Thailand Health Profile 2005-2007

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Thailand Health Profile 2005-2007

Transcript of Thailand Health Profile 2005-2007

  • I S B N : 9 7 8 - 9 7 4 - 8 0 7 2 - 7 6 - 0

  • .

    ISBN 978-974-8072-76-0Website http://www.moph.go.th/ops/health_50

    1,000

    ()

  • ThailandHealth Profile 2 .. 2538

    .. 2548 - 2550 2 (SARS) Tsunami

    .. 2548 - 2550

  • 1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6 .

    7 . .

    8 .

    9 . .

    10 .

    11 .

  • 1 11.

    1.1 (.. 2325 - ..2394) 11.2 21.3 4

    (.. 2460 - .. 2472)1.4 4

    2. 9

    2 131. 132. 143. 154. 155. 16

    3 211. 212. 213. 23

    4 351. 362. 443. 52

  • 4. 655. 696. 947. 1038. 104

    5 1571. 1572. 1703. 239

    6 2491. 2502. 2793. 2944. 3025. 3156. 3217. 325

    7 3351. 3352. 3373. 3424. 344

    8 3791. .. 2545 3792. .. 2544 3843. 3924. 397

    ()

  • 9 403

    1. 4032. 414

    10 4211. . 4222. . 4233. . 4254. . 4255. 4266. . 4277. . 4288. 428

    11 4311. 4312. 4313. 4324. 4335. / 4356. 439

    441 Thailand Health Profile 2005-2006 454

    ()

  • 44.1 .. 2505 - .. 2549 404.2 414.3 .. 2535 - .. 2548 464.4 .. 2538 - .. 2563 484.5 49

    .. 2543 - 25474.6 51

    2543 - 25494.7 65 58

    7 14

    4.8 .. 2536 - .. 2549 614.9 64

    .. 2535 - ..25494.10 .. 2544 66

    .. 25474.11 (Human Development Index) 68

    .. 2533 - .. 25474.12 .. 2539 - .. 2547 704.13 .. 2544, 71

    .. 2546, .. 2547, .. 2548 .. 25494.14 72

    .. 2541, .. 2543, .. 2545 .. 25484.15 .. 2533 - .. 2547 734.16 .. 2535 - .. 2548 744.17 .. 2535 - .. 2549 784.18 79

    .. 25424.19 .. 2542 794.20 .. 2537 - .. 2549 82

  • ()

    4.21 / ..2517 -.. 2549 844.22 86

    .. 2546 - 25494.23 .. 2547 - 2549 874.24 88

    .. 2529 - .. 25484.25 .. 2538 - .. 2549 904.26 .. 2547 914.27 .. 2535 - .. 2549 924.28 .. 2549 934.29 .. 2546-2548 954.30 99

    .. 2540 - .. 25494.31 .. 2541 - .. 2549 1014.32 2544 - 2549 1024.33 10 ( (Disability 105

    Adjusted Life Years-DALYs) 3 ) .. 25434.34 DALYs .. 2542 .. 2547 1064.35 15 108

    4.36 111

    ( 35-59 )4.37 112

    ..2527,.. 2532,.. 2537 .. 2543 - .. 25444.38 (DMFT) 112

    .. 2527, .. 2532, .. 2537 .. 2543-25444.39 () 1144.40 11 1154.41 - 1164.42 .. 2531 - .. 2549 1194.43 .. 2519 - .. 2549 120

  • ()

    4.44 11 121 .. 2542, .. 2544, .. 2546,.. 2547 .. 2549

    4.45 11 123

    4.46 124.. 2534 - .. 2549

    4.47 .. 2531 - .. 2549 1274.48 128

    .. 2534 - .. 25494.49 11 128

    4.50 .. 2539, 129

    .. 2544, .. 2546, .. 2547 .. 25494.51 ..2532-..2549 1314.52 () 132

    .. 2535 - .. 25494.53 (prevalence) 133

    (adjusted prevalence) 4.54 .. 2536 - .. 2549 1344.55 135

    .. 2530 - .. 25494.56 / 136

    .. 2528 - .. 25424.57 137

    .. 25444.58 138

    .. 2544 .. 25464.59 .. 2530 - .. 2547 1394.60 141

    .. 2530 - ..2547

  • 4.61 142.. 2530 - ..2545

    4.62 143.. 2544, 2547

    4.63 1434.64 144

    .. 2539 - .. 25404.65 145

    .. 2544 .. 25474.66 14 1464.67 14 147

    4.68 ( : ) 155

    55.1 1585.2 (Life Expectancy at Birth) 1595.3 5 1,000 161

    .. 2523, .. 2544, .. 2545,.. 2546 .. 2547

    5.4 .. 2534 - .. 2549 1655.5 .. 2517 - .. 2545 1665.6 () 167

    .. 25445.7 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) Loss 167

    .. 2547 5.8 (DALYs loss) 169

    .. 2547 5.9 171

    .. 2525 - .. 2549

    ()

  • 5.10 172.. 2520 - .. 2549

    5.11 (episode) // 5 1755.12 () 1765.13 () 1775.14 , .. 2546 191

    .. 25635.15 .. 2546 - .. 2549 1965.16 197

    .. 2544 - .. 2549 (.. 2549)5.17 .. 2533, .. 2536, .. 2539, 199

    .. 2542 .. 25435.18 .. 2536, .. 2538-2540 200

    .. 2541-2543 5.19 .. 2540 2005.20 2526 - 2549 2015.21 201

    .. 2547 .. 25495.22 100,000 202

    .. 2536, .. 2539, .. 2542 .. 25435.23 .. 2547 2065.24 213

    .. 2527- .. 25495.25 214

    .. 2539 - .. 25495.26 216

    .. 2533-..25495.27 .. 2540 - .. 2546 2185.28 Cholinesterase 222

    .. 2535 - .. 25495.29 100,000 .. 2540 - .. 2549 226

    ()

  • 5.30 0-5 229.. 2532 - .. 2546

    5.31 0-6 .. 2547 - .. 2549 2295.32 () 234

    .. 2537 .. 25455.33 () 234

    .. 2537 .. 25455.34 235

    .. 2528 - .. 25415.35 2365.36 2375.37 239

    100,000 .. 2528 - .. 25495.38 2405.39 () 2415.40 2445.41 .. 2507 - 2549 2445.42 (Odds ratio) 247

    66.1 2540 - 2546 2596.2 2540 - 2549 2596.3 264

    2537 -25496.4 .. 2530 - .. 2546 .. 2549 2706.5 .. 2548 2786.6 .. 2550 2806.7 .. 2549 2826.8 .. 2549 2846.9 .. 2522, .. 2530, .. 2539 - 291

    .. 2546 .. 25496.10 .. 2539 - .. 2548 292

    ()

  • 6.11 () 296.. 2526 - .. 2548

    6.12 2986.13 301

    (Discrepancy index) .. 25496.14 CT Scanner 301

    (Discrepancy index) .. 2537 .. 2541 - .. 25496.15 .. 2523 - .. 2548 () 3046.16 306

    .. 2523 - .. 2548 ()6.17 307

    .. 2523 - .. 2548 .. 25316.18 3086.19 () .. 2524 - .. 2547 3146.20 .. 2534, 2539, 2544 315

    .. 2546 - 25496.21 .. 2534, 316

    2539, 2544, 2546, 2547 .. 25496.22 .. 2534, 327

    .. 2539, .. 2544 .. 2546-25496.23 .. 2535 - 2547 3326.24 333

    10 .. 2547

    77.1 ... 3517.2 354

    ..25497.3 355

    / .. 25497.4 () 358

    / .. 2549

    ()

  • 7.5 3637.6 .. 2543 - .. 2550 3657.7 .. 2545 - 2550 3677.8 2541 - 2550 () 3697.9 370

    .. 2522- .. 25507.10 / 377

    .. 2535- .. 25507.11 / 378

    .. 2535 - .. 2549

    88.1 .. 2545 3838.2 .. 2545 3878.3 391

    .. 25458.4 394

    ( ) .. 2547

    99.1 415

    1010.1 . 1 . .. 2536 - 2549 42210.2 . 424

    10.3 . 42610.4 . 427

    ()

  • 11

    1. 4

    1.1 (.. 2325 - .. 2394) 1 3

    1.1.1 1 ( .. 2325 - .. 2352)

    1.1.2 2 ( .. 2352 - .. 2367)

    .. 2359

    1.1.3 3 ( .. 2367 - .. 2394)

    1

  • 22

    .. 2371 5 3 (DanBeach Bradley) .. 2378 .. 2381

    .. 2392 (Samuel Reynolds House)

    1.2 4 6

    1.2.1 4 ( .. 2394 - .. 2411)

    3

    1.2.2 5 ( .. 2411 - .. 2453)

    .. 2429 .. 2431 .. 2432

  • 33

    - .. 2432 .. 2438

    - .. 2439

    - .. 2440

    - .. 2448

    - .. 2450 2

    -

    1.2.3 6 ( .. 2453 - .. 2468)

    .. 2454

    .. 2455 .. 2457

    .. 2459 .. 2459

    .. 2460 .. 2461 2

    27

    .. 2463 .. 2463 8 .. 2465 .. 2466

  • 44

    1.3 (.. 2460 - .. 2472)

    (C.P.H) (cum laude)

    1.4

    1.4.1 7 ( .. 2468 - .. 2477)

    .

    .

    .. 2469

    13

  • 55

    1.4.2 8 ( .. 2477 - .. 2489)

    ( 3) .. 2485 .. 2485 - 2486 2

    1.4.3 9 ( .. 2489 )1)

    ..2535 .. 2544 Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute Franklin Delano Roosevelt International DisabilityAward 26 2549 (UNDP Human Devel-opment Lifetime Achievement Award) 60

    (1)

    .. 2498 3 .. 2502

  • 66

    20,000

    .. 2502 ..2549 254 49 74 7 5 7

    (2) .. 2497

    175,064.75 1

    (3)

    100 1 .. 2535 28 .. 2540

    / 2

    .. 2535 .. 2548 41 / 20 21

  • 77

    1 Professor Barry Marshall

    (4) .. 2534

    1)

    (Lindbergh Award) 16 .. 2538 Charles A and Anne Morrow Lindbergh Foundation

    2)

    (1) .. 2499

    (2) .. 2506

    (3) .. 2510

    (4) .. 2512 ..

  • 88

    (5) .. 2516 .. 25 ..2519 .. ..2539

    (6) .. 2517 1

    .. 2529

    (7) . 21 (8) .. 2535 500,000

    750,000

    .. 2533 21 ..2543 100

    3) 21 ()

    4)

  • 99

    5) UNESCO

    6)

    (..) 18 .. 2538 WHO/SEARO AWARD (WHO) 19 .. 2546

    7)

    1 .. 2534

    2

    .. 2548-2553

  • 1010

    2.1

    1. 2548-2551 2 10

    2.

    3. 25494.

    60 5. (

    )6.

    7.

    9048.

    48 62

    9. :

    10. 33

    11.

    12. 13.

    -

    -

    - -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    - -

  • 1111

    14.

    15.16.17.18.

    (-)19.

    1 ..2549

    -

    - - - -

    -

    2.2

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    - -

    1. 60

    2. 80

    3. 60

    4. 60

    5. - 60

    6. 60 80

    7. 40 8. 50

    75

  • 1212

    9. . 50

    10.

    11. 4

    12.

    13. 21

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

  • 1313

    2.1

    2

    1. (Continental Southeast Asia)

    ( 2.1)

  • 1414

    514,000 3 8,031 5,326 2,705 1,840 865

    7

    2. 2.1 3

    2.1.1

    2.1.2

    2.1.3

    2.2 3 2.2.1

    2.2.2

    2.2.3

  • 1515

    3. 62,829,000 .. 2550 98.1

    ( 94.5)

    ( 4.5) ( 0.7) ( 2.2)

    4.

    .. 2399

    : ..2548, , 2549: 15

    2.2

    94.5%

    0.1%

    4.5% 0.7%

    0.2%

  • 1616

    1 (.. 2504 - .. 2509) 10 (.. 2550 - .. 2554) (WTO) 1 2538

    7.8 3 .. 2529-2533 10.5 .. 2534-2538 8.3 .. 2539-2540 (IMF) 17,200

    .. 2540 1.7 ..2540 10.8 .. 2541 .. 2542-2543 4 .. 2544 5 .. 2545 IMF 31 .. 2546 2 ..2548-2550 4.5-5.0 ( 4.2) 3

    2550 2550

    4.5 3.5 3.1 1.3

    5.

    .. 2540 11 2540 3 (.) (.)

    .. 2549

  • 1717

    200 (400 ) (Party list) 100 .. 2540

    .. 2534 5 (.. 2545) 3 ( 2.3) 2549 .. 2540 242 2,000 200 100 6 2550

    5.1 5.1.1 ,

    5.1.2 5.1.3 ..

    2545 20 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

    (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20)

  • 1818

    156 10

    5.2

    75 / 796 /81

    5.3

    4

    5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4

    4 (75 ) (1,158 ) (1 ) (1 ) (6,620 )

  • 1919

    2.

