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THE NEW CAMBRIDGE MODERN HISTORY VOLUME X THE ZENITH OF EUROPEAN POWER 1830-70 EDITED BY J. P. T. BURY CAMBRIDGE AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 1967
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  • THE NEWCAMBRIDGE MODERN

    HISTORY

    VOLUME X

    THE ZENITH OF EUROPEAN POWER1830-70

    EDITED BY

    J. P. T. BURY

    CAMBRIDGEAT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS

    1967

  • CONTENTS

    CHAPTER I

    INTRODUCTORY SUMMARY page

    By J. P. T. BURY

    Fellow of Corpus Christi College and Lecturer in History in the University of Cambridge

    CHAPTER II

    ECONOMIC CHANGE AND GROWTHBy H E R B E R T H E A T O N , Emeritus Professor of History in the University of Minnesota

    The period, one of improved methods and new institutions 22

    Extension of agriculture 22-3

    Enclosure, drainage and fertilisers 24

    Improvement of farm equipment and its dependence on capital . . . . 25

    Operation of the Corn Laws 26

    Agricultural prosperity between 1850 and 1873 27

    Growth of textile industries. 28

    Machine production and increase in output of iron, steel and coal . . . 29-31

    Transport of goods and materials by road and water 31-2

    The coming of the railways 32-4

    The golden age of the American sailing ship. Transport by s t e a m s h i p . . . 35

    Crossing the Atlantic 36

    Improved communications and international trade 36-7

    Tariffs and free trade 37-8

    Raising of capital necessitated by trade expansion 39

    Banks and banking 40-2

    Extension of factory system 42-3

    Migratory movements of labour 43

    Living and working conditions. Limitation of child labour 44-5

    Repeal of Combination Laws. Growth of Trade Union movement . . . 45-6

    Some tentative conclusions. 1825-50 a period of extraordinary development 46-7

    Improvement of working conditions, 1850-70 48

    CHAPTER III

    THE SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT AND ITS INFLUENCEON THOUGHT AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT

    By A. R. H A L L , lately Fellow of Christ's College and Lecturer in the History of Science in

    the University of Cambridge

    1830-70 falls between the formative and modern periods of science . . . 49

    The state as patron. Contributions of Western Europe and the U.S.A. . . 50-1

    Little co-operation between science and production 51

    Influence of scientific attitude on hygiene, farming and chemical industries and on

    philosophy. The Utilitarian, Positivist and Marxist philosophies . . . 52-5

    Interdependence of different branches of science illustrated in exploitation of

    mathematical analysis 56

    Clerk Maxwell and Faraday's theory 57

    V

  • C O N T E N T S

    The perfecting of spectrum analysis page 58

    Thermo-dynamicsAtomic theory and table of atomic weights

    The theory of valency 62The periodic law. Mendelef and Meyer 6 3Laboratory synthesis and commercial exploitation 64~5

    Pasteur and microbiology 65~6Opposing schools in experimental physiology 66-7Geologists and the age of the earth 68Theory of evolution and its opponents 69-71Medical and surgical practice 72Lister's antiseptic system of surgery. Function of the inventor . . . . 73-4The work of Comte and Spencer. Attitude of the Churches . . 74-5

    CHAPTER IV

    RELIGION AND THE RELATIONS OF CHURCHES ANDSTATES

    By N O R M A N S Y K E S , Honorary Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge,and Dean of Winchester

    Ecclesiastical react ion following defeat of Napoleon . Papacy returns t o R o m e . 76T h e Liberal-Cathol ic m o v e m e n t in F r a n c e . . . . . . . . 77-80Lamenna is ' s appea l t o t he P o p e . T h e bu l l Mirari vos 78Ul t r amon tan i sm a n d un i form use of R o m a n l i turgy in F r a n c e . . . . 79T h e educa t iona l s t ruggle; the Loi Falloux. T h e Swiss ' R e g e n e r a t i o n ' m o v e m e n t . 80T h e r e l i g i o u s p r o b l e m i n S w i t z e r l a n d . D e f e a t o f t h e Sonderbund. . . . 8 1The Oxford Movement . 81-3Disputes in the Church of Scotland. Founding of Free Church of Scotland . 83-4Re-establishment of Roman Catholic hierarchy in England 84-5Controversy between Anglicans and Nonconformists concerning state education. 85-6Ancient universities opened to non-Anglicans. The religious census of 1851 . 87Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. Relations between church and state in

    Italy 88Rise of Louis Napoleon. The Syllabus of Errors 89-93The General Council 93-9France's attitude to General Council 97Council prorogued sine die. War between France and Prussia . . . . 98The definition of papal infallibility 98-9Political aftermath of General Council unfavourable 99-100The Irish Church and its disestablishment 1oo-1Development of social conscience 101Literary and historical criticism of the Bible 102-3

    CHAPTER V

    EDUCATION AND THE PRESSBy JOHN ROACH, Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge

