The Physical Layer

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The Physical Layer. The Theoretical Basis for Data Communication. Fourier analysis Niquist chriterium for bandwidth-limited channel Shannon maximum data rate of a noisy channel. Fourier Transform. Periodic signals with period T =2 π / w Non-periodic signals. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of The Physical Layer

  • The Physical Layer

  • The Theoretical Basis for Data CommunicationFourier analysisNiquist chriterium for bandwidth-limited channelShannon maximum data rate of a noisy channel

  • Fourier Transform Periodic signals with period T=2/w

    Non-periodic signals

  • Bandwidth-Limited SignalsA binary signal and its root-mean-square Fourier amplitudes.(b) (c) Successive approximations to the original signal.

  • Bandwidth-Limited Signals (d) (e) Successive approximations to the original signal.

  • Bandwidth-Limited Signals Relation between data rate and harmonics.

  • Band-Limited Channel Fourier transform of a typical signal

    1/Ts2/Ts-1/Tsw

  • Niquist Theorem If the signal bandwidth has width of W, then it can be reconstructed by taking 2W samples per second. Maximum data rate is

    where V is the number of different symbols

  • Niquist Chriterium

  • Power Spectrum Density Autocorrelation function of signal or noise

    Power spectrum density

  • Shannon Theorem If the signal bandwidth has width of W, and S/N is the signal-to-noise ratio, then the maximum data rate is

  • Filtering Channel behaves as a filter

    When the noise is white (uncorrelated) Gaussian optimum filter has transfer function H(w)=X*(w).

  • Modulation schemes(a) QPSK.(b) QAM-16.(c) QAM-64.

  • Guided Transmission

    Twisted PairCoaxial CableFiber Optics

  • Twisted Pair(a) Category 3 UTP 16 MHz.(b) Category 5 UTP 100MHz.

  • Issues of Twisted-Pair TransmissionAttenuationDistortionCross-talkImpulse noise

  • Coaxial CableA coaxial cable 1GHz.

  • Fiber Optics(a) Three examples of a light ray from inside a silica fiber impinging on the air/silica boundary at different angles.(b) Light trapped by total internal reflection.

  • Light PropagationFrom Maxwell equations:

    From boundary conditions:

  • Light Propagation

  • Transmission of Light through FiberAttenuation of light through fiber in the infrared region.Bands 25-30THz, and last two bands have attenuation less than 5%/km

  • Fiber Cables(a) Side view of a single fiber.(b) End view of a sheath with three fibers, diameter 8-10m.

  • Transmission DevicesLight emitting diode (LED)Semiconductor lasersMach-Zehnder external modulatorEDFAPhotodiode

  • Optical Transmitters A comparison of semiconductor diodes and LEDs as light sources.

  • Fiber Optic NetworksA fiber optic ring with active repeaters.

  • Fiber Optic Networks A passive star connection in a fiber optics network.

  • Wireless TransmissionThe Electromagnetic SpectrumRadio TransmissionMicrowave TransmissionInfrared and Millimeter WavesLightwave Transmission

  • Wireless Transmission Relationship between wavelength and frequency:

    100MHz waves are about 3m long, 1000MHz waves are 0.3m long. An object distracts those waves, whose length is smaller or equal to the object dimension.

  • The Electromagnetic SpectrumThe electromagnetic spectrum and its uses for communication.

  • Radio Transmission(a) In the VLF, LF, and MF bands, radio waves follow the curvature of the earth.(b) In the HF band, they bounce off the ionosphere.

  • Issues in Wireless Transmission Radio signals are omnidirectional, and penetrate through objects. Throughput is low. HF radio and microwave signals are directed. Suffer from multipath fading, and are reflected against the buildings. Above 4GHz, signals are absorbed by the rain.

  • Politics of the Electromagnetic SpectrumThe ISM bands in the United States. Goverments allocate frequencies, through contests, lottery, auctions. In ISM only the power is specified, used for household devices. Infrared is available.

  • Lightwave TransmissionConvection currents can interfere with laser communication systems. A bidirectional system with two lasers is pictured here. Fog and rain are disruptive too.