    3

    (

    19

    25

    49)

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

    6.

    7.

    8.

    9.

    10

    .

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

    6.

    7.

    8.

    9.

    10.

    1.

    (75

    )2.

    (79

    6

    )

    (

    81

    )

    1.

    (7

    5

    )

    2.

    (1,15

    8

    )2.1

    (22

    )

    2.2

    (117

    )

    2.3

    (1,01

    9

    )3.

    3.1

    (

    1

    )3.2

    (1

    )3.3

    (6

    ,620

    )

    1.

    2.

    3.

    *

    (

    .

    ..

    .

    ..

    )

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

    6.

    7.

    8.

    11.

    12.

    13.

    14.

    15.

    16.

    17.

    18.

    19

    .

    20.

    (

    )

    :

    *

    .. 25

    42

  • 2020

  • 21

    (All for Health)

    1. .. 25401

    6

    1. ( 59)

    2. (59 )

    3. ( 56)

    4. 50,000 ( 170 )

    5. ( 52 86 )

    6. ( 57 )

    2. .. 2540

    1 19 2549 () .. 2549 .. 2550

    3

  • 22

    4 1) 2) 3) 4)

    2 5 2

    2.1 1 82

    82 35 16 6 13

    2.2 4 71, 79, 80 81

    1) 71 1 /

    2) 79 5 2 2 1

    3) 80 10 7 2 1

    4) 81

  • 23

    1

    3. .. 2540

    (MDG) MDG Plus (All for Health)

    3.1

    3.1

    4

    (.. 2550-2554)

    (MDG Plus)

    All for Health

    5

    3.1 10 (.. 2550 - 2554)

    1)

  • 24

    10

    2)

    (1) (2)

    (3)

    (4)

    (5) (6)

    3)

    4) 10 6

    5) 10 (..2550-2554)(1)

    (2)

    (3)

    (4)

  • 25

    6) 10(..2550-2554)

    10

    (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

    (6) (7)

    (8)

    (9) (10)

    7)

    6 ( 3.2) 1 2 3

    4 5 6

  • 26

    3.2

    8) 1 (1)

    (2)

    (3)

    (4)

    : 10 .. 2550-2554 25 2550 2, 2550

    1 :

    2 :

    3 :

    4 : 5 :

    6 :

    : &

  • 27

    2 (1)

    (2)

    (3)

    (4)

    (5)

    3

    (1)

    (2) (3)

    (4)

    (5)

    (6)

    (7)

    (8)

    4 (1) (2)

  • 28

    (3) (Healthy PublicPolicies) (Health Impact Assessment)

    (4) /

    5 (1)

    (2)

    (3)

    (4)

    (5)

    (6)

    (7)

    6 (1)

  • 29

    (2)

    (3)

    (4)

    3.2 4 2 (.. 2548 - 2551)

    1) ...

    .. 2546 4 10

    2)

    3) 53

    11 6 13 8 12 3

    4) 1

    4 1

    2 . ..2546 2550

  • 30

    2

    3

    4

    3.3 4 .. 2548-25513

    1)

    .. 2546

    2)

    3) 4 .. 2548-2551 7

    1

    2

    3 4 2550

  • 31

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7 3

    4) 4 .. 2548-2551 28 12 3 2 1 2 2 5 1

    5) 4 .. 2548-2551 7

    1 2 3

    4 5 6 7

    3.4 (.. 2547 - 2558)

    1)

    (Healthy) 4 (Physical Health) (MentalHealth) (Social Health) / (Spiritual Health) 6 . 3.3

  • 32

    3.3

    2)

    3) / 17 (3.1) (Physical Health)

    (3.1.1) 6

    (3.1.2) GMP (GoodManufacturing Practice)

    (3.1.3)

    : , , 2548

    ( )

    /( )

    63

  • 33

    (3.1.4) (3.1.5)

    3.5 (Millenium Declaration)1)

    .. 2543 189 (Millenium Declaration)

    2) (MDG)

    8 48 .. 2558

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 .. 2547

    10 MDG Plus

    - 4 .. 2552- .. 2549

    .. 2558-

    .. 2545-2549- 15 1,000 .. 2549

  • 34

    - .. 2548 - 2558

    - 18 100,000 .. 2549

    - .. 2548-2558

    - HIV 1 .. 2549- 30 1.4

    1,000 .. 2549- 8

    .. 2554- 30 .. 2549

  • 35

    4

    ( 4.1)

    4.1

    / /

    /

    //

  • 36

    1.

    1.1 3 .. 2540

    7 28 .. 2529 .. 2540 7 1.7 .. 2540 10.8 .. 2541 (4.2) ( 4.3) 4.2 .. 2542 7.1 .. 2546 4.5 .. 2550

    : : P , e

    4.2

    ..

    -15

    -5

    5

    10

    0

    -10

    15

    7.24

    2504

    -250

    8

    2514

    -251

    8

    2529

    -253

    325

    24-2

    528

    2519

    -252

    3

    2509

    -251

    3

    2534

    -253

    8

    2539

    2540

    2541

    2542

    2543

    2544

    2545

    2546

    2547

    2548

    2549

    2550

    8.21 7.11 7.27

    5.46

    10.488.28

    5.5

    -1.7

    -10.8

    4.2 4.62.1

    5.47.1p 6.3p 4.5p 5.0e 4.5e

  • 37

    4.3 .. 2503 - .. 2549 ()

    1.2

    ( 4.4) .. 2533

    : : 1. P , e

    2. .. 2537

    ..0

    2503

    2507

    2513

    2519

    2521

    2517

    2515

    2511

    2509

    2505

    2523

    2525

    GDP / capita

    2527

    2529

    2531

    2533

    2535

    2537

    2539

    2541

    2543

    2545

    2547

    2549

    2,238.7

    25,09

    .927

    ,79.4

    35,25

    .738

    ,58.1

    40,77

    .044

    ,56.2

    69,29

    .881

    ,60.6

    11,04

    4.514

    ,260.7

    48,987.161,414.9

    17,35

    5.519

    ,606.1

    21,52

    8.4

    124,9

    97.4e

    76,70

    2.275

    ,268.2

    79,70

    2.887

    ,134.3 10

    8,793

    .2P11

    4,203

    .2P

    10,00020,00030,00040,00050,00060,00070,00080,00090,000

    100,000110,000120,000130,000140,000

    38,786.328,602.4

  • 38

    4.4 .. 2503 - .. 2549

    1.3 57.0 .. 2505

    14.7 .. 2539 .. 2540 14.7 .. 2539 20.9 .. 2543 9.6 .. 2549 ( 4.5) 3 ( 4.1)

    : 4/2549,

    ..0

    20

    40

    60

    2503

    30

    50

    10

    2507

    2513

    2519

    2521

    2517

    2515

    2511

    2509

    2505

    2523

    2525

    70

    2527

    2529

    2531

    2533

    2535

    2537

    2539

    2541

    2543

    2545

    2547

    2548

    2549

    12.52 14.1

    13.98

    13.72 14.99

    39.79

    47.72

    37.13

    48.77

    33.49

    52.53

    36.5

    49.78

    31.51

    53.5

    15.95

    25.89

    58.16

    18.14

    25.36

    56.23

    19.15

    27.01

    53.84

    19.68

    26.68

    53.64

    20.0

    24.5

    55.5

    23.24

    21.51

    60.13

    21.32

    55.25 59

    .5218

    .55

    60.2

    60.46

    60.361.3

    57.98

    23.88

    60.7

    60.09

    25.84

    54.3P

    22.91 27

    .16

    28.1

    28.3

    27.5

    12.3

    12.75

    17.57

    15.66

    16.18

    58.4

    58.1

    57.7

    57.5

    56.7

    54.8P

    55.2P

    55.0P

    28.8 35

    .0P

    29.4 31.2

    32.0 33.4 33.9

    34.8

    34.5P

    34.8P

    10.6

    11.0 10.9

    10.7P12.2

    10.7

    10.3

    9.1 9.4 10.4 10.3P

    10.2P

  • 39

    4.5 .. 2505 - .. 2549

    : .. 2505/2506-2518/2519 , Income, Consumption and Poverty in Thai-land, 1962/63 to 1975/76... 2531-2549

    :

    ..0

    20

    40

    60

    2505

    /250

    6

    30

    50

    10

    57

    31.0

    42.239.0

    2518

    /251

    9

    2535

    2541

    2543

    2539

    2537

    2533

    2531

    2511

    /251

    2

    28.433.7

    2545

    2547

    18.9

    14.7

    17.520.9 14.9

    11.2

    2549

    9.6

  • 40

    4.1 .. 2505 - .. 2549

    .. 2505 49.8 56.7 .. 2539 7.9 .. 2505 4.2 .. 2539 ( 4.6) .. 2537-.. 2539

    : .. 2505/2506-2518/2519 , Income, Consumption and Poverty in Thai-land, 1962/63 to 1975/76.. 2531-2549

    2505/2506 38 61 572511/2512 16 43 392518/2519 14 35 31

    2531 23.7 49.7 42.22533 20.5 39.2 33.72535 12.1 35.3 28.42537 9.9 22.9 18.92539 6.8 18.2 14.72541 7.1 21.9 17.52543 8.6 26.5 20.92545 6.4 18.9 14.92547 4.6 14.2 11.22549 3.6 12.0 9.6

    ..

  • 41

    4.2

    : Human Development Report, 2006

    (2545) 55.2 4.2 13.2 (2541) 49.0 5.0 9.8 (2540) 54.3 4.4 12.3 (2545) 43.3 8.4 5.1 (2543) 52.3 5.4 9.7 (2545) 45.4 7.5 6.0 (2540) 47.6 6.9 6.9 (2543) 43.3 8.1 5.3

    () 20% 20%

    20% 4.2 .. 2539 3.9 .. 2543 20% 56.7 57.6 .. 2544-.. 2547 .. 2549 12.2 .. 2547 14.8 .. 2549 ( 4.2)

  • 42

    4.6 5

    : (1) .. 2505-2535

    (2) .. 2537-2549

    : .. 2545 6 12

    2547..

    20% 7.9 6.05 5.41 4.55 4.51 4.1 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.2 3.8 3.9 4.2 4.2 4.5 3.8 20% 49.8 49.26 51.47 55.63 55.0 57.3 59.5 57.7 56.7 56.5 58.5 57.6 55.4 55.2 54.9 56.3 6.3 8.1 9.5 12.2 12.2 14.0 15.6 14.4 13.5 13.5 15.4 14.8 13.2 13.2 12.2 14.8

    2505 2518 2524 2529 2531 2533 2535 2537 2539 2541 2542 2543 2544 2545

    ..0

    7.9

    (

    )

    20

    40

    60

    4.2

    2505

    30

    50

    10

    70

    56.5

    4.2

    49.8

    6.05

    51.4755.63

    49.26

    3.93.84.2

    2524

    2529

    2535

    2541

    2543

    2539

    2537

    2533

    2531

    2518

    20 %

    57.6

    55.4

    55.2

    5.41 4.55 4.51

    4.1 3.8 4.0 4.2

    55 57.3 59

    .557

    .756

    .7

    54.9

    4.5

    2545

    2547

    58.5

    20 %

    (1)

    (1)

    (1)

    (1)

    (1)(1) (1) (1)

    (1)

    (1) (1) (1) (1)(1)

    (2) (2) (2)(2) (2) (2)(2)(2)

    (2) (2) (2) (2) (2)(2)(2) (2)

    2549

    3.8

    (2)

    2549

    (2)56.3

  • 43

    1.4

    AFTA (ASEAN Free Trade Area), APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Coopera-tion), ASEM (ASIA-Europe Meeting) , 6 NAFTA (North America Free Trade Area), EC (European Community) (World Trade Organization :WTO) (Anti dumping duty : AD) / (Countervailing duty : CVD)

    WTO ASEAN

    1. 3.8 GDP .. 2523

    6.14 GDP .. 2548 2.1 .. 2547 6.4 .. 2535 .. 2544 ( 6 )

    2. / 6.7 .. 2514 20.5 .. 2539 .. 2544 .. 2548 131.7 ..2543 4.0

    3. ( 6 )

  • 44

    4. 440.1 .. 2540 640.6 .. 2549 ( 5 )

    5. 7.7 .. 2544 6.7 .. 2544 8.3 .. 2550( 7 )

    6.

    2.

    2.1

    2.1.1 15

    78.6 .. 2513 93.5 .. 2548 ( 4.7) ( 67.0) 10 2 1 6.5 .. 2548 .. 2553 15 97

    1 UNDP. Human Development Report, 2005.

  • 44

    4. 440.1 .. 2540 640.6 .. 2549 ( 5 )

    5. 7.7 .. 2544 6.7 .. 2544 8.3 .. 2550( 7 )

    6.

    2.

    2.1

    2.1.1 15

    78.6 .. 2513 93.5 .. 2548 ( 4.7) ( 67.0) 10 2 1 6.5 .. 2548 .. 2553 15 97

    1 UNDP. Human Development Report, 2005.

  • 45

    62.8

    4.7 15 .. 2513 - .. 2553

    : (1) .. 2513, 2523, 2533 2543 , (2) .. 2537 - .. 2540, .. 2544 .. 2546 UNDP, Human Development Report,

    1997-2003(3) .. 2548 ..