    T h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n 1 0 4T h e r o l e o f t h e s t a t e i n e d u c a t i o n " 1 0 5 - 6T h e s p r e a d o f l i b e r a l i s m a n d n a t i o n a l i s m . . . . . . " 1 0 6C l e r i c a l a n d s e c u l a r v i e w s o f e d u c a t i o n . . . . ! ! ! ! 106-7

    vi

  • C O N T E N T S

    The Liberals and freedom of education page 107Swiss, German, English and French theorists 108-9Primary education 109-11The secondary school and modern studies 111-12Education and liberal culture 112The 'public school' system. Growing importance of technical and professional

    training 113The universities 114-15Secondary and higher education in Italy 115The English universities. Educational history of the U.S.A 116-17Education in self-governing colonies and India 117-18The 'British Indian' system 118The education of women 118-19Adult education 119-20Mechanics' Institutes, libraries and museums 120England's lead in the development of the press 121Abolition of the stamp duty. Unique position of The Times . . . . 122Increase in number of newspapers. The French press 123-5The German and Austrian press 125-7Connection between press and political parties 127Censorship. The Russian press 128-9The American press 129-30Some comparisons. New techniques 131-2Growth of news agencies 132-3

    CHAPTER VI

    ART AND ARCHITECTUREBy NIKOLAUS PEVSNER, Professor of the History of Art, Birkbeck College,

    University of London

    Emancipation from patronage. Artistic lead of England c. 1760-c. 1800 . . 134-5The problem of individualism 135English Victorian architecture 136-7The Gothic revival and other imitative styles 137-8The architect a purveyor of faades. Similar developments abroad . . . 139The Neo-Gothic style in Germany, Italy and France 140Neo-classical style in the U.S.A. Revival of native Renaissance styles. . . 141-2Inflated size of public buildings 142A period of design in two, rather than three, dimensions. Consequent poverty of

    sculpture 143French painting of the period 144-50The work of Delacroix H5-6Realism in painting the hall-mark of the period 147Millet and Courbet 148-9Industrial revolution exerts little influence on painting 150The Pre-Raphaelites 151-3Impressionism. The late Victorians I54~5

    C M H X

  • CONTENTS

    CHAPTER VII

    IMAGINATIVE LITERATUREBy E R I C H HELLER, Professor of German, University College of Swansea,

    University of Wales

    The novel dominates the field of literature page S

    The desire to attain a belief; increasing preoccupation with * psychology . . 157

    Literature as an instrument of exploration l5&

    Nineteenth-century realism I59~6o

    Consciousness of the social problems of the age l 6

    The 'Bildungsroman' l 6 l ~ 2

    Decline of the traditional heroic hero l 6 3

    The unruly genius of Victor Hugo 164-5

    The 'historic' novel. Realism as a mode of presentation 165

    The connection between literature and society . . . . . . . 166-7

    The world of the Russian novelist 168

    Comparison between Tolstoy and Dostoevsky 169

    Flaubert's realism *7

    Realism of the prose and romanticism of the poetry of the period . . . 171

    The poetry of the period 172

    French 173-4

    German 174-6

    English 176-8

    Baudelaire and Edgar Allan Poe 179-80

    Nekrasov and Walt Whitman 180-1

    Dramatic writing below level of that reached by the novel and poetry. . . 181

    German, Austrian and Russian drama. . . . . . . . 182-4

    CHAPTER VIII

    LIBERALISM AND CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTSBy J. . AWGOOD, Professor of Modern History and Government,

    University of Birmingham

    Changes in forms of government 185-6

    No continuous advance towards liberal and democratic institutions . . . 186-7The Marxist challenge to liberalism 188

    The first democratic institutions. Fundamental reforms in France, Belgium,Great Britain and Germany 189

    Constitutional evolution of German states. The revised French charter of 1830 190The Belgian constitution of 1831. . ! ^ i

    British parliamentary reform and its influence . . . . ! ! . 192-3The U.S.A. and Belgium provide models for constitution-makers . . . 194

    American influence on German National Assembly . . . . ! ! 195The Swiss constitution of 1848. Federal reform and failure in Habsburg Empire *. 196-7The Kremsier draft constitution 197-8

    The Italian constitutional dilemma of 1848-9 . . . , ! 198-200

    The Piedmontese Statuto of 1848 and its importance as a national symbol . . 200-1

    The Years of Revolution and Reaction 202The 1850's a period of marking-time and consolidation . . \ [ " 203-4Emancipation of serfs - . j

    204

    viii

  • C O N T E N T S

    Liberalism menaced from both Left and Right page 205-6Improvements in administrative organisation 206Tightening up the machinery of the centralised state 207Lack of any tradition of self-government in Germany and Austria . . . 208Vicissitudes of the federal idea 208Its failure in Italy and Austria 209-10Its revival in Germany and Mexico, and triumph in Canada . . . . 210-111867 an annus mirabilis 211-12