  • Communication SatellitesGeostationary SatellitesSeveral kWs. 40 transponders with 80MHz. TDMA.Medium-Earth Orbit Satellites24 GPS satellites.Low-Earth Orbit SatellitesIridium project started by Motorola

  • Communication SatellitesCommunication satellites and some of their properties, including altitude above the earth, round-trip delay time and number of satellites needed for global coverage.

  • Communication Satellites The principal satellite bands.

  • Geostationary Satellites Very Small Aperature Terminals (VSATs) using a hub.

  • Low-Earth Orbit SatellitesIridium(a) The Iridium satellites from six necklaces around the earth.(b) 66 satellites, 1628 moving cells cover the earth, 253000 channels.

  • Iridium and Globalstar(a) Relaying in space (Iridium).(b) Relaying on the ground (Globstar).

  • Public Switched Telephone SystemStructure of the Telephone SystemThe Politics of TelephonesThe Local Loop: Modems, ADSL and WirelessTrunks and MultiplexingSwitching

  • Structure of the Telephone System(a) Fully-interconnected network.(b) Centralized switch.(c) Two-level hierarchy.

  • Structure of the Telephone SystemA typical circuit route for a medium-distance call.10kmCoax, micorwave, fiber

  • Major Components of the Telephone SystemLocal loopsTwisted pairs going to houses and businessesTrunksFiber optics connecting the switching officesSwitching officesWhere calls are moved from one trunk to another

  • The Politics of TelephonesThe relationship of LATAs, LECs, and IXCs. All the circles are LEC switching offices. Each hexagon belongs to the IXC whose number is on it.164LATAs

  • The Local Loop: Modems, ADSL, and WirelessThe use of both analog and digital transmissions for a computer to computer call. Conversion is done by the modems and codecs.

  • Modems (a) A binary signal (b) Amplitude modulation(c) Frequency modulation(d) Phase modulation

  • Modems (a) V.32 for 9600 bps.(b) V32 bis for 14,400 bps.(a)(b)

  • Higher Bit-rate Modems35kbps is the Shannon limitLine from a local office to an ISP is digitalized.V90 35kbps upstream, 56kbps downstreamV92 48kbps upstream, 56kbps downstream

  • Digital Subscriber LinesBandwidth versus distanced over category 3 UTP for DSL.

  • Digital Subscriber Lines Operation of ADSL using discrete multitone modulation.Up to 8Mbps downstream, and up to 1Mbps upstream

  • Digital Subscriber Lines A typical ADSL equipment configuration.

  • Wireless Local LoopsArchitecture of an LMDS system.50km198MHz at2.5GHz;2km1.3GHz at 28GHz

  • Frequency Division Multiplexing(a) The original bandwidths.(b) The bandwidths raised in frequency.(b) The multiplexed channel.

  • Wavelength Division MultiplexingWavelength division multiplexing.

  • Time Division MultiplexingThe T1 carrier (1.544 Mbps).

  • Time Division Multiplexing Multiplexing T1 streams into higher carriers.

  • Time Division Multiplexing Two back-to-back SONET frames.

  • Time Division Multiplexing SONET and SDH multiplex rates.

  • Circuit Switching(a) Circuit switching.(b) Packet switching.

  • Message and Packet Switching(a) Circuit switching (b) Message switching (c) Packet switching

  • Switching ComparisonA comparison of circuit switched and packet-switched networks.??

  • The Mobile Telephone SystemFirst-generation mobile phones: Improved mobile telephone system (IMTS) 23 channels, 150-450MHzSecond-generation mobile phones: Advanced mobile telephone system (AMTS)Cellular systemThird-generation mobile phones: 3GVoice and data

  • Advanced Mobile Phone System(a) Frequencies are not reused in adjacent cells.(b) To add more users, smaller cells can be used.10km

  • Channel Categories The 832 30kHz channels in bands 824- 849MHz and 869-894Mhz (45 per cell), are divided into four categories:Control (base to mobile) to manage the systemPaging (base to mobile) to alert users to calls for themAccess (bidirectional) for call setup and channel assignmentData (bidirectional) for voice, fax, or data

  • D-AMPS Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System(a) A D-AMPS channel with three users.(b) A D-AMPS channel with six users.Bands 1850-1910, and 1930-1990MHz

  • GSMGlobal System for Mobile CommunicationsGSM uses 124 200kHz frequency channels, each of which uses an eight-slot TDM system

  • GSM A portion of the GSM framing structure.