    2548-2549, (4) UNESCO, Principal Regional Office for Asia and Pacific, Literacy in Asia And the

    Pacific.

    2.1.2 60.0 ..

    2548 ( 4.3)

    ..0

    20

    40

    60

    100

    80

    120

    78.687.2

    21.412.8

    93.1 93.5

    93.8 94.7

    2523

    2533

    2540

    2546

    2553

    2548

    2544

    2543

    2539

    2538

    2513

    95.0

    92.6

    92.6 93.5

    95.7

    6.9 6.5 6.2 5.3 5.0 6.9

    4.3 7.4 6.5 3.0e

    97.0e

    2537

    (1)(1)

    (1)(1) (1) (1)

    (1)(1)

    (2)(2)(2)(2) (2)(2) (3) (4)

    (2)(2)(2)(2) (2)(2) (3) (4)

  • 46

    4.3 .. 2535 -.. 2548 :

    : ( 3) ,

    : 15 6

    .. 2546 35.4 61.2 .. 2548 40.9 69.1 ( .. 2548, )

    2.2

    2.2.1 ,

    ( 4.8)

    2548 57.1 60.0 61.7 65.4 67.5 68.6 70.0 70.8 71.2 36.5 41.0 42.2 46.9 49.4 50.8 52.9 54.6 54.3

    41.0 48.2 49.4 52.1 52.4 53.2 58.6 59.7 62.3 36.2 38.6 40.7 43.5 46.6 48.2 49.9 51.8 50.0 39.6 44.1 45.0 51.0 54.8 55.7 56.5 58.3 56.0 43.6 47.5 48.5 53.8 56.3 58.7 58.7 60.7 62.5 61.6 64.8 66.8 72.1 73.1 73.7 75.7 75.9 76.4

    42.3 47.1 48.5 53.0 55.3 56.6 58.7 60.1 60.0

    2535 2539 2540 2542 2544 2545 2546 2547

  • 47

    4.8 2537-2549

    : ,

    15 6.6 .. 2539 8.6 .. 2548 ( 4.9) .. 2549 59.9 .. 2563 39.9 14.0 .. 2549 22.5 .. 2563 ( 4.4)

    ..70

    80

    110

    2538 2539 2540 2541 2547 2548 2549

    87.390.184.9

    90

    100

    2537

    91.2 88.3 88.089.9

    92.7

    120

    2542 2543 2544 2545 2546

    130

    90.092.5

    97.293.2

    86.4

    78.1

    87.2

    80.5

    81.0

    80.8

    82.088.283.1

    80.2

    80.2

    82.5

    81.184.880.7

    83.3

    82.186.0

    92.892.592.2

    96.2

    94.595.7

    91.5 86.8

    94.4

  • 48

    2.2.2

    ..2547 ( 4.5)

    4.4 .. 2538-.. 2563

    : (1).. 2538-2549 .. 2538-2549 3,

    (2).. 2553-2563 ,

    : * .. 2538-2549

    78.0 75.2 69.8 66.3 63.8 61.4 59.9 55.9 39.9 8.9 10.1 12.0 12.7 13.7 13.8 14.1 14.7 14.6 3.3 3.6 5.0 6.2 7.2 8.1 8.8 8.7 14.3 4.7* 4.8* 5.0* 3.4* 3.3* 3.3* 3.2* 6.6 8.7 5.1 6.2 8.2 11.3 11.9 13.4 14.0 14.1 22.5

    100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

    2563(2) 2538(1) 2540(1) 2542(1) 2544(1) 2546(1) 2548(1) 2549(1) 2553(2)

    4.9 .. 2539-.. 2548

    : : .. 2539-2546 15

    .. 2547 15-59

    ..0

    2

    8

    2542 2543 2544 2545 2546 2547 2548

    7.1 7.26.8

    4

    6

    2539-2541

    7.4 7.6 7.88.4 8.6

    10

  • 49

    4.5 .. 2543-2547

    : - Human Development Report 2003- Human Development Report 2006- .. 2547

    2543 / 2544 2547

    WHO/SEAR 1.00 NA NA 1.00 NA NA 1.01 1.13 NA 1.00 1.15 NA 0.99 0.96 0.77 0.98 0.99 0.79 1.02 1.05 0.55 1.03 1.11 0.50 0.93 1.01 1.12 0.97 1.01 1.17 NA NA 0.66 0.94 NA 0.66 0.99 0.95 1.75 1.01 0.95 1.77 0.87 NA 0.27 0.87 NA 0.41 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NAASEAN 1.00 1.11 1.08 1.00 1.14 1.41 0.94 NA 0.74 0.94 NA 0.77 1.01 1.18 1.10 1.02 1.20 1.28 0.99 0.96 0.77 0.98 0.99 0.79 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.96 NA NA 1.74 0.93 1.01 1.12 0.97 1.01 1.17 0.90 0.59 0.38 0.96 0.73 0.45 0.92 0.81 0.59 0.73 NA 0.80 0.99 0.95 1.75 1.01 0.95 1.77 1-10 1.00 1.01 1.52 1.00 1.01 1.54 1.00 1.05 1.74 0.98 1.04 1.78 1.01 1.03 1.24 1.01 1.01 1.23 1.00 NA 1.27 1.00 1.06 1.28 0.99 1.04 1.52 1.00 1.03 1.55 1.00 1.01 1.35 1.00 0.99 1.36 1.00 1.01 0.85 1.00 1.01 0.89 1.01 1.02 1.32 0.96 1.02 1.39 0.99 0.95 0.78 1.00 0.93 0.20 0.99 1.00 1.07 0.99 1.01 1.08

  • 50

    2.3

    50 ( 4.6) 6 .. 2545-2549 4 ( 4.10)

    4.10 .. 2538- .. 2549

    : , : 5

    ..0

    5

    20

    2542 2543 2544 2545 2546 2547 2548 2549

    4.6

    109.4

    13.811.75

    6.8

    11.7511.75

    15.4

    9.75

    11.6710.2511.0

    7

    11.4

    15.6

    7.0

    7.6

    14.613.6

    8.75

    14.75

    12.4

    7.2

    13

    6

    7

    9.8

    15.816.2

    13.67

    10

    15

    2538 2539 2540 2541

    7.5

    13.0

    16.4 16.817.8

    16.518.0 18.75 18.4

    15.216.2

    15.8 14.816.0 16.8

    13.012.2

    11.69.8

    15.211.8

    11.211.0

    13.013.0

    8.811.2 10.4

    11.411.0

    14.215.0

    11.814.0

    14.815.413.211.411.2

    8.256.4

  • 51

    4.6 2543-2549

    : - , - ,

    : 1. .. 2544-.. 2545 3

    2. .. 2543 - .. 2547 3

    3. .. 2546 4. *

    1. 2544 46.9 NA 54.3 49.62545 49.9 NA 50.6 47.42546 41.7 42.4 45.2 41.12547 43.8 41.6 44.2 37.32549 38.9 43.2 42.7 34.5

    2. 2543 31.2 40.4 53.0 38.92544 32.4 NA 46.3 38.92545 39.1 NA 46.7 45.32546 35.0 38.1 54.0 37.92547 34.8 37.2 38.3 32.32549 31.1 39.3 43.9 30.8

    3. 2546 34.0 48.8* 44.5 39.12548 28.5 34.0 48.6 29.82549 29.6 34.9 50.3 32.4

    ()

    - 2543 38.3 43.1 37.22544 41.7 39.6 38.72546 38.9 38.3 40.72547 41.6 46.1 39.9

  • 52

    1.

    ( 4 )

    2. .. 2549 59.9

    3.

    3.1

    14.4 .. 2513 81.1 .. 2549 ( 2 ) 3.2 .. 2513 0.41 .. 2549 0.53 .. 2563 ( 4.11) .. 2568 72.3 ( 4.12) 0-14 ( 4.13) .. 2553 ( 4.14) ( 4.15) 20 .. 2553-2573 .. 2553 2

    4 60 ( 4.7)

    (Active Ageing)

    2 65 7-14 14

  • 52

    1.

    ( 4 )

    2. .. 2549 59.9

    3.

    3.1

    14.4 .. 2513 81.1 .. 2549 ( 2 ) 3.2 .. 2513 0.41 .. 2549 0.53 .. 2563 ( 4.11) .. 2568 72.3 ( 4.12) 0-14 ( 4.13) .. 2553 ( 4.14) ( 4.15) 20 .. 2553-2573 .. 2553 2

    4 60 ( 4.7)

    (Active Ageing)

    2 65 7-14 14

  • 53

    4.11 .. 2513-.. 2563

    : (1) .. 2513 , 2513(2) 3- 8 (3) .. 2548/2549 .. 2548-2549,

    (4) .. 2553-.. 2563 .. 2533- ..2563,

    ..0

    0.5

    1.5

    2.5

    .. 2

    513

    1

    2

    33.5

    2.52.1

    1.7

    0.87e0.53e

    4

    5

    6

    2563

    2553

    2548

    -254

    9

    8

    3

    7

    3.2

    1.41.1

    0.80.41

  • 54

    4.12 .. 2568

    : .. 2543-.. 2568

    : .. 2548 .. 2549 .. 2550 2550 (1 ) ,

    4.13 .. 2480 - ..2568

    : - .. 2480, 2490, 2503, 2513, 2523, 2533 2543

    - .. 2548 .. 2548-2549

    - .. 2553, 2563 2568 .. 2543 - ..2568

    ..04.8

    20

    40

    60

    80

    2480 2490 2503 2513 2523 2533 2543 2568

    4.2 4.5

    43.1

    62.1

    24.330.6

    66.162.256.2

    38.345.1

    52.4

    42.342.4

    2563

    2553

    2548

    19.018.0

    18.9

    16.8

    64.367.166.0

    21.223.1

    11.710.99.54.8 5.4 7.2

    0-14 15-59 60

    5053.552.7

    30

    50

    70

    10

    ..50

    55.8

    ()

    56

    62

    68

    7456

    .625

    3525

    3425

    33

    59

    65

    71

    53

    7757

    .3 58.1 59

    .658

    .9 62.2

    67.069.1

    70.8 72.3

    62.4 62.8

    62.8

    2536

    2537

    2538

    2543

    2547

    2549

    2550

    2553

    2558

    2563

    2568

    2567

    2565

    2561

    2559

    2557

    2555

    2545

    2539

    2541

    2548

    2551

  • 55

    4.14 .. 2480-.. 2568

    : - .. 2480, 2490, 2503, 2513, 2523, 2533 2543

    - .. 2548 .. 2548-2549

    - .. 2553-.. 2568 .. 2543-.. 2568,

    ..07.8

    20

    40

    60

    80

    2480 2490 2503 2513 2523 2533 2543 2568

    7.8 8.8

    82.761.1

    36.846.1

    51.257.7

    77.8

    68.1

    90.3

    91.5

    81.179.1

    100

    120

    2563

    2553

    2548

    32.228.9

    29.6

    26.1

    55.749.1

    51.431.7

    34.917.416.514.49.8 9.7 11.6

    0-14 100.1

    86.886.8

  • 56

    4.15 ..2503, ..2533, ..2543, ..2553, ..2563 ..2568

    10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10

    10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10

    10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10

    10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10

    10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10

    10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10

    15-19

    70+

    0-4

    30-3445-49

    60-64

    15-19

    70+

    0-4

    30-3445-49

    60-64

    15-19

    70+

    0-4

    30-3445-49

    60-64

    15-19

    70+

    0-4

    30-3445-49

    60-64

    15-19

    70+

    0-4

    30-3445-49

    60-64

    15-19

    70+

    0-4

    30-34

    45-49

    60-64

    .. 2503 .. 2533

    .. 2543 .. 2553

    .. 2563 .. 2568

  • 57

    4.15 ..2503, ..2533, ..2543, ..2553, ..2563 ..2568 ()

    : - ..2503, ..2533 ..2543 , - ..2553 ..2563 ..2568 ..2543-

    ..2568, - United Nations (1999). World Population Prospects : The 1998 Revision, Volume II :

    Sex and age.