    CHAPTER IX

    N A T I O N A L I T I E S A N D N A T I O N A L I S M

    By J. P. T. BURY

    Definition of nationality 213Prospects of nationality in 1832 214-15The role of France and of Paris and other West European cities before 1848 . 215-16Irish nationalism 217-18Nationalism in France 218The Schleswig-Holstein problem 219-20The Pan-Scandinavian movement 220Separation of Belgium from Holland 221The Flemish movement 221-2The Swiss national movement 222-4Mazzini and Italian nationalism 224-6German nationalism 226-8The Polish question reveals the divorce between liberalism and nationalism . 228-9Nationalism in Eastern Europe 229Russia's traditional nationalism 230-1Finland, Latvia and Estonia 231Slavophiles and Pan-Slavs 232-4Failure of the Slav Congress in Prague 233The great Polish emigration of 1831 234Prussian, Austrian and Russian Poland 235The Polish rising of 1863. The Lithuanians 236The Polish poets. Austria the antagonist of national self-determination . . 237Golden age of literature and scholarship in the Austrian Empire. . . . 238The conflict of nationalities in Hungary 239-40The Ottoman empire 240Emergence of the Balkan states 241-3The Jews 243-4Progress of nationalism 245

    CHAPTER X

    THE SYSTEM OF ALLIANCES AND THEBALANCE OF POWER

    By G O R D O N CRAIG, Professor of History, Princeton University

    The diplomatic division of Europe 246Flexibility of the alliance system illustrated by the Belgian crisis of 1830 . . 247Palmerston secures acceptance of Belgian independence by the powers . 248

    ix 6-3

  • CONTENTS

    Ambiguities of French policy . . . - \ * r *,Reasons for the Eastern powers ' acquiescence in the peaceful solution of the

    Belgian problem ; *Widening of the gulf between the Eastern and Western powers . T h e N e a r Eas t . 251The Sultan appeals to Russia. Russo-Turkish Treaty of 1833 . . . . 252Affairs of Portugal and Spain. T h e Quadruple Alliance, the West ' s answer to

    Unkiar-Skelessi and Mnchengrtz 2 5 3Disruptive tendencies in the Anglo-French entente. Near Eastern crisis, 1839-40 . 254Defeat of Mahmud ' s forces. The four ambassadors meet in Vienna . . . 255Tsar sends Brunnov to London and drives a wedge between G r e a t Bri ta in a n d

    France 2 5 6

    Quadruple Agreement. Isolation of France and danger of war . . . . 257Russia attempts to formalise isolation of France . Metternich 's mediat ion between

    France and the other powers. Straits Convent ion, 1841 . . . . 258Breakdown of the Anglo-French entente. France seeks understanding with Austria 259Anglo-Russian relations more friendly 2 5 ^ 6 01848 Revolutions threaten balance of power 260Lamartine's 'Manifesto to the Powers ' 261Peace endangered by Prussia's anti-Russian policy and the revolt of Lombardy

    and Venetia 262-3Palmerston, Russia, and the Hungarian revolt 264Threat of Austro-Prussian war. Prussia capitulates at Olmtz. Schleswig-Holstein

    problem 265Last successful meeting of Concert of Europe. Implications of the balance of

    power 266Willingness of the powers to maintain peace. The Crimean turning point . . 267Effects of the Crimean War 268-9Great Britain's tendency to withdraw from continental affairs . . . . 269-70Alliances and diplomatic alignments cease to be defensive in purpose . . . 271Inability or unwillingness among statesmen to collaborate 272-3

    CHAPTER XI

    ARMED FORCES AND THE ART OF WAR: NAVIESBy MICHAEL LEWIS, lately Professor of History at the

    Royal Naval College, Greenwich

    Complete predominance of British navyExtensive and rapid changes in materiel ] " ] * " * * The new type of fighting force envisaged by Paixhans . . 276Early days of steamships

    Introduction of the screw-propeller . 2 7 I

    The steamship in the Crimean War. The problem of coaling * " ' IIISteam wins the battle with sail in the British navy " * " I

    Transition from wood to iron. French and British hesitations ' " ' ' *

    End of the wood-iron controversy. Roundshot or shell. The French againWhitworth and Armstrong revolutionise gunnery 2 8 2 O

    3

    Armour, the answer to the shell. The broadside becoming obsolete ' ' ' STemporary success of the'ram'. Efficacy of the turret . 285Mine, submarine and torpedo 2 8 6

    Commissioned officers', 'warrant officers' and men"in the Royal Navy [ \ ^

  • C O N T E N T S

    Seniority page 288-9Block in promotion. Unemployed officers. Patronage 289-90The navy as a full-time profession 290Introduction of the 'general commission'. The * active' and the 'retired' Ust.

