of the country where there is no over-pumping." The second noticeable change is the change of behavior of weather systems. "We accept the same rain in a much shorter time," he said, leading to increased flooding. "Over the past 30 years rainfall in the Mediterranean have fallen by 20%. This reduction will continue over the next fifty years, when the water shortage problem would be huge for Greece, "he concluded.

The majority of the countries of the Mediterranean region are characterized by a strong seasonal distribution of precipitation, which may be one of the main reasons for the water scarcity problems that they are facing.

The likely effects of climate change on the water resources of the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region have been investigated using a high-resolution regional climate model (PRECIS) by comparing precipitation simulations of 20402069 and 20702099 with 19611990 (29). The projected change in internal water resources is assumed to be the same as the projected change in precipitation. Greece is expected to have an 18% precipitation decrease by midcentury, and 22% by the end of the century. With modest population decline expected, Greeces per capita water resources are expected to decline somewhat by midcentury but still remain high compared to the majority of surrounding countries. Thus, climate change is likely to necessitate modest changes to Greeces water resources management.

In Greece, the main problem is the lack of management practices and consumption, due to the lack of wise use.

River Nestos

Doirani Lake

North of Lemnos, in Gomati, on the slopes of the village Katalakko, the spectacle is absolutely unexpected: A smalldesert.

Water Scarcitydesertificationthe nightmare is hereAnte portasdrought

Vulnerabilities of Greece

Magnesia,Almyros Lake

Although Greece has one of the greatest water resources potentials per capita in the Mediterranean area, and should theoretically have ample water for its population and traditional water uses, water is not evenly distributed in space and time. The maximum precipitation is recorded in the western parts, where the available water resources are consequently plentiful, while in other regions of the country precipitation is much lower and available water resources are insufficient to meet the demand. Due to this inequality in water distribution, both in space and in time, some areas of Greece such as Attica and the Aegean Islands are facing long-term water shortage problems.

Given the water scarcity observed in parts of the country, conflicts are unavoidable:

In urban centers, where the main area for conflict is the transfer of water from other, richer in water resources regions, or the exploitation of water resources that would be used for irrigation. Cases of water deficient urban centers are the Metropolitan Athens area and Thessaloniki (or Thessalonica).

The Mornos dam was completed in 1979 to meet the water needs of Attica and after the construction of an artificial lake. The waters sank Christmas 1980 Kallio village first appeared in 1989 because of drought. Since then it has revealed three more times. A few days ago it came back to the surface to take a breath before ... sank again to its wet prison.A total of forty houses of the old settlement Kallio brought up because of drought and last year, lean in winter rains. Covered with seaweed and mussels, they look like they have come out of the fairy tale or a book pages with Celtic legends, fairies and sea monsters.

In agricultural areas, where conflict arises due to the excessive usage for irrigation purposes of water that could be used for domestic supply, tourist activities, and for maintaining the ecological characteristics of the surface and ground water of the area. The agricultural activities and practices in Greece have neither been modernized nor adapted to current requirements and standards. One consequence is the vast amounts of water used for irrigation (irrigation uses almost 85%, while domestic uses are 13% and industrial uses are 2%), that could be drastically reduced through the introduction of more efficient irrigation networks and better selection of crops to suit the climate.

The water levels of Lake Plastiras recede dramatically

Water resources in the Greek islands are very limited, and with few exceptions consist of groundwater contained in the local aquifers. The amount of water that can be abstracted is limited, as overabstraction of those aquifers leads to salinization of the water rendering it mostly unusable. The soils in the islands are extremely vulnerable to erosion, with resulting problems in the water resources (reservoir sedimentation, stream bed stability etc.).

annual rainfall and temperatures

in particularAtticaCyclades islands


Each one of these three regions suffers water deficits for a different reason, which makes them good candidates for reference:1. Attica, the area of Attica, that hosts over half of the countrys population in the Capital city and the surrounding areas, suffers water deficits because of the permanent population size, which is too big for the available local water resources to cover. Water for the supply of the capital city originates mostly in other Water Regions, as the underground aquifers of Attica not adequate since ancient times are overall polluted and eutrophic. The water deficit in this case is permanent and caused by increased domestic demand.

2. The Thessaly plains are intensively cultivated, requiring large amounts of irrigation water. Therefore large amounts of water are used for irrigation in Thessaly that could be drastically reduced by the introduction of more efficient irrigation networks and a more organized approach to the selection of crops. The water deficit in this case is seasonal, and caused by demand for irrigation.

The farmers use to irrigate the ground water, thus depleting stocks.In Thessaly the irrigation conducted by boreholes that reach 300 meters deep and destroy the aquifer, costing both the environment and their holders.


Water scarcity killed hundreds of fish

In areas dependent on tourism, and particularly in the Aegean islands, conflicts are very intense. During the summer months, water demand reaches its peak both for irrigation and domestic supply; in some islands the summer peak can reach up to thirty times the domestic needs of the permanent population. As the domestic supply takes priority over the use for irrigation, conflicts invariably arise between the municipal water suppliers and the local farmers.


The "nightmare" of water shortage on the Aegean islands

At least 10 islands depend another year by boat - water lorries to make the summer.

Despite record-rainfall recorded this year in our country, at least 10 Aegean islands depend for another year by boat - water lorries to make the summer. The stories are almost the same.Desalination purchased but do not work because they have made the necessary supporting projects, others having maintenance problems and remain inactive, reservoirs with failures. Somewhat so, water, although commodity remains again sought mainly for small islands inhabitants.

Estimated needs of th