    15-19

    70+

    0-4

    70+

    30-34

    0-415-19

    30-3445-49 45-49

    60-64

    60-64

    10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10

    15-19

    70+

    0-4

    30-34

    45-49

    60-64

    10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10

  • 58

    4.7 65 7 14

    : World Population Prospects, The 2002 Revision Volume I: Comprehensive Table, UnitedNations. , : 6 ,

    - .. 2408 .. 2523 115- .. 2429 .. 2514 85- .. 2484 .. 2556 72- .. 2467 .. 2530 63- .. 2512 .. 2537 26

    - .. 2543 .. 2563 20- .. 2543 .. 2560 17- .. 2553 .. 2573 20- .. 2545 .. 2570 25

    7 14

    3.2

    3.2.1

    ( 4.16) 3.4 .. 2547 .. 2563 3.09 ( 4.17)

  • 59

    6.1

    4.16 .. 2503-2553

    : , , 25 4 .. - .. 2548

    4.17 .. 2563

    : - .. 2503-.. 2543 , - .. 2544-.. 2547

    - .. 2553-.. 2563 ,

    ..0

    5.6

    2

    4

    6

    8

    2503

    4.4

    3.09e3.4e3.8

    5.25.7

    3.6 3.5 3.4

    2513

    2523

    2533

    2543

    2544

    2545

    2547

    2553

    2563

    ..1

    74.9

    10

    100

    1,000

    2503

    70.6 50.060.272.9 67.525

    13

    2523

    2533

    2543

    2553

    23.0

    2.0

    24.0

    2.9

    25.1

    4.7

    26.2 29.6

    10.0 16.433.5

    ()

  • 60

    3.2.2

    1,066 7-9 43 1-3 3 10.5 .. 2537 25.1 .. 2549 .. 2537 492,683 .. 2537 355,460 .. 2549 ( )

    1) .. 2541-2542 ( 4.8)

    3 . , 2546

  • 61

    4.8 .. 2536 - .. 2549

    : : 2548

    2) 2,279 .. 2547 1 5 ( 20.9) ( ) 8.7 6.5 ( 47.1 )

    2536 5,605 30.33 2,141 51.302537 5,748 31.19 2,200 49.112538 5,736 31.22 2,311 51.602539 5,896 32.25 2,504 53.502540 6,049 33.38 2,624 53.832541 6,341 35.15 2,619 51.472542 6,262 35.00 2,652 50.332543 6,096 34.42 2,896 53.412544 6,151 35.11 2,804 49.942545 6,110 35.24 2,884 49.332546 6,192 35.71 2,991 51.162547 6,035 35.43 2,860 49.752548 6,102 36.05 2,497 42.002549 4,366 25.92 1,390 22.78

    .. 100,000 100,000

  • 62

    3.2.3

    .. 2545 3-5 // 53.3 28.6 Real Parenting .. 2549 21-40 2-12 388 30.2 .. 25494 3-5 39.3 .. 2535 75.0 .. 2549 ( 4.18)

    4.18 3-5 .. 2535-.. 2549

    : ,

    4 (). Real Parenting 2549

    ..2535

    0

    39.3

    102030405060708090

    2536 2537 2538 2539 2540 2541 2542 2543 2544 2545 2546 2547 2548 2549

    45.8 49.1

    68.6375.0274.9574.4476.7571.2372.5174.2974.84

    79.55

    60.2556.9

  • 63

    1-18 .. 2544 9,488 6 63 6-18 ( , 10 ., 2546)

    3.3

    3.3.1

    31.13 .. 2543 .. 2563 38 ( 4.19)

    : .. 2543-2568,

    4.19

    ..2543

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    2548 2553 2558 2563

    31.13

    68.87

    32.55

    67.45

    34.27

    65.73

    36.14

    63.86 62.00

    38.00

  • 64

    .. 2540 .. 2540 37.2 13.4 .. 2545 33.0 19.2 .. 2549 35.6 14.4 ( 4.9)

    4.9 .. 2535-..2549

    : .. 2535, 2537, 2540, 2545, 2548 2549 , .. 2535, 2537, 2540, 2545, 2548 2549,

    : 1

    100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 17.6 33.6 26.8 12.4 11.8 13.6

    .. 2535 15.5 NA NA NA NA NA.. 2537 15.0 78.4 9.8 10.0 6.9 14.4.. 2540 13.4 74.1 10.5 8.8 5.9 15.9.. 2545 19.2 67.0 21.1 14.1 9.6 18.6.. 2548 11.7 67.5 13.4 9.5 5.8 14.8.. 2549 14.4 64.9 18.2 10.7 6.3 15.2

    1 0.6 1.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 29.7 - 31.2 28.8 26.9 43.5

    .. 2535 32.2 NA NA NA NA NA.. 2537 33.4 - 28.2 38.1 47.0 20.9.. 2540 37.2 - 32.0 39.6 55.5 20.3.. 2545 33.0 - 24.9 38.0 47.2 24.3.. 2548 39.1 - 24.6 42.0 55.5 23.7.. 2549 35.6 - 22.9 44.5 50.3 26.8

    1 2.1 - 0.4 3.0 4.2 0.4

  • 65

    (Mega city)

    3.3.2

    61,056 .. 2533 202,296 .. 2538 160,846 .. 2549 ( ) ..2549 705,293 539,416 ( 76.5) 90,073 ( 12.8) 75,804 ( 10.7) 20,000-90,000 () .. 2546

    3

    4.

    4.1

    (Child Watch) .. 2546 60

  • 65

    (Mega city)

    3.3.2

    61,056 .. 2533 202,296 .. 2538 160,846 .. 2549 ( ) ..2549 705,293 539,416 ( 76.5) 90,073 ( 12.8) 75,804 ( 10.7) 20,000-90,000 () .. 2546

    3

    4.

    4.1

    (Child Watch) .. 2546 60

  • 66

    4.2

    .. 2548 15 43.5 / 54.9 65.7

    ( 4.10)

    4.10 .. 2544 .. 2547

    : .. 2544, 2547, : 10

    - / 3.2 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.9 2.7- 2.0 2.0 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9- , 1.7 2.3 1.8 2.5 1.8 2.4- 1.8 2.6 1.7 2.0 1.7 2.2- 1.6 1.9 1.5 1.9 1.6 1.9- 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6- / 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4

    ( : )

    2547

    ( : )

    ( : )

    2544 2547 2544 2547 2544

  • 67

    4.3 UNDP (United Nation Development Program)

    Human Development Index : HDI () .. 2533 74 (HDI = 0.715) 173 4 .. 2538 74 .. 2533 59 174 (HDI = 0.838) 3 ( 4.22) HDI

    .. 2541-2547 (HDI = 0.745-0.784) 59 66-76 174 4 10 ( 4.11)

  • 68

    .. 2

    533

    /

    4.

    11

    (H

    uman

    Dev

    elopm

    ent I

    ndex

    )

    .

    . 253

    3-.

    . 254

    7

    :

    Huma

    n Dev

    elopm

    ent R

    eport

    , 199

    3-20

    06

    /

    .

    . 2538

    /

    .

    . 2541

    .. 2

    542

    .. 2

    544

    /

    /

    .. 2

    546.

    . 2547

    /

    /

    WH

    O/SE

    ARWH

    O/SE

    ARWH

    O/SE

    ARWH

    O/SE

    ARWH

    O/SE

    ARWH

    O/SE

    ARWH

    O/SE

    AR

    741

    0.715

    59

    10.8

    38

    741

    0.768

    66

    10.7

    57

    741

    0.768

    73

    10.7

    78

    741

    0.784

    86

    20.6

    63

    902

    0.716

    99

    30.7

    30

    813

    0.735

    99

    30.7

    30

    932

    0.751

    93

    20.7

    55

    112

    40.4

    97

    953

    0.683

    86

    20.7

    51

    772

    0.739

    86

    20.7

    51

    963

    0.745

    98

    30.7

    39

    108

    30.5

    15

    964

    0.679

    11

    24

    0.682

    10

    24

    0.677

    1

    124

    0.682

    11

    04

    0.697

    10

    84

    0.711

    123

    50.3

    90

    13

    15

    0.481

    131

    60.5

    49

    11

    86

    0.551

    131

    60.5

    49

    12

    96

    0.578

    130

    60.5

    81

    13

    46

    0.309

    139

    60.4

    51

    12

    75

    0.590

    115

    50.5

    71

    1

    275

    0.590

    127

    50.6

    02

    12

    65

    0.611

    159

    90.1

    50

    15

    59

    0.347

    136

    70.5

    11

    13

    08

    0.471

    136

    70.5

    11

    13

    47

    0.536

    135

    70.5

    38

    15

    28

    0.170

    152

    80.3

    51

    14

    39

    0.499

    129

    70.4

    8

    1

    439

    0.499

    136

    80.5

    26

    13

    89

    0.527

    147

    70.1

    89

    14

    77

    0.371

    139

    80.5

    02

    13

    29

    0.47

    139

    80.5

    02

    13

    99

    0.520

    137

    80.5

    30

    -

    --

    --

    -

    -

    --

    --

    -

    -

    --

    --

    -

    -

    --

    ASEA

    NAS

    EAN

    ASEA

    NAS

    EAN

    ASEA

    NAS

    EAN

    ASEA

    N

    431

    0.849

    28

    10.8

    96

    241

    0.881

    26

    10.8

    76

    281

    0.884

    2

    51

    0.907

    25

    10.9

    16

    44

    20.8

    47

    35

    20.8

    80

    32

    20.8

    48

    32

    20.8

    57

    31

    20.8

    72

    3

    32

    0.866

    342

    0.871

    5 7

    30.7

    90

    604

    0.834

    61

    30.7

    72

    563

    0.774

    58

    30.7

    90

    61

    30.7

    96

    613

    0.805

    74

    40.7

    15

    593

    0.838

    76

    40.7

    45

    664

    0.757

    74

    40.7

    68

    734

    0.778

    74

    40.7

    84

    92

    50.6

    03

    98

    60.6

    77

    77

    50.7

    44

    70

    50.7

    49

    85

    50.7

    51

    84

    50.7

    58

    84

    50.7

    63

    115

    70.4

    72

    122

    70.5

    60

    108

    60.6

    71

    101

    60.6

    82

    109

    60.6

    88

    108

    60.7

    04

    109

    70.7

    09

    108

    60.5

    15

    965

    0.679

    10

    97

    0.670

    10

    27

    0.677

    1

    127

    0.682

    11

    07

    0.697

    10

    86

    0.711

    123

    80.3

    90

    13

    18

    0.481

    125

    80.5

    85

    11

    88

    0.551

    131

    90.5

    49

    12

    98

    0.578

    130

    90.5

    81

    148

    100.1

    86

    140

    100.4

    22

    136

    90.5

    12

    121

    90.5

    41

    13

    08

    0.556

    13

    09

    0.571

    12

    98

    0.583

    141

    90.2

    46

    13

    69

    0.465

    140

    100.4

    84

    13

    110

    0.476

    135

    100.5

    25

    13

    310

    0.545

    133

    100.5

    53

    1-10

    1-10

    1-10

    1-10

    1-10

    1-10

    1-10

    1

    10.9

    83

    11

    0.960

    1

    10.9

    35

    11

    0.939

    1

    10.9

    44

    11

    0.963

    1

    10.9

    65

    22

    0.982

    2

    20.9

    46

    22

    0.934

    22

    0.936

    22

    0.942

    22

    0.956

    22

    0.960

    3

    30.9

    79

    33

    0.943

    33

    0.929

    3

    30.9

    36

    3

    30.9

    41

    3

    30.9

    55

    3

    30.9

    57

    4

    40.9

    78

    4

    40.9

    43

    4

    40.9

    29

    4

    40.9

    36

    4

    40.9

    39

    4

    40.9

    49

    4

    40.9

    56

    5

    50.9

    77

    5

    50.9

    42

    5

    50.9

    27

    55

    0.935

    5

    50.9

    38

    55

    0.949

    55

    0.951

    66

    0.976

    66

    0.942

    66

    0.926

    66

    0.934

    6

    60.9

    37

    6

    60.9

    49

    66

    0.950

    77

    0.972

    7

    70.9

    41

    77

    0.925

    77

    0.932

    77

    0.937

    77

    0.947

    77

    0.949

    8

    80.9

    71

    8

    80.9

    40

    88

    0.925

    8

    80.9

    31

    88

    0.937

    88

    0.946

    88

    0.948

    9

    90.9

    70

    9

    90.9

    39

    9

    90.9

    24

    9

    90.9

    28

    9

    90.9

    32

    99

    0.945

    99

    0.947

    10

    100.9

    64

    10

    100.9

    36

    1010

    0.918

    1010

    0.925

    1010

    0.932

    1010

    0.944

    10

    100.9

    47

  • 69

    5.