    Conditions of entry 291Senior officers' selection of their own successors. Introduction of entry

    examinations 292Naval College training of cadets. The spread of commissions . . . . 293Jealousy between 'executive' and engineer officers 294Evils of impressment. Improvement in conditions of service . . . . 294-5Long-term service established, also fleet reserve. Genesis of the bluejacket. . 296The seaman's changed status 296-7The navies of the U.S.A. and France 297-8Graham's new Register. Formation of Royal Naval Reserve . . . . 299Direction and administration of the Royal Navy 300-1

    CHAPTER XII

    ARMED FORCES AND THE ART OF WAR: ARMIESBy B. H. L I D D E L L H A R T

    Computing the strength of armed forces by the number of men . . . . 302The flint-lock musket and the percussion system 303The development of the rifle. Breech-loading 303-5Development of artillery and machine guns 306The French mitrailleuse 307The military use of railways 308-9Need for rapid concentration and deployment of forces 309The electric telegraph 309-10The Prussian 'General Staff* 310-11Conscription 312-13The influence of Jomini and Clausewitz 313-19The French conquest of Algeria 320Radetzky's brilliant generalship in the Austro-Italian War of 1848-9 . . . 321-2Ill-management of the Crimean War 322-3The Italian War of 1859 323Bismarck observes the military weakness of France and Austria . . . . 324The strategy of the Seven Weeks War of 1866 324-5Strategic pattern of Franco-Prussian War 325-7The American Civil War 327-30

    CHAPTER XIII

    THE UNITED KINGDOM AND ITS WORLD-WIDEINTERESTS

    By D A V I D THOMSON, Master of Sidney Sussex College and Lecturer in History in theUniversity of Cambridge

    A rural and agricultural society becomes fundamentally urban and industrial . 331Increase and shifts in population 331-2The age of railway construction 332Trans-Atlantic shipping 332-3

    xi

  • CONTENTS

    Coal, iron and cotton p a g e ^Britain a world power. Modification of political system ^The two Houses of Parliament ^35Redistribution of constituencies 335Elections and the electorate. Reform Act of 1867 . . 33Local government reform. Increase in public servants and officials . . . 337

    The Civil Service 3 3 ~Alignments and organisation of political parties 33~9Cabinet solidarity and collective responsibility. The Queen's memorandum about

    Palmerston 3*Abolition of slavery 341Improvements in the conditions of factory workers 341-2Repeal of the Corn Laws 342-4

    The Bank Charter Act of 1844 344Working-class self-help and voluntary organisation 345The early trade unions * 346The 'Tolpuddle Martyrs' 34^-7The Chartist movement 347-8The Co-operative movement 348Britain's peaceful policy 349A new conception of Empire and Commonwealth 349Development in the colonies. Shift in balance of imperial interests . . . 350-1

    The quest for markets 351Self-government the goal of colonial administration 352Rebellions in Canada; the Durham Report 353~5Constitutional development of Australia, New Zealand and Cape Colony . . 355General character of British development epitomised by imperial defence system 356

    CHAPTER XIV

    RUSSIA IN EUROPE AND ASIABy J. . . VYVYAN, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge

    S u r v i v a l a n d r e c u r r e n c e i n R u s s i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d t h o u g h t 3 5 7T h e r e v o l t o f t h e D e c e m b r i s t s 3 5 8P o l i t i c a l p o l i c e a n d c e n s o r s h i p a s i n s t i t u t e d b y e d i c t s o f 1 8 2 6 . . . . 3 5 9 - 6 0T h e S t a t e C o u n c i l 3 6 0T h e K o c h u b e i C o m m i t t e e o f 1 8 2 6 3 6 0 - 1T h e t s a r ' s in terest in a g r a r i a n r e f o r m 3 6 1

    I n c r e a s e i n l o c a l p e a s a n t risings. T h e P o l i s h i n s u r r e c t i o n ( 1 8 3 0 ) . . . . 3 6 2U v a r o v , M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n 3 6 2 - 3C o d i f i c a t i o n o f R u s s i a n l a w s 3 6 3C h a n g e s i n e c o n o m i c p o l i c y 3 6 4 - 5

    R u s s i a ' s in teres t in t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f P r u s s i a a n d A u s t r i a a g a i n s t i n t e r n a t i o n a lr e v o l u t i o n - ^

    T h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y spir i t p a s s e s f r o m a r m y a n d s a l o n t o s c h o l a r a n d p u b l i c i s t ! 3 6 6W e s t e r n e r s a n d S l a v o p h i l e s 3 6 6 _ $

    P o l i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y u n d e r t h e g u i s e o f l i terary c r i t i c i s m ! ! ! . " ! 3 6 8T h e a r m y t h e c h i e f field f o r i n d i v i d u a l a d v a n c e m e n t . . . 3 6 9T h e n e w e m p e r o r A l e x a n d e r . . . . . ! 3 6 9 - 7 0E m a n c i p a t i o n o f t h e serfs . . . , ! ] * 3 7 _ 2H o m e - b a s e d c o n s p i r a c y a n d a g i t a t i o n - . . ! ! ! [ " ] 3 7 3 - 4

    xii

  • C O N T E N T S

    Nihilism and populism page 374-5The Polish revolt of 1863. Superficial liberalisation of Finland . . . . 376The local government reform decree (1864) 377The new judicial system of 1864 377-8'Peoples' primary schools 378Attempted assassination of tsar (1866) 378-9Introduction of universal military service 379Reform of the Bank of Russia 379-80Economic conditions following the Crimean War 380-1Economic failure of the agrarian revolution 381-2The administration of Siberia 383-4Alaska ceded to U.S.A 384New forward policy at the expense of China . . . . . . . 384-5Pacification of Transcaucasia 385-6Expeditions against the Khanates of Khiva, Bokhara and Khokand . . . 386-8