  • CDMA Code Division Multiple AccessIS-95r(t)

  • Walsh-Hadamard Sequences

  • M Sequences and Gold Code Autocorrelation function of m-sequence

    Gold sequence is a sum of two m-sequences such that it has cross-correlation values {-1,-2(m+2-mod(m,2))+1,2(m+2-mod(m,2))-1)

  • CDMA Code Division Multiple AccessIS-95(a) Binary chip sequences for four stations(b) Bipolar chip sequences (c) Six examples of transmissions(d) Recovery of station Cs signal

  • Multiuser DetectionMaximize MetricsC(rk,bk)

  • Decorrelating Detector Information is detected according to the formula:

  • Decorrelating Detector, K=2 Information is detected according to the formula:

  • Third-Generation Mobile Phones:Digital Voice and DataBasic services an IMT-2000 network should provide

    High-quality voice transmissionMessaging (replace e-mail, fax, SMS, chat, etc.)Multimedia (music, videos, films, TV, etc.)Internet access (web surfing, w/multimedia.)

  • 3G

    W-CDMA or universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS) compatible with GSM, uses 5MHz.CDMA2000 extension of IS-95 uses 5MhzEnhanced data rates for GSM evolution (EDGE) uses more bits per baudGeneral radio packet servise (GPRS) is overlay packet network over D-AMPS or GSM

  • Cable TelevisionCommunity Antenna TelevisionInternet over CableSpectrum AllocationCable ModemsADSL versus Cable

  • Community Antenna TelevisionAn early cable television system.

  • Internet over CableCable television

  • Internet over Cable The fixed telephone system.

  • Spectrum AllocationFrequency allocation in a typical cable TV system used for Internet access

  • Cable ModemsTypical details of the upstream and downstream channels in North America.

  • Community Antenna Television (CATV)antennaHEADENDo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oHOMERF Spectrum: 55 MHz 350 MHzAM-VSB signalsLong chains of RF amplifiers: limited bandwidth, poor reliability. Sheryl Woodward, AT&T Labs-Research

  • Linear Lightwave Revolution 55 (E 85)MHz 350 MHz 550 (E 606)MHzRF Spectrum: 80 AM-VSB channelsHybrid-Fiber-Coax Architecture: Improved reliability and performance, BUT to transmit 80 channels of AM-VSB, an optical link must operate near fundamental limits.Sheryl Woodward, AT&T Labs-Research

  • challenge: HFC plant is HYBRID Coax -limited bandwidth, -good SNR. Fiber -huge bandwidth, -difficult to maintain high SNR.M-QAM standard digital transmission format. On-Off Keying is the preferred transmission format.On/Off keying: >40 Gbps / >1Tbps on a single fiber.256-QAM: 5 Gbps / requires RIN
  • Compressed Digital VideoMPEG-3 compresses a video channel to
  • QAM capacity limitationsC.F. Lam, "A Simplified Model for Estimating the Capacity Limit of an Optical Link in Transporting Multi-channel M-QAM Singals," to appear in IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Nov. 2000From top to bottom RIN = -140dB/Hz -135dB/Hz -130dB/Hz64-QAM256-QAM5MHz per channel616123RIN= -135dB/Hz

    18.5 Gbps

    4.9 GbpsSheryl Woodward, AT&T Labs-Research

    Chart1

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    10.15518810.01122110.077961123128

    10.24743610.08877210.1431653333

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    RIN = -140dB

    RIN = -135dB

    RIN = -130dB

    System Points

    Way's Data

    SNR (dB)

    Max. Number of Channels

    NvsSNRd

    SNRRIN=-140dB/HzRIN=-135dB/HzRIN=-130dB/Hz

    65.0557320.242083110.0765534010.024208311

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