    5.1

    5.1.1 1)

    .. 2548 182,848.726 64,156.169 118,692.557 4 1,889

    175.9 146.3 .. 2552 2 4

    5,359.6 2)

    .. 2549 7 11

    3) 5

    10,143 / 8,685 / 36.5 .. 2549 30 100

    5.1.2

    .. 2549 7,073,450 40,052,612 112.6 1,000 637.5 1,000 .. 2549 66 1,000 ( 4.12) 30 .. 2534 8.46 .. 2549 13.5 14,226.2 .. 2549 ( 4.13) ( 4.12 4.14)

  • 70

    4.12 .. 2539-.. 2547

    : IMD. The World Competitiveness Yearbook, 1999 2006. : 1. * .. 2546

    2. ** .. 25493. 1,000 .. 2548

    498.4 529.0 484.1 472 432 147.5 229 381.45 761.1 894.7 233 316 390.9 596 601 192.5 192.5 219.3 206 174 88.4 101.9 145.05 372.9 571.2 53 65 94.5 137 216 78.6 85.5 101.9 99* 112.6** 27.8 34.5 138.6 346.8* 637.5** 22 28 40.4 43 66 30.7 42.7 37.9 46 42 12.9 17.7 36.97 189.1 398.5 11 13 19.5 25 42 17.8 24.7 29.1 34 45 3.0 5.4 9.83 48.5 134.8 6 9 13.4 13 19 684.1 685.4 694.5 750 715 281.8 358.1 590.08 900.3 1,084.7 286 353 510.4 687 776 636.6 625.6 709.8 701 606 161.9 205.6 314.87 496.9 621.1 403 450 538.9 739 778 564.9 609.1 711.9 754 472 296.1 383.0 627.03 787.0 1,036.0 307 363 506.8 657 743

    1,000

    1,000

    1,000

    2539 2540 2542 2545 2547 2539 2540 2542 2545 2547 2539 2540 2542 2545 2547

  • 71

    4.13 .. 2544, .. 2546,.. 2547, .. 2548 .. 2549

    : - .. 2544 2546,

    - () 1 .. 2547,

    - () 3 .. 2548,

    - () .. 2549,

    : (1) 11 (2) 6

    .. 2549(2)

    3,536,001 6,163.7 6,031,300 10,434.1 6,971,528 11,891.8 7,084,201 11,990.6 8,465,823 14,226.2 2,341,433 12,361.5 3,807,900 19,897.3 4,155,737 21,427.9 3,807,055 21,230.5 4,242,901 23,370.9 1,194,568 3,108.7 2,223,400 5,750.2 2,815,791 7,177.6 3,277,146 7,964.0 4,222,921 10,211.6

    1,234,542 16,774.1 2,005,700 26,862.3 1,999,943 26,585.4 1,630,752 25,895.8 1,774,375 27,961.7 830,389 6,322.6 1,336,300 10,077.3 1,517,514 11,212.0 1,706,396 11,857.5 2,028,575 13,906.6 516,114 4,988.6 1,003,200 9,682.4 1,210,949 11,423.6 1,285,577 11,902.9 1,581,412 14,656.7 559,193 2,937.4 1,070,100 5,586.5 1,485,725 7,687.2 1,660,707 8,411.9 2,103,780 10,599.5 395,763 5,283.3 616,000 8,147.4 757,396 9,914.3 800,769 10,200.5 977,680 12,316.2 5.7 9.5 11.1 11.4 13.5 (%)

    .. 2544(1) .. 2546(2) .. 2547(2) .. 2548(2)

  • 72

    4.14 .. 2541,.. 2543, .. 2545 .. 2548

    (2549) 4.0 8.42 10.63 14.66 22.2 43.9 54.4 71.8 0.55 1.85 2.31 2.42 18.3 44.6 51.9 53.9 1.1 3.46 4.35 4.88 18.3 48.7 59.6 70.3 0.55 1.49 2.06 3.20 15.3 39.0 52.7 78.4 3.0 6.4 11.6* 13.21 14.3 28.8 51.8 59.9 14.0 47.08 56 86.3 10.8 37.2 44.1 67.7 2.0 16.4 25.6 33.9 4.6 34.5 53.8 69.4 (2549) 0.67 2.3 4.8 8.46 1.1 3.7 7.7 13.5 0.4 3.7 5.7* 11.02 2.0 16.9 25.1 41.2 0.2 2.0 4.5 7.82 0.3 2.4 7.7 8.7 (2549) 1.5 22.5 45.8 123.0 0.1 1.7 3.5 9.3 0.1 1.45 4.4 16.0 0.1 0.6 1.9 7.3 0.4 5.0 7.0* 60.6 < 0.1 0.5 0.6 4.6 (2549) 0.15 0.04 0.4* 13.10 < 0.1 < 0.1 0.5 15.4

    % ()2541 2543 2545 2548 2541 2543 2545 2548

    Cable TV ( 4.15)

    : - Internet Users Worldwide, 2001-2002- The World Fact Book, 2006-2007

    : 1.

    2. * .. 2544

    = x 100

  • 73

    4.15 .. 2533-.. 2547

    72.6 70.8 75.5 68.9 63.6 61.3 80.3 88.7 91.6 93.0 5.8 10.1 21.9 29.2 23.9. 3 79.4 80.3 86.6 80.8 78.3 80.7 83.8 90.4 92.5 93.5 24.5 33.1 59.2 59.6 50.7 . 81.2 81.1 85.5 76.2 68.6 84.6 89.3 92.9 94.0 95.2 16.5 29.4 49.8 40.8 39.7 76.0 74.6 78.5 - - 70.8 86.3 90.5 - - 4.2 12.2 28.7 - -- 69.8 67.0 71.4 64.1 58.5 53.6 77.6 87.6 90.6 92.2 0.9 2.4 9.3 11.0 12.9

    .. 2546 54.7 ( 94.5) 24.8 ( 24.8) . 100

    : .. 2533, 2537, 2541, 2545, 2547

    : .. 2543

    2533 2537 2541 2545 2547 2533 2537 2541 2545 2547 2533 2537 2541 2545 2547

  • 74

    5.1.3 1) .. 2548 99.0 (68,375 )

    721 ( 1.0) 4.16

    4.16 .. 2535-.. 2548

    2) .. 2549 97.4 ( 4.20) .. 2549 97.5

    : 2535-2548 . 2.,

    : 1 2

    2535 59,354 54,719 92.2 2,466 4.2 2,169 3.62537 59,059 55,590 94.1 1,675 2.8 1,794 3.02539 60,215 57,523 95.5 1,198 2.0 1,494 2.52542 63,230 56,483 89.3 5,678 9.0 1,069 1.72544 66,193 60,128 90.8 4,698 7.1 1,367 2.12546 68,496 60,613 88.5 7,096 10.4 787 1.12548 69,096 64,807 93.8 3,568 5.2 721 1.0

    ..1 2

    ()

    ()

    ()

  • 75

    4.20 .. 2503-.. 2549

    (1)

    ( 5 2.6 )

    (2)

    5.2

    15,000 25,000 7,800 15 ( 10, ) 14 684

    : .. 2503-2543 .. 2544, .. 2546 .. 2548 2544, 2546, 2548, .. 2549 . 2549,

    ..

    120

    80

    60

    40

    20

    0

    100

    1.630.18.52 13.56

    92.25

    23.06

    65.96

    92.474.42

    2503

    93.21 95.49

    95.47

    95.51

    95.34

    94.6 96.9

    97.4

    2508

    2513

    2518

    2523

    2528

    2533

    2538

    2539

    2546

    2548

    2549

    2540

    2541

    2542

    2543

    2544

  • 76

    188 29 .. 2547 /

    5.3

    5.3.1

    2549 24 2540 10 24 2535-2549 ( 4.21)

  • 77

    4.21 10 24 .. 2535-.. 2549

    :

    .. 2549 36 20 10 24 ( 24 = 120/..) 298.2

    . . 1 .. 2539-2541 51 16 .. 2542 - 2549 10 252.6 /.. .. 2549

    10 6 2,330 9,626 28,009.6 2,000 65.0 6 5

    5 .. 2545-2547, 109-110.

    ..

    10

    24

    (

    /.

    .)

    450

    207

    350

    300

    250200

    150

    10050

    0

    400

    114

    49

    21

    80

    30

    174

    7129

    265

    79

    23

    416

    84

    19

    387

    89

    10

    251.3

    81.6

    9.4

    349.8

    244.4

    80.1

    13.3

    341

    79.9

    27

    268.6

    67.621.3

    208.9

    57.8

    9.3

    61.412.7

    224.8

    78.5

    21.5

    216.0

    64.1

    12.2

    224.8

    78.5

    21.5

    120 /..

    2535 2536 2537 2538 2539 2540 2541 2542 2543 2544 2545 2546 2547 2548 2549

  • 78

    4.17 .. 2535-.. 2549

    :

    5.3.2

    49 4 .. 2535-2549 6.25 .. 2535 36.67 .. 2545 21.0 .. 2549 18.75 .. 2535 53.0 .. 2549 ( 4.17)

    .. 2535-2548 11.68 .. 2537 61.0 ..2548 71.0 .. 2549 ( 4.17)

    2535 6.25 18.75 75.00 0.00 0.00 5.88 17.65 76.472536 8.33 19.44 61.11 11.11 0.00 12.50 50.00 37.502537 4.35 32.61 60.87 2.17 3.65 8.03 33.58 54.742538 10.87 21.74 56.52 10.87 4.17 15.28 36.11 44.442539 9.43 30.19 56.60 3.77 0.00 15.28 31.94 52.782540 20.75 35.85 37.74 5.66 3.70 16.67 31.48 48.152541 30.19 49.06 15.09 5.66 19.44 26.39 27.78 26.392542 20.75 35.85 39.62 3.77 12.04 24.07 34.26 29.632543 27.78 38.89 27.78 5.56 15.63 31.25 31.25 21.882544 18.52 40.74 33.33 7.41 31.94 22.22 26.39 19.442545 36.67 20.00 40.00 3.33 8.33 31.94 27.78 31.942546 32.0 31.00 31.0 6.0 25.0 32.0 13.0 30.02547 23.0 51.0 21.0 5.0 6.0 17.0 6.8 10.02548 17.0 49.0 29.0 5.0 35.0 26.0 35.0 4.02549 21.0 53.0 23.0 3.0 3.0 26.0 48.0 23.0

    ..

  • 79

    .. 2542 23 0.02% 7.59 ( 4.18) 4.96 2.64 ( 4.19)

    4.18 .. 2542

    6.97 0.17 0.46 7.59() 0.45 0.06 0.03 0.53 14.34 0.06 0.54 14.94

    () 21.75 0.28 1.03 23.06

    : Supakankunti Sripen, Pirus Pradithavani, and Tanawat Likitkererat, Valuing Heatlh and Eco-nomic Costs of Water Pollution in Thailand .. 2544 (), , 2001

    4.19 .. 2542

    : Supakankunti Sripen, Pirus Pradithavani, and Tanawat Likitkererat, Valuing Heatlh and Eco-nomic Costs of Water Pollution in Thailand .. 2544 (), , 2001

    4.69 4.5 2.28 24.0 6.97 0.03 9.7 0.14 32.5 0.17 0.24 4.5 0.22 31.5 0.46

    4.96 2.64 7.59()

  • 80

    6 (Leq) 24 24 7 .. 2542- 2543, 113-1148 .. 2542-2543, 113-114

    4.22 (Leq) 24 .. 2540-.. 2549

    :

    5.3.3

    .. 2540-..2549 17 11 (Leq)6 24 ( 4.22)

    Dr. Andrew W. Smith7 80 Schuttz (1978)8 70 22-95

    ..2540

    65

    70

    75

    80

    85

    90

    95

    100

    2541 2542 2543 2544 2545 2546 2547 2548 2549

    70 dBA

    82.379.7 79.3

    81.478.4

    77.380.5

    77.6

    88.786.8

    83.781.7

    86.3

    90.5

    80.6

    88.290.3 89.8

    88.1

    83.6

  • 81

    5.3.4

    .. 2537-.. 2546 60.3 38.5 1.2 .. 2549 7.4 3.7 ( 4.20) .. 2547 9,000 13.9 .. 2549 23 215 3

    ( 5 2.7 )

  • 82

    4.

    20

    ..25

    37-

    ..25

    49

    2549

    (

    )

    2537

    2538

    2540

    2541

    2542

    2543

    2544

    2545

    2546

    2547

    2548

    :

    :NA=

    Not

    Avail

    able

    ..25

    44

    ..25

    47

    ..25

    47

    1.

    4,8

    74,11

    55,0

    20,61

    14,8

    22,04

    24,6

    02,19

    75,0

    06,91

    96,0

    31,92

    75,5

    47,46

    76,3

    56,87

    26,7

    85,32

    06,6

    99,36

    37,1

    18,63

    97,4

    58,18

    3

    83

    9,228

    966,3

    461,0

    50,32

    783

    6,241

    1,080

    ,753

    1,777

    ,212

    1,200

    ,203

    1,331

    ,981

    1,527

    ,059

    1,623

    ,335

    1,786

    ,195

    1,797

    ,061

    2,1

    52,44

    82,3

    91,86

    22,1

    59,14

    12,2

    75,28

    32,2

    80,27

    12,3

    62,79

    72,3

    13,65

    72,6

    40,46

    62,8

    66,07

    73,1

    63,52

    13,4

    22,21

    43,4

    73,08

    7

    111,4

    6899

    ,302

    100,1

    5168

    ,971

    87,42

    710

    7,855

    104,8

    0612

    5,674

    137,6

    7916

    4,592

    155,0

    3315

    7,177

    47,11

    229

    ,628

    37,62

    421

    ,051

    24,86

    632

    ,018

    133,2

    5837

    ,672

    87,63

    264

    ,803

    44,87

    343

    ,097

    42

    ,843

    49,01

    644

    ,878

    33,05

    836

    ,785

    34,06

    635

    ,157

    35,98

    438

    ,608

    45,33

    544

    ,814

    42,70

    9

    69

    2,895

    656,8

    3562

    2,876

    571,3

    7671

    2,857

    787,6

    8174

    4,459

    875,1

    6794

    7,317

    1,054

    ,543

    1,071

    ,108

    1,072

    ,864

    54,56

    458

    ,399

    64,30

    751

    ,666

    91,40

    182

    ,987

    80,68

    291

    ,422

    104,9

    5111

    3,774

    123,5

    8913

    3,590

    93

    3,557

    769,2

    2374

    2,738

    744,5

    5169

    2,559

    847,3

    1193

    5,245

    1,218

    ,506

    1,075

    ,997

    469,4

    6047

    0,799

    738,6

    982.