    CHAPTER XV

    THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1848By CHARLES POUTHAS, Emeritus Professor in the University of Paris

    Conditions that precede revolution 389The instigatorsintellectuals; their inspirationFrance 390Differing concepts of nationality 391Significance of the social problem 391-2Paris Revolution of 24 February 392-4

    Its effect on Europe 394-5Vienna the source of revolution in Central Europe 395Liberation of Lombardy and Venetia 396The rising in Berlin and its consequences 397Some results of the revolutions 397-8The ebb-tide of revolution in France 399-400The effect on Europe 400-3Election of Louis Napoleon 404The Prussian Constituent Assembly dissolved 405The Frankfurt Parliament 405-7Frederick William of Prussia refuses the German crown 407End of the political revolution in Italy, Hungary and Austria . . . . 408Revolution comes to a standstill in France and Germany 408-9Reform of the Germanic Confederation. Humiliation of Prussia . . . 410Louis Napoleon's coup d`tat (1851) 411Results of the revolution 4-15

    CHAPTER XVI

    THE MEDITERRANEANBy C. W. CRAWLEY, Fellow of Trinity Hall and Lecturer in History ht the university of

    Cambridge

    Influence of steamship and railway 416Extent of the Mediterranean 416-17Climatic conditions 417The arrival of the 'tourist' 418

    xiii

  • CONTENTS

    Relative activity of Mediterranean ports page 418-19Population of Mediterranean ports 4 2

    tThe European ports I22-1The Levantine ports IThe ports of North Africa 4 2 4

    Rivalries: traditional, trading, dynastic and national 425Greece becomes independent kingdom 4^Egypt a disturbing force under Mehemet Ali 4^6-7Mehemet Ali and the French capture of Algiers 4*7Mehemet Ali's invasion of Syria and Asia Minor 4^8The Sultan defeated at Nezib. Settlement imposed by Convention of London

    (1840) 4 2 9French influence in the Levant. Anglo-Russian rivalry a new factor in Mediter-

    ranean politics 430-1

    Britain a predominant influence in Mediterranean politics 431Operation of regular steamship lines 43 l~zDemonstrations of British naval power 433The Suez Canal project 433-40Chevalier's concept of inter-continental railways and canals . . . . 435Enfantin's belief in a canal connecting the Mediterranean with the Red Sea . 436English, French and Austro-German groups come to a g r e e m e n t . . . . 437Plan for a railway gains ground 438De Lesseps obtains formal concession 438-9De Lesseps issues the prospectus and work is commenced 439Completion of the canal 440

    CHAPTER XVII

    T H E S E C O N D E M P I R E I N F R A N C E

    By P A U L F A R M E R , Visiting Lecturer in the Department of History at Smith College,Northampton, Massachusetts

    Louis Napoleon's early life; his one purpose to restore the Empire . . . 442-3His failure to secure a revision of the constitution 444The coup d'tat of December 1851 ; the new Constitution (January 1852) . . 445Restoration of the Empire 446Napoleon Ill 's supporters of diverse political views 447-8The logic in his opportunism 448Two periods in the reign: (1) the period of personal rule 449-53The functions ofthe Corps Lgislatif and Senate 450Encouragement of economic expansioncredit, railways and lowering of tariffs . 451-2Increasing acceptance of the regime 452-3(2) The period of unsteady equilibrium 453-65Internal dissensions over religious issues 453-4Social and political cleavages consequent on economic expansion . . . 454-5A resurgence of republicanism. Napoleon veers towards the l e f t . . . . 455-6Rapid increase in foreign investment and industrial production . . . . 457Reasons for economic expansion. Social pre-eminence of the bourgeoisie!

    Changes in the common people 458-9The world of ideas lags behind economic enterprise . . . 4 5 9The rebuilding of Paris. The new rich \ 4 6 oNapoleon's aims in foreign policy . . . . . . .The Crimean War and the war against Austria (1859)! \ \ \ \ 4 6 2 3

    xiv

  • CONTENTS

    French intervention in Mexico page ^

    N a p o l e o n ' s r o l e i n t h e s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n P r u s s i a a n d A u s t r i a . . . . 4 6 4 - 5

    T h e m a r c h o f e v e n t s c u l m i n a t i n g i n S e d a n 4 6 5

    C o l l a p s e o f S e c o n d E m p i r e . I t s m a r k o n F r e n c h h i s t o r y 4 6 6 - 7