    3,0

    47,57

    63,1

    88,23

    53,0

    33,19

    02,9

    05,71

    03,6

    10,58

    33,3

    78,73

    93,5

    10,83

    73,7

    36,76

    74,7

    87,32

    03,9

    93,17

    43,6

    66,43

    23,7

    82,88

    6

    29,71

    832

    ,248

    42,24

    032

    ,197

    48,99

    550

    ,272

    54,42

    867

    ,414

    69,73

    299

    ,841

    78,65

    410

    1,901

    3,0

    17,85

    83,1

    55,98

    72,9

    90,95

    02,8

    73,51

    33,5

    61,58

    83,3

    28,46

    73,4

    56,40

    93,6

    69,35

    34,7

    17,58

    83,8

    93,33

    33,5

    87,77

    83,6

    80,98

    53.

    90

    ,562

    84,51

    595

    ,225

    68,47

    589

    ,595

    116,3

    3313

    9,078

    132,4

    9015

    9,910

    NANA

    NA

    7,886

    9,732

    10,59

    26,9

    2910

    ,574

    13,72

    613

    ,240

    19,23

    919

    ,958

    NANA

    NA

    &

    3,2

    823,7

    523,7

    632,9

    383,8

    445,2

    235,3

    975,5

    905,7

    835,1

    116,1

    006,5

    26

    15,74

    74,7

    345,0

    183,2

    534,2

    356,5

    5718

    ,043

    6,069

    6,517

    NANA

    NA

    48

    ,934

    54,30

    855

    ,700

    43,01

    055

    ,563

    67,38

    180

    ,376

    75,16

    394

    ,774

    14,89

    518

    ,146

    30,38

    1

    14

    ,713

    11,98

    920

    ,152

    12,34

    515

    ,379

    23,44

    622

    ,022

    26,42

    932

    ,878

    22,93

    723

    ,952

    25,67

    3

    8,012

    ,253

    8,293

    ,361

    7,950

    ,457

    7,576

    ,382

    8,707

    ,097

    9,526

    ,999

    9,197

    ,382

    10,22

    6,129

    11,73

    2,550

    NANA

    NA

    (

    )NA

    +3.5

    - 8.9

    - 4.7

    +14.9

    +9.4

    -3.4

    +11.2

    +14.8

    NANA

    NA

  • 83

    5.3.5 0.9 .. 2533

    1.8 .. 2549 1.4 77.8 0.4 22.2 .. 2548 20

    5.4

    5.4.1 1,587 .. 2537

    1,802 .. 2540 2,696 .. 2549 13.5 49.6 .. 2549 439,235 34.1 (919 ) 21.4 (577 ) 44.5 (1,200 ) ( )

    (.) .. 2549 90.6 .. 2536 98.5 .. 2549 69.4 .. 2535 89.3 .. 2544 97.3 .. 2549

    20 5 3,031.3 .. 2527 10,476.55 .. 2549

    5.4.2 36.2 (.. 2549) 55.6

    13.7 ( 37.8) 22.5 ( 61.2)

    2 .. 2519 4.7 .. 2536 .. 2537 2.4 . 2549 44.9 100,000 .. 2522 11.19 100,000 .. 2546 17.55 .. 2548 ( 4.21) 9.46 ..

  • 84

    4.21 / ..2517-..2549

    2549 ( 4.23) 1.3 100,000 4 100,000 ( , , 2539)

    ()

    ..

    %

    ()

    ()

    ()

    ()

    : ,

    2517 272,848 3,200 1.2 95 34.8 - - 401 146.9 2,704 991.02518 349,814 4,605 1.3 2519 496,700 10,136 2.0 2520 570,000 15,335 2.7 2521 590,640 19,134 3.2 209 35.4 9 1.5 1,119 18.9 17,797 3,013.22522 659,041 24,370 3.7 296 44.9 8 1.2 1,104 16.8 22,962 3,484.12523 745,513 25,334 3.4 294 39.4 13 1.7 1,191 16.0 23,836 3,197.32524 797,270 27,723 3.5 314 39.4 10 1.3 1,275 16.0 26,124 3,276.72525 824,565 28,323 3.4 279 33.8 14 1.7 1,085 131.2 26,945 3,267.82526 873,059 33,213 3.8 272 31.2 5 0.6 514 62.3 32,422 3,713.62527 994,190 39,182 3.9 315 31.7 20 2.0 1,305 131.3 37,542 3,776.12528 1,091,318 39,119 3.7 315 28.9 18 1.7 1,159 106.2 37,627 3,447.82529 1,179,812 37,445 3.2 285 24.2 10 0.8 978 82.9 36,172 3,065.92530 1,232,555 42,811 3.5 315 25.6 10 0.8 1,158 93.9 41,328 3,353.02531 1,346,203 48,912 3.6 282 20.9 7 0.5 1,179 87.6 47,444 3,524.32532 1,661,651 62,766 3.8 373 22.5 15 0.9 1,582 95.2 60,796 3,658.82533 1,826,995 80,065 4.5 640 35.0 30 1.6 1,509 82.6 77,886 4,263.12534 2,751,868 102,273 3.9 581 21.1 9 0.3 2,141 77.8 99,542 3,617.32535 3,020,415 131,800 4.4 740 24.5 15 0.5 2,010 66.5 129,035 4,272.12536 3,355,805 156,543 4.7 980 29.2 10 0.3 5,436 161.9 150,122 4,473.52537 4,248,414 186,394 4.4 863 20.3 23 0.5 4,548 107.0 180,960 4,259.52538 4,903,736 216,525 4.4 940 19.2 17 0.4 5,469 111.5 209,909 4,280.62539 5,425,422 245,616 4.5 962 17.73 18 0.3 5,042 92.93 239,574 4,416.12540 6,084,822 230,376 3.8 1,033 16.97 29 0.4 5,272 86.64 224,042 3,681.92541 5,418,182 186,445 3.4 784 14.47 19 0.3 3,692 68.14 181,956 3,358.12542 5,679,567 172,087 3.0 627 11.04 14 0.2 3,437 60.51 168,009 2,958.12543 5,417,041 179,566 3.3 620 11.45 16 0.3 3,516 64.91 175,414 3,238.22544 5,884,652 189,621 3.2 607 10.31 20 0.3 3,510 59.65 185,484 3,152.02545 6,541,105 190,979 2.9 650 9.94 14 0.2 3,424 52.54 186,891 2,857.22546 7,033,907 210,673 3.0 787 11.19 17 0.2 3,821 54.32 206,048 2,929.352547 7,831,463 215,534 2.7 861 11.00 23 0.3 3,775 48.20 210,875 2,692.662548 8,225,477 214,235 2.6 1,444 17.55 19 0.2 3,425 41.64 209,347 2,545.102549 8,537,801 204,257 2.4 808 9.46 21 0.2 3,413 39.97 200,015 2,342.70

  • 85

    4.23 .. 2517-.. 2549

    :

    2.8 .. 2542 33.2 .. 2545 39.9 .. 2548 ( ..2542, 2545 .. 2548, )

    94

    5.4.3 1)

    .. 2548 1,035

    ..

    2520

    2517

    2523

    2526

    2529

    2532

    2535

    2538

    2541

    2544

    2547

    2549

    0

    10

    0,000

    ( 100 )

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    1.21.3

    2.73.2

    3.7

    44.9

    35.439.439.43.4

    3.4 33.83.5 3.8

    3.93.7

    3.2

    3.53.6

    3.8

    4.5

    3.9

    4.44.7

    4.44.4

    4.5

    3.83.4

    3.0

    3.33.22.93.02.7

    2.6 2.4

    9.46

    17.55

    11.011.19

    9.9410.31

    11.4511.0416.97

    17.7319.2

    20.3

    29.224.5

    21.1

    35

    14.47

    22.5

    20.9

    25.624.2

    28.9

    31.731.2

  • 86

    15 44.2 .. 2549 (Clean Food Good Taste) 60.2 (37,393 62,140 ) 65.2 (56,767 87,075 ) 59.6 (928 1,557 )

    .. 2546-2549 6 ( 4.22)

    4.22 .. 2546 - 2549

    : ,

    1. 2,132 96.0 1,111 115 10.4 8,515 731 8.5 2,997 65 2.22. 3,256 10.0 4,812 83 1.7 46,785 935 2.0 14,338 2 0.013. 2,099 7.2 4,315 206 4.8 45,614 1,260 2.8 15,378 88 0.64. 3,184 42.0 6,695 46 0.7 64,138 538 0.8 31,287 160 0.55. 2,471 10.0 3,800 46 1.2 38,342 735 1.9 13,743 206 1.56. 2,268 20.3 8,437 508 6.0 80,540 4,383 5.4 82,049 2,580 3.1

    (2546) 2547 2549

    ()

    ()

    ()

    4.0-8.2 2.9 ( 4.23)

  • 87

    4.35 100,000 .. 2519 216.26 100,000 .. 2549

    : - , - ,

    4.23 .. 2547-2549

    ()

    1)

    2)

    3)

    4) 12

    ,, ,

    903

    2,048

    1,746

    79,343

    74 ( 8.2) 677( 33.1) 40 ( 5.9) 376( 21.5) 11 ( 2.9) 18,407 (23.2) 737 ( 4.0)

    2548

    2548

    2547-2549

    2546-2549

  • 88

    : 1. .. 2529 .. 2538 3 4

    2. .. 2543 .. 2543, 3. .. 2544 .. 2544,

    4. .. 2548 ..

    2548-2549, : * 1

    2) .. 2529-2544

    .. 2548 ( 4.24)

    4.24 .. 2529 - .. 2548

    3,181 809 3,260 4,069 5,291,871 10,645,933 15,937,804 27,183 143,904 171,087 50,000 32,000 82,000() NA 23.4 8.2 11.2 40.6 9.2 19.5 35.5 9.7 13.7 48.8 20.0 29.0 15.8 27.6 9.4 13.0 36.4 16.8 23.2 26.1 16.1 17.7 36.0 15.3 21.7 39.2 42.2 52.2 50.2 16.1 51.0 39.6 27.5 51.3 47.6 10.7 49.6 37.4 / 26.2 27.0 52.5 47.4 6.7 21.9 16.9 9.7 21.8 19.9 3.7 14.2 11.0 / 19.0 0.9 2.7 2.3 0.2 1.1 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.5 0.1 0.4 0.2

    *

    ..2529

    .. 2538

    .. 2543 .. 2544 .. 2548

    }

  • 89

    .. 2538-.. 2548 70 ( 4.25)

    .. 2538 - 2549 71.7 . 57.3 ( 4.24)

    65-93 ( 4.26)

  • 90

    4538

    27NA

    7556

    118

    8181

    70-

    --

    --

    --

    --

    -(84

    .4)(74

    .7)(68

    .6)(86

    .4)

    129

    9554

    727

    61,4

    7071

    31,5

    681,3

    9753

    229

    412

    092

    (73.6)

    (50.4)

    (48.5)

    (89.1)

    (55.3)

    (76.7)

    9070

    230

    180

    2411

    8

    368

    1068

    -51

    1816

    189

    900

    442

    570

    504

    203

    171

    (77.8)

    (80.4)

    (45.8)

    (37.5)

    (14.7)

    (35.3)

    (55.3)

    (49.1)

    (88.4)

    (84.2)

    4322

    327

    9049

    623

    237

    016

    451

    18-

    --

    --

    --

    -(51

    .2)(27

    .5)(46

    .8)(44

    .3)(35

    .3)

    209

    102

    1,683

    399

    465

    108

    3,925

    1,103

    5,041

    2,039

    4,246

    1,507

    2,673

    2,297

    1,318

    760

    --

    --

    221

    (48.8)

    (23.7)

    (23.2)

    (28.1)

    (40.4)

    (35.5)

    (85.9)

    (57.7)

    (4.5)

    NA

    NA36

    537

    222

    2819

    178

    125

    5426

    7-

    --

    --

    --

    --

    -(10

    .1)(12

    .6)(40

    .8)(43

    .2)(26

    .9)

    6527

    438

    377

    355

    1525

    862

    277

    112

    280

    102

    --

    174

    5046

    2254

    116

    -(41

    .5)(86

    .1)(4.

    2)(24

    .0)(40

    .4)(36

    .4)(28

    .7)(47

    .8)(20

    .4)

    65

    2349

    598

    121

    629

    810

    490

    2769

    19-

    --

    -30

    4-

    -15

    2(35

    .4)(19

    .8)(5.

    0)(34

    .9)(30

    .0)(27

    .5)(13

    .3)(13

    .3)

    1,462

    968

    407

    286

    3,225

    2,837

    4,496

    3,167

    3,766

    2,329

    1,033

    788

    3,551

    2,383

    2,996

    2,121

    2,065

    1,543

    1,113

    926

    466

    381

    (66.2)

    (70.3)

    (88.0)

    (70.4)

    (61.8)

    (76.3)

    (67.1)

    (70.8)

    (74.7)

    (83.2)

    (81.7)

    32

    942

    3018

    717

    040

    120

    333

    517

    428

    513

    829

    915

    627

    317

    038

    024

    821

    812

    112

    954

    (28.1)

    (71.4)

    (90.9)

    (50.6)

    (51.9)

    (48.4)

    (52.2)

    (62.3)

    (65.3)

    (48.8)

    (41.9)

    4.

    25

    ..

    253

    8-.

    . 254

    9

    ..

    2538

    ..

    2539

    ..

    2540

    ..

    2541

    ..

    2542

    ..

    2543

    ..

    2544

    ..

    2545

    ..

    2547

    ..

    2548

    ..

    2549

    :

    :

    1.

    ()

    2. .

    .2549

    } }}

    }}

    }

  • 91

    4.26 .. 2547

    : - , , 2547- , , 2547

    1. 950

    2. 950, 20 )

    3. ( 20 )

    4. (20 )

    233

    121

    44

    294

    6.9(16) 93.1(217) 84.5 (197)

    14.9 (18) 85.1(103 ) 71.1 (86 )

    84.1 (37) 15.9 (7) 34.7 (102) 65.3(192 )

    2547

    2547

    2547

    2547

  • 92

    4.27 .. 2535-.. 2549

    5.4.4 .. 2549 14.59

    3.06 ( 21.0) 4.71 ( 32.3) / 6.82 ( 46.7) .. 2535-.. 2549 2.1 ..2544 / ( 4.27)

    2535 2.19 - 1.16 - 1.62 - 5.81 - 10.78 -2536 2.57 + 17.3 1.25 + 7.7 1.51 - 6.8 5.85 + 0.7 11.18 + 3.72537 2.56 - 0.4 2.05 + 64.0 1.53 + 1.3 5.91 + 1.0 12.05 + 7.82538 2.63 + 2.7 2.30 + 12.2 1.69 + 10.5 5.96 + 0.8 12.58 + 4.42839 2.95 + 12.2 2.43 + 5.6 1.78 + 5.3 5.97 + 0.2 13.13 + 4.42540 3.26 + 10.5 3.0 + 23.4 1.75 - 1.7 5.5 - 7.9 13.51 + 2.92541 3.10 - 4.9 2.71 - 9.7 1.74 - 0.6 6.04 + 9.8 13.59 + 0.62542 3.28 + 5.8 4.50 + 66.0 - - 6.04 - 13.82 + 1.72543 3.33 + 1.5 4.3 - 4.44 - - 6.3 + 4.3 13.93 + 0.82544 3.40 +2.1 4.34 +0.9 - - 6.36 +1.0 14.10 +1.22545 3.51 +3.2 4.37 +0.7 - - 6.43 +1.1 14.31 +1.52546 3.41 -2.8 4.42 +1.1 - - 6.50 +1.1 14.33 +0.12547 3.41 - 4.56 +3.2 - - 6.60 +1.5 14.57 +1.72548 3.04 -10.8 4.61 +1.1 - - 6.67 +1.1 14.32 -1.72549 3.06 +0.6 4.71 +2.2 - - 6.82 +2.2 14.59 +1.9

    ...

    /

    ()

    ..

    /

    ()

    /

    ()

    /

    ()

    /

    ()

    /

    : : .. 2542

  • 93

    .. 2549 99.1 4.24 100% 61.3 (46 75 ) (, 2542) .. 2544 97.9 (, 2544) 47.1 ( 4.28)

    4.24 .. 2503-.. 2548

    : - .. 2503-.. 2543 - .. 2544

    .. 2544 - .. 2548

    .. 2548-2549,

    4.28 .. 2549

    :

    1. 94.9 5.12. 78.3 21.73. 47.1 52.94. 83.0 17.0 4 47.1 52.9

    () ()

    ..

    2503

    0

    20406080

    100120

    0.7 5.6720.09

    33.8742.79 47.11

    73.84

    99.196.14

    96.92

    98.27

    98.11

    98.18

    98.05

    96.2

    2508

    2513

    2518

    2523

    2528

    2533

    2538

    2539

    2540

    2541

    2542

    2543

    2544

    2548

  • 94

    6.

    6.1 .. 2540 8

    .. 2540 () .. 2549 1 .. 2550 24 .. 2550 2550

    6.2

    6.2.1

    .. 2544 ... ..2545 ... ( 5) .. 2545 .. 2546

  • 95

    2547 2546 2.61 .. 2546 3.82 .. 2547 4.29

    4.29 .. 2546-2548

    25481.

    - 50 .. 2550

    - ( 2547)

    2.

    - / (Non-core Functions) 80 2550

    - 90 3/1 ( 5) .. 2545 .. 2546 .. 2550

    - (Deregulation) 100 .. 2550

    -

    18 .. 2546 - 2550

    44.1

    -

    -

    68.5

    ... 194 // 447

    17.5

    47.8

    76.58

    -

    -

    . 89 . 22 301 1,201 1,434

    18.0

    51.8

    76.64

    73.0

    100.0

    233

    127

    17.5

    2546 2547

  • 96

    : 1. 3 ... 9 (..2545-2549),

    2. , 2550

    2548

    - 10 .. 2550

    3.

    1 .. 2550 P.S.O. ISO

    (Competencies) 80 .. 2550

    90 .. 2550

    4. - 80

    .. 2550

    - 80 .. 2550

    - 20 .. 2546-2550

    0.04(

    691)

    25.5

    26.2

    55.3

    45.6

    77.9

    75.2

    65.4

    -

    3.84( 45,330)

    36.0

    100

    94.7

    98.0

    94.0

    79.3

    -

    4.35(

    50,000 .. 2545)

    -

    60.0

    80

    80

    -

    2546 2547

  • 97

    9 . , , 2542

    6.2.2

    14 9 .. 2544 IMD .. 2540-2548 2.91 .. 2540 3.86 .. 2548 28 ..2540 16 .. 2548 3.64 21 .. 2549( 4.25) ( 4.30)

  • 98

    4.25 .. 2540-.. 2549

    28 24 31 24 19 16 21

    : IMD. The World Competitiveness Yearbook, 1997-2006

    25492540 2542 2543 2545 2547 2548

    ..2540

    0

    0.51

    1.52

    2.53

    3.54

    2.91 3.14 2.86

    3.493.93 3.86 3.64

    2542 2543 2545 2547 2548 2549

    4.5

  • 99

    ASEA

    NAS

    EAN

    ASEA

    NAS

    EAN

    ASEA

    N

    11

    6.88

    1

    17.4

    5

    11

    7.46

    4

    15.9

    5

    21

    6.67

    15

    24.6

    9

    162

    4.20

    13

    24.5

    9

    102

    4.82

    11

    34.8

    7

    284

    2.91

    24

    33.1

    4

    243

    3.49

    19

    33.9

    3

    212

    3.64

    273

    2.96

    344

    2.32

    415

    2.00

    494

    1.86

    534

    1.67

    32

    52.6

    7

    395

    1.80

    32

    42.8

    3

    565

    1.50

    48

    51.8

    3

    -

    --

    --

    -

    -

    --

    --

    -

    -

    --

    -

    --

    -

    --

    -

    --

    -

    --

    -

    --

    --

    -

    -

    --

    --

    -

    -

    --

    --

    -

    --

    -

    --

    -

    --

    -

    --

    -

    --

    -

    -

    --

    --

    -

    -

    --

    --

    -

    -

    --

    1-10

    1-10

    1-10

    1-10

    1-10

    11

    6.88

    1

    17.4

    5

    11

    7.46

    1

    16.4

    1

    1

    16.7

    4

    2

    26.6

    3

    2

    27.0

    3

    2

    26.8

    3

    2

    26.4

    0

    22

    6.67

    33

    6.49

    33

    6.28

    33

    6.09

    33

    6.09

    33

    6.62

    4

    46.0

    9

    44

    5.87

    44

    5.95

    4

    45.9

    5

    4

    46.5

    4

    5

    56.0

    8

    5

    55.5

    4

    55

    5.77

    55

    5.45

    5

    56.5

    4

    6

    65.8

    9

    6

    65.3

    3

    6

    65.7

    1

    6

    65.1

    1

    66

    5.66

    77

    5.80

    77

    5.19

    77

    5.70

    7

    74.8

    9

    77

    5.22

    8

    85.6

    7

    8

    85.1

    6

    8

    85.3

    2

    8

    84.8

    5

    8

    85.0

    7

    99

    5.41

    9

    94.9

    8

    9

    95.2

    1

    99

    4.84

    99

    5.02

    1

    010

    5.38

    1010

    4.97

    10

    105.0

    6

    1010

    4.82

    1010

    4.97

    4.

    30

    .

    . 254

    0 -

    .. 25

    49

    :

    IMD.

    The

    Worl

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    97-2

    006

    ..

    2540

    .. 2

    542

    .. 2

    545

    .. 2

    547

    .. 2

    549

  • 100

    6.2.3

    .. 2523-2548 2.42 .. 2523-2528 3.8 .. 2548 3.6 .. 2549 63 163 ( 4.26) ( 4.31)

    4.26 .. 2523-2549

    : Transparency International, 1998-2006

    ..

    2523

    -252

    8

    2531

    -253

    5

    2538

    2539

    2540

    2541

    2542

    2543

    2544

    2545

    2546

    2547

    2548

    2549

    0

    0.51

    1.52

    2.53

    3.54

    2.42

    1.85

    2.79

    3.333.06 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2

    3.3 3.33.8 3.6

  • 101

    4.31

    ..

    2541

    - .

    . 254

    9

    ASEA

    NAS

    EAN

    ASEA

    NAS

    EAN

    ASEA

    NAS

    EAN

    7

    19.1

    6

    19.1

    5

    19.3

    5

    19.3

    5

    19.4

    5

    19.4

    29

    25.3

    36

    24.8

    33

    24.9

    39

    25.0

    39

    25.1

    44

    25.0

    61

    43.0

    60

    33.2

    64

    33.2

    64

    33.6

    59

    33.8

    65

    33.6

    553

    3.3

    69

    42.8

    774

    2.6

    10

    24

    2.6

    11

    75

    2.5

    12

    65

    2.5

    806

    2.0

    856

    1.7

    966

    1.9

    133

    62.0

    13

    77

    2.2

    134

    62.4

    --

    -

    -

    --

    --

    -

    -

    --

    --

    -

    -

    --

    74

    52.5

    76

    52.5

    85

    52.4

    10

    24

    2.6

    107

    42.6

    11

    85

    2.6

    -

    --

    --

    -

    -

    --

    142

    71.7

    155

    81.8

    162

    81.9

    -

    --

    -

    --

    -

    --

    -

    --

    13

    06

    2.3

    152

    72.1

    -

    --

    -

    --

    -

    --

    -

    --

    -

    --

    11

    44

    2.6

    10

    10

    10

    10

    10

    10

    11

    10.0

    11

    10.0

    11

    9.7

    1

    19.7

    11

    9.7

    1

    19.6

    22

    9.6

    22

    9.8

    22

    9.5

    2

    29.6

    22

    9.6

    2

    29.6

    33

    9.5

    3

    39.4

    22

    9.5

    33

    9.5

    2

    29.6

    33

    9.6

    4

    49.4

    33

    9.4

    4

    49.4

    33

    9.5

    44

    9.5

    44

    9.5

    5

    59.3

    5

    59.2

    5

    59.3

    5

    59.3

    5

    59.4

    5

    59.4

    6

    69.2

    66

    9.1

    5

    59.3

    66

    9.2

    6

    69.2

    66

    9.2

    77

    9.1

    66

    9.1

    77

    9.0

    77

    9.1

    77

    9.1

    77

    9.1

    88

    9.0

    66

    9.1

    7

    79.0

    8

    88.9

    8

    88.9

    8

    88.8

    8

    89.0

    9

    98.9

    7

    79.0

    99

    8.8

    9

    98.8

    99

    8.7

    1

    010

    8.9

    10

    108.7

    1010

    8.7

    1010

    8.7

    1010

    8.7

    1010

    8.7

    :

    Tran

    spare

    ncy I

    nterna

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    Dr.

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    :

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    1-

    10

    0

    10

    2.