    CHAPTER XVIII

    THE CRIMEAN WAR

    By A G A T H A R A M M , Fellow of Somerville College, Oxford

    and the late B. H. S U M N E R , Warden of All Souls College, Oxford

    The background of Russo-Turkish relations 468

    Reasons for the war. The dispute over the Holy Places 469

    Napoleon's moderation in face of the tsar's insult. Russia recognises probability

    of war, makes further demands on Turkey 470

    Russian plans for dismembering the Ottoman empire 471

    Turkey complies with an Austrian ultimatum 472

    Menshikov's mission 472-3

    Turkey rejects the Russian demands 473-4

    British and French fleets ordered to Besika Bay. Russian forces occupy Une of the

    Danube 474

    The Vienna Note. Arrival of Egyptian fleet 475

    Russian Foreign Office document leaks out to the press. British and French fleets

    at Constantinople 476

    Defeat of Turkish flotilla at Sinope. British and French fleets enter Black Sea . 477

    The Western powers declare war. Military operations slow to develop . . 478

    Austria occupies Principalities. Crimean peninsula becomes theatre of war . 479

    Missed opportunities. Austria signs Franco-British alliance . . . . 479-80

    Fresh negotiations. Outcry in Britain against conduct of the war. Palmerston

    becomes Prime Minister 481

    Decline in Austria's influence. Fall of Sebastopol 482

    Sardinia adheres to the Franco-British alliance. Overtures to Sweden . . 483

    Palmerston plans bulwarks against Russia, but France makes informal soundings

    for peace 484

    Russia accepts terms and armistice declared. Casualty figures . . . . 485-6

    Press reports of mismanagement result in reorganisation of British army

    administration 486

    Effects of the war in France, Russia and T u r k e y . . . . . . . 486-7

    The peace congress and the consequent treaty 487-90

    Congress turns to affairs of Poland, Greece and Italy 490

    Decline in diplomatic prestige of Austria and Russia; they turn towards France . 491

    Partition of Turkey postponed 491-2

    Russo-British hostility remains 492

    CHAPTER XIX

    PRUSSIA AND THE GERMAN PROBLEM, 1830-66By JAMES JOLL, Fellow and Sub Warden of St Antony's College, Oxford

    Revival of liberalism throughout Germany 493

    Formation of the German Customs Union (Zollverein) and the Tax Union

    (Steuerverein) 494

    Prussian administrative system the envy of liberals throughout Europe . . 495

    XV

  • C O N T E N T S

    Accession of Frederick William IV raises hopes of political unity and a moreliberal policy page 49*4

    The political situation in individual states 497Prussia under the ministry of Count Brandenburg 49The Habsburg claim to German leadership. Frederick William declines the

    Imperial crown of Germany 4 "Failure of the Frankfurt Assembly 5 Alliance of the Three Kingdoms. Austria's economic plans . . . . 5iFailure of Radowitz's Prussian Union plan 52Prussia's humiliation at Olmtz. Austria fails to gain admission to the Zollverein 53Prussian conservatism. Liberals and the connection between power and sovereignty 504Prussia's expanding economy. Austria's economic position weakens . . . 55The war in Italy. Austro-Prussian relations 55-6Machinery of the German Confederation. The German National Association . 57William, prince of Prussia, becomes regent 508Roon's proposals for reforming the Prussian army 509-10The regent encounters strong parliamentary opposition. The Progressive Party . 510Bismarck becomes head of the government 5 1 1

    Bismarck's speech in the Prussian Diet* by Blood and Iron' . . , . 512Austria's last attempt to assert preponderance in Germany 512-13Russian goodwill necessary to Prussia 5*3William I refuses to attend the Frankfurt Congress of Princes . . , . 514The Schleswig-Holstein question 514-19Bismarck gambles on French neutrality and secures the alliance of Italy . 517Bismarck breaks up the Confederation and prepares for war . . . . 5 1 8 - 1 9The end of the struggle for supremacy 519Formation of the North German Confederation 520-1

    CHAPTER XX

    THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE AND ITS PROBLEMS, 1848-67

    By C. A. MACARTNEY, Fellow and Sub-Warden of All SouL College, Oxford

    Difficulties in the customary division of mid-nineteenth-century Austrian history 522

    The equation being worked out by 'revolution' and 'reaction' . . . . 523'Reaction' firmly in control of Austria 524'Historic units' and Kreise, Ferdinand succeeded by Francis Joseph . . . 525Defeat of Hungarians. A new constitution applicable to the entire monarchy

    (March 1849) 5 2 6 _ 7Lombardy and Venetia kept under military control. The government's plans for

    Hungary 527Hungarians proclaim their independence. The repression by Haynau. . . . 528Settlement of Transylvania and the Southern Slav areas. Bach's influence . 529Emancipation of the peasants. Judicial and educational reforms. Vigorous attempt

    to expand industry 0German becomes the official language. . . '. ' ' * " 5 1 IFrancis Joseph assumes sole political responsibility. A 'sys tem of complete

    absolutism r

    Concordat of 1855 places Roman Catholic Church under special protection of the ^state * . .

    Easier material existence influences acceptance of absolutism in western' half'of the **monarchy

    J 534xvi

  • C O N T E N T S

    Economic expansion and growing state expenditure page 535Conditions in Hungary. Continued dissatisfaction 536-8Prospects of war. The stock-exchange crash of 1857 538The Italian war (1859). Francis Joseph's retreat from absolutism . . . . 539~4OThe 'Laxenburg Manifesto' (August 1859). The Hungarian problem . . . 540The Reinforced Reichsrath recommends reconstruction of the monarchy . . 541-2Concessions made to Hungary. The Oc tober Diploma' 542~3Hungary rejects the 'October Diploma* 544Schmerling's 'February Patent* ill received 545-6Francis Joseph makes approach to Hungary 547-8The Austro-Prussian war. Andrssy persuades Francis Joseph to drop federalism 549Final agreement with Hungary 55~

    CHAPTER XXI

    ITALYBy D. MACK SMITH, Fellow of Peterhouse and Lecturer in History in

    the University of Cambridge

    Desire for good government, but complete absence of national consciousness . 552Sardinia-Piedmont the nucleus for a greater kingdom. Minor insurrections in

    1831 553Austria restores order and the old regime continues 554Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia 554-7The neo-Guelph writers 557-8The influence of Mazzini. Election of Pope Pius IX 558-9Austria's ill-advised entry into Modena and Ferrara. Insurrection in Palermo . 560Various rulers grant constitutions. Customs league between the Papal States and

    Tuscany 561Rebellion in Milan precipitates war. Charles Albert compelled to act. . . 562Charles Albert refuses the collaboration of Garibaldi and is defeated at Custoza

    and Novara 563-4Collapse of the revolution in Naples, Rome and Venice. Italy again becomes

    occupied territory $65Abdication and death of Charles Albert. Victor Emmanuel partially re-establishes

    royal authority 566The passing of the Siccardi laws. Cavour joins the D'Azeglio cabinet. . . 567Cavour replaces D'Azeglio. His methods 568-9Piedmont's intervention in the Crimean War 569Increased clerical opposition. Cavour and Mazzini 570Cavour' s diplomatic duel with Austria. Defeat of Austria at Magenta and Solferino 571Cavour's resignation and return to power 5 7 2Mazzini's belief in unification of Italy. Garibaldi captures Palermo . , . 573Naples falls to Garibaldi and Piedmontese troops enter the Papal States. A King-

    dom of Italy proclaimed 574Parliament meets in Turin, February 1861. Death of Cavour . . . . 575Civil war in Sicily. The acquisition of Venice and Rome 5 7 6

    xvii

  • CONTENTS

    CHAPTER XXII

    THE ORIGINS OF THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR ANDTHE REMAKING OF GERMANY

    By MICHAEL FOOT, lately Lecturer in Politics in the University of Oxford

    Bismarck not wholly responsible for outbreak of war. Essential difference betweenBismarck and Napoleon III page 577-8

    Prussia's increase of territory and population. Bismarck's policy of weakening hisparliamentary enemies 579

    Bismarck's use of the draft Franco-Prussian treaty 580Napoleon's desire to compensate France for Prussia's gains. The projected purchase

    of the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg 580-1Neutrality of Luxemburg to be guaranteed by the powers 582Napoleon pursues the mirage of an alliance with Austria 583The projected triple alliance ends in deadlock. Reorganisation of the French army 584Neither France nor Prussia ready for war. The secret activities of Fleury and Daru 585Napoleon returns to his plan for a triple alliance. Isabella of Spain takes refuge in

    France 586Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern's candidature for the Spanish throne. . . 587-8Prince Leopold persuaded to accept the Spanish crown 589France makes two capital mistakes 590"1

    Forces at work in the interests of peace 592

    France confident of temporary military predominance 593Karl Anton in his son's name renounces any claim to throne of Spain . . 594Gramont proposes a letter of apology to Napoleon from William I . . 595Benedetti's interview with William I and Bismarck's published version of the Ems

    telegram 597French Cabinet's decision to mobilise 598France declares war without allies 599The surrender of Napoleon and fall of the Second Empire. The annexation of

    Alsace and Northern Lorraine 600The German Empire is founded 601-2

    CHAPTER XXIII

    NATIONAL AND SECTIONAL FORCES INTHE UNITED STATES

    By D. M. POTTER, Professor of American History, Yale University

    Sequence of development differs from that of Europe 603Congress, the Executive and the Supreme Court moving towards nationalism.

    Growing economic unity 604Two obstacles to the continued ascendancy of nationalism 605Two major conflicts during the Jackson administration [ . [ 606-10Contrast between North and South 6 I 0Antagonism between seaboard settlements and the interior. ] 611-12North and West tend to become reciprocal markets and sources of supply ! ! 612-13Invention of the cotton gin. Expansion of the plantation system in the South 613Four points of conflict between North and South * 614-15Absence of complete sectional unity * 61S-16Reactions against slavery , /

    xviii

  • C O N T E N T S

    The South unites in defence of slavery. Militant anti-slavery in the North, page 617-19Slavery as a Federal question 620The annexation of Texas 621The Mexican war 622The Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act 623-4Marked deterioration of Union sentiment 625Abraham Lincoln becomes President 626-7Formation of the Confederate States of America 627Lincoln's awareness of the importance of voluntary loyalty 628-30

    CHAPTER XXIV

    THE AMERICAN CIVIL WARBy T. H A R R Y WILLIAMS, Professor of History* Louisiana State University

    The pivotal event in American history 631Man-power of the opposing sides 632The North's superior economic potential 633The importance of railways and the blockade of the Southern coast-line . . 634.-5The Confederate cause not a hopeless one 635Confederate confidence in intervention by European powers . . . . 636-7European powers recognise Confederacy as a belligerent. Lincoln's Emancipation

    Proclamation 637Overall superiority of the North's diplomacy. Effects of the cotton shortage . 638English public opinion moves in favour of the North. The Trent affair. . . 639The Alabama damage claims. The Laird rams 640France's ambitions in Mexico 641Expansion of the North's economic system 641-2The Republican party's wartime legislation 642-3Northern war finance and army recruitment. The casualties . . . . 644-5Lincoln's bold exercise of his war powers 646-7Factions within the major political parties 647Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. The presidential election of 1864 . . 648-9The Confederate constitution 649Jefferson Davis and his cabinet 650Finance, recruitment and states rights in the South 651-3General strategy of the war 654-5The command system of the opposing armies 656-7Results of the war 658

    CHAPTER XXV

    THE STATES OF LATIN AMERICABy R. A. HUMPHREYS, Professor of Latin American History\ University of London

    Former Spanish and Portuguese dominions become independent states . . 659

    The Brazilian empire 659-63Brazil's gradual transition to independence 660The rule of Dom Pedro 663Chile and the Chilean constitution of 1833 663-4Economic expansion of the 'forties and 'fifties 665The presidency of Manuel Montt 665-6Progressive liberalisation under President Perez. War with Spain. . . . 666The paralysing problems of Bolivia and Ecuador 667

    xix

  • C O N T E N T S

    Peru's prosperity and disorder. Venezuela and Co lombia . . . . page 6 6 8 - 9Uni ted Provinces o f the R i o de la Plata 6 Z ~ 7 The A g e of R o s a s in the ' Argentine Confederation ' 669 -71Argentina's constitutional problems and economic development . The pol ice state

    of Paraguay 6l1'2

    The Paraguayan war 6 7 3

    Monarchy in Mexico followed by an unstable republic and separatist movements 674Overthrow of Santa Anna. Benito Juarez elected president 675Introduction of drastic innovations 675-6Juarez's struggle with the forces of reaction. His eventual re-election as president 676British, French and Spanish troopslanded. Archduke Maximilian accepts the crown 677Death of Maximilian; Juarez again president 678The states of Central America 678-81Britain's connections with the Mosquito Indians 679-80The transisthmian canal project; the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty . . . . 680Further friction between Britain and the U.S.A. The colony of British Honduras 681The negro republic of Haiti and the Dominican republic 682-3Caudillismo 683By the 'seventies Latin America is on the threshold of a new age . . . 684

    CHAPTER XXVI

    THE FAR EASTBy G. F. HUDSON, Fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford

    The massive political organism controlled by Peking 685-6Lack of normal diplomatic intercourse with other powers 686System of trade with Western nations 687The trade in opium 687-8Lord Napier as Superintendent of Trade 688-9The Kowloon episode (1839) 689-90British expeditionary force invests Nanking. China comes to terms with the

    Treaty of Nanking (1842) 690Conditions bound to lead eventually to the outbreak of war . . . , 691Provisions of the Treaty of Nanking 692The International Settlement of Shanghai 693Foreigners denied freedom of travel. Friction over application of treaties,

    especially the 'right of entry* into Canton 694-5Activities of Western missionaries 695-6The rise of the Taipings 696-7The Taipings declare Nanking their capital. Weakening of their power. . . 698Their religious fanaticism. Forces raised to combat them 699Sir George Bonham attempts to make contact with the Taipings. . . . 700The Small Sword Society seizes Shanghai * 700-1British and French troops enter Canton (1857) ! 701American and Russian envoys join the British and French plenipotentiaries]

    Russian encroachments in China 7 0 2Capture of the Taku forts ! 702-1

    The Tientsin treaties concede diplomatic representation and the right of travel!Treaty envoys barred admission

    Treacherous attack on British and French envoys travelling under flag of truce!Flight of the Emperor exploited by Russia . . . . 7 0 4

    The regency of the Empress Dowager TzuHsi . \ \ \ \ \ \

    XX

  • C O N T E N T S

    Final suppression of the Taiping rebellion page 705-6Repression of Chinese Muslim revolts. The restored empire enters into normal

    diplomatic relations with Western powers 707The continuance of anti-foreign riots 708French annexation of Cochin-China and expedition against Korea . . . 709The Japanese policy of seclusion 710The Treaty of Kanagawa. The political system of the Tokugawa period . . 711Attacks on Western nationals result in combined naval action . . . . 712Western powers enforce imperial ratification of their treaties. The Meiji Restoration 713

    INDEX 715

    XXI