    3

    .. 2

    541

    .. 2

    543

    .. 2

    545

    .. 2

    547

    .. 2

    548

    .. 2

    549

  • 102

    2548-492544-45 2545-46 2546-47 2547-48

    1. 3.7 3.8 4.1 4.3 4.5 ( - ) ( - ) ( + ) ( + )

    2. 3.7 4.3 4.3 4.1 4.8- ( - ) ( - ) ( - ) ( - ) ( + )

    3. - 4.3 4.4 4.1 - - ( - ) ( + ) ( - ) -

    4. - 4.7 5.0 4.7 5.2 - ( - ) ( + ) ( + )

    5. 4.2 4.8 5.1 5.2 5.4 ( - ) ( - ) ( + ) ( + ) ( + )

    6. 4.6 5.1 5.3 5.3 - ( - ) ( + ) ( + ) ( + ) -

    7. 4.7 5.5 5.8 5.7 5.6 ( - ) ( + ) ( + ) ( + ) ( + )

    The Global Competitiveness Report 2544/45 2548/49 World Economic Forum (WEF) (Chief Executive Of-fice: CEO) 7 ( 4.32)

    4.32 2544-2549

    : World Economic Forum 2544-2549 9 .. 2545-2549,

    : (-) (+) (-) (+)

  • 103

    6.3 ... ..

    2542 .. 2540 ... 1-2

    7.

    7.1

    7.1.1 (Information and Communication Technology: ICT) Telemedicine, Diagnostic ImagingTechnology

    7.1.2 (Genetics & Biotechnology) Digi-tal-Genomics Convergence Treatment Preventive , , (Stem cell) Recombinant DNA,Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Genomics

    7.1.3 (Material Technology) /

    7.1.4 (Nanotechnology)

  • 103

    6.3 ... ..

    2542 .. 2540 ... 1-2

    7.

    7.1

    7.1.1 (Information and Communication Technology: ICT) Telemedicine, Diagnostic ImagingTechnology

    7.1.2 (Genetics & Biotechnology) Digi-tal-Genomics Convergence Treatment Preventive , , (Stem cell) Recombinant DNA,Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Genomics

    7.1.3 (Material Technology) /

    7.1.4 (Nanotechnology)

  • 104

    2,493.2 .. 2534 15,799.1 .. 2548

    7.2

    ( 6 3 )

    8.

    ( 4.33)

    ..2542 .. 2547 15 ( 4.34)

  • 104

    2,493.2 .. 2534 15,799.1 .. 2548

    7.2

    ( 6 3 )

    8.

    ( 4.33)

    ..2542 .. 2547 15 ( 4.34)

  • 105

    4.33 10 ( (Disability Adjusted Life Years-DALYs) 3 ) .. 2543

    : World Health Report 2002

    1 14.9 6.2 12.22 10.2 5.0 10.93 5.5 4.0 9.2

    4 3.6 3.1 7.6

    5 3.2 2.7 7.46 3.1 2.1 3.9

    7 3.0 1.9 3.3

    8 2.5 1.9 1.8

    9 2.0 1.8 0.810 1.9 1.8 0.7

    10 49.9 30.5 57.8

  • 106

    4.34

    DALY

    s

    .. 2

    542

    .

    . 254

    7

    1

    7.6

    135.1

    91

    3.99

    4.511

    2

    5.4

    98.6

    162

    2.56

    2.46

    3

    5.09

    4.48

    3

    2.5

    62.3

    64

    3.6

    63.3

    64

    1.1

    31.1

    35

    2.95

    2.65

    5

    0.82

    0.72

    6

    1.4

    21.3

    26

    0.72

    0.62

    7

    1.22

    1.12

    7

    0.72

    0.51

    8

    1.12

    0.92

    8

    0.72

    0.51

    9

    0.71

    3.36

    9

    0.4

    10.4

    110

    0.51

    0.61

    10

    0.41

    0.72

    11

    0.51

    0.51

    11

    0.3

    10.3

    112

    0.20

    0.31

    12

    0.20

    0.41

    13

    0.20

    0.31

    13

    0.10

    0.31

    14

    0.20

    0.41

    14

    -

    0.10

    0.10

    15

    -

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    15

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    * M

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    2549

    ..2

    547

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    DALY

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    (X10

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    ..

    2547

    ..2

    542

    DALY

    sDA

    LYs

  • 107

    4.27 6

    : .. 2548 (),

    8.1

    50 2010

    .. 2548 6 80 ( 98.9) (97.4) ( 86.3) ( 83.2) 71.7 49.0 15.3 10.1 ( 4.27)

    10 . , 2546

    0

    20 40 60 80 100 120

    89.9

    16.8

    28.3

    1.1

    84.7

    51.1

    13.7

    2.1

    10.1

    83.2

    71.7

    98.9

    15.3

    48.9

    86.3

    97.4

  • 108

    3 ..2546-2547 15 (400-800 ) 268 283 80 200 ( 4.35)

    4.35 15

    15-29 285 30030-44 272 29345-59 261 28360-69 238 24570-79 216 215

    80 203 193 268 283

    ( /) ()

    : 3 (.. 2546-2547),

    .. 2549 38.7 / / ( 4.28)

    37.5

  • 109

    : 3, ()

    4.28

    4.29 .. 2526-.. 2549

    :

    2 2.6 12.7// .. 2526 33.2 // .. 2549 ( 4.29)

    /

    ..

    25260

    12.7

    5101520253035

    2528 2530 2532 2534 2536 2538 2540 2542 2544 2546 2548

    12.912.9

    12.8

    14.814.6

    15.917.8

    18.920.3

    21.723.0

    25.826.5

    28.5

    27.926.7

    27.2

    29.129.3

    30.5

    29.6

    32.433.2

    56.754.654.1

    37.9

    35.1

    34.833.4

    23.118.5

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60

    2549

  • 110

    3 - 5 20-29 , 30-39 60 (4.30) 35-59 ( 4.36) 11

    : : >20 = BMI > 25 /

    4.30 ..2529, .. 2538 .. 2546

    11 . , 2546

    3 .. 2529

    4 .. 2538

    5 .. 2546

    ()20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    45

    2.9

    20.4 21.7 19.4

    29.832.1

    19.1

    40.238.1

    28.6

    35.033.2

    0

    12.1

    23.8

  • 111

    4.36 ( 35-59 )

    : 1. . , 2546

    2. 3 .. 2546-2547, ,

    : 2543

    5 .. 2543 - ..2544 6 87.4 DMFT 6.0 / .. 2527 71.6 DMFT 4.9 / ( 4.37 4.38) .. 2538-.. 2544 5-6 6-15 12 DMFT 1.6-2 / 5 .. 2549 5 61.7 40.4 24 46.1 10.612 ..2547-.. 2548 26.95 20.28 13

    3

    (..2546-2547)

    189 198 201 207(mg/dl) 87 92 99 100(mg/dl) (BMI) 22.8 23.8 24.4 24.6(kg/m2) (%) 20 25 30 38 (%) 5 8 9 10

    1

    (..2534-2535)

    2

    (..2539-2540)

    InterASIA

    (..2543-2544)

    12 . 5 , 254913 . 2547-2548, 2549

  • 112

    4.37 ..2527,.. 2532,.. 2537 .. 2543-.. 2544

    2543-2544

    3* - 66.5 61.7 65.76* 71.6 83.1 85.1 87.46** 74.4 82.8 85.3 87.56 30.3 19.2 11.1 -12 45.8 49.2 53.9 57.318 63.1 63.3 63.7 62.135 - 44 80.2 76.8 85.7 85.660 95.2 93.9 95.0 95.6

    : 2, 3, 4,5 : * ** ()

    () 2527 2532 2537

    4.38 (DMFT) .. 2527, .. 2532, .. 2537 .. 2543-2544

    : 2, 3, 4, 5 : * ** ()

    2543-2544

    3* - 4.0 3.4 3.66* 4.9 5.6 5.7 6.06** 0.5 0.3 0.3 -12 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.618 3.0 2.7 2.4 2.1

    35 - 44 5.4 5.4 6.5 6.160 16.3 16.2 15.8 14.4

    () 2527 2532 2537

  • 113

    4.31

    : OECD Health Data 2006 : OECD OTC

    OTC

    8.2 .. 2548 103,517 ()

    186,331 () 42.8 ( 6 3 ) 10-20 ( 4.31) .. 2531-2548

    ( ) 2 3 1 3 ( 4.39)

    05

    10

    2025303540

    15 12.317.7 18.9 16.3 18.9

    12.8

    42.8

  • 114

    4034

    3434

    3432

    3230

    3026

    2626

    24

    4346

    5252

    5258

    5860

    6064

    6464

    66

    10

    159

    99

    2

    22

    22

    53

    33

    33

    32

    21

    11

    2

    77

    88

    9

    99

    8

    .

    .2537

    (

    ).

    .2538

    (

    )

    4.

    39

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    :

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    ..25

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    ..25

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    }}

    }}

    }}

  • 115

    4.40 11

    : , 2545

    38.6 14 ( 4.40) ( 4.32)

    3 .. 2546-2547 8-9 15 1 ( 4.41)

    14 . , 2545

    ()

    Ceftriaxone . .. 41-.. 42 9 77.8Parenteral antibiotics . ..-.. 40 203 39.4Ciprofloxacin . ..-.. 38 24 50.0Parenteral ntibiotics . ..-.. 36 219 44.7Ceftazidime . ..-.. 42 48 60.4Ceftazidime . ..-.. 39 49 40.0Cephalosporins . .. 34- .. 35 144 13.2-15.3Ceftazidime . ..-.. 39 114 25.0Ceftazidime . ..-.. 43 59 37.5Ceftriaxone . .. 37 17 41.0Cephalosporins . .. 38-.. 39 258 70.2

  • 116

    4.41 -

    ()

    : 3 (.. 2546-2547),

    15-29 1.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 1.5 3.330-44 3.6 0.4 0.8 0.1 0.8 7.845-59 5.2 0.5 0.7 0.2 1.5 15.860-69 7.9 0.5 1.3 0.0 4.0 27.670-79 8.0 0.6 1.8 0.1 6.2 29.880+ 8.4 0.3 2.7 0.2 6.6 34.4 3.8 0.4 0.7 0.1 1.7 10.6

    15-29 2.2 0.1 0.1 0.3 2.6 8.930-44 3.8 0.4 0.5 0.1 2.1 14.445-59 6.5 0.8 2.1 0.1 3.3 26.160-69 10.0 1.5 2.9 0.2 6.7 33.370-79 12.7 1.1 2.7 0.1 8.4 36.780+ 10.6 0.5 2.2 0.0 10.6 30.2 4.9 0.5 1.0 0.2 3.4 18.1

  • 117

    8.3

    ..2549 36,367 87.6 / ( 4.42) .. 2544-2545 71 // 20.5 .. 2542 20.3 .. 2549 ( 15-24 ) ( 25-59) ( 60 ) .. 2542-.. 2544 .. 2544-2549

    (4.43 4.44) .. 2025 8 20 60

    4.32 .. 2532-.. 2549

    : Media Data Resources (MDR) : 1.

    2.

    ..0

    1,82320004,0006,0008,000

    10,00012,00014,00016,00018,000

    2532 2533 2534 2535 2536 2537 2538 2539 2540 2541 2542 2543 2544 2545 2546 2547 2548 2549

    1,026375

    2,2811,220

    511

    2,6771,464

    619

    3,0731,821

    650

    3,792

    2,835

    714

    4,470

    3,315

    842

    5,722

    3,381

    1,013

    7,653

    2,9151,127

    8,004

    4,791

    1,053

    6,566

    4,8051,012

    7,635

    5,590

    1,197

    9,627

    6,555

    1,335

    10,055

    7,290

    1,503

    12,505

    10,209

    1,769

    13,708

    11,141

    2,402

    14,615

    12,544

    2,423

    16,500

    13,723

    2,346

    16,716

    15,932

    2,496

  • 118

    15 . , 254616 . 7 (..-.. 2543)17 .. . (

    )

    45 15 .. 2546 / 1 3 13 9.0-10.6 ( 4.33) ( 4.45) 4.1 .. 2540 22.6 .. 2549 95.9 .. 2540 77.4 .. 2549 ( 4.46)

    15 15.07 150 2546 500 2 200,000 1 3 16

    42,000 115 6 17 90 82 80

  • 119

    4.

    42

    .. 25

    31 -

    .. 2

    549

    :

    -

    -

    ,

    34,090

    38,718

    38,887

    38,825

    40,068

    42,245

    .244,

    849.6

    45,755

    .347,

    235.9

    48,336

    .639,

    057.1

    36,166

    .136,

    469.7

    29,502

    29,682

    31,366

    34,174

    34,237

    36,367

    (

    )

    (/

    /)

    91.5

    100.6

    98.4

    95.8

    96.5

    101.7

    108.0

    110.2

    113.8

    116.4

    98.8

    87.1

    87.8

    71.0

    71.5

    75.5

    82.3

    82.4

    87.6

    (

    )-

    --

    1251

    6071

    7177

    99172

    261239

    261262

    293508

    574454

    (

    )-

    --

    -716

    .8968

    .5787

    .01,0

    32.1

    952.2

    907.3

    2,755.

    64,2

    89.8

    4,586.

    36,1

    51.9

    6,136

    6,472

    8,698.

    79,8

    10.3

    9,548.

    8

    32,

    505.41

    37,198

    .4738,

    235.21

    39,719

    .5539,

    591.40

    41,219

    .6344,

    542.46

    43,183

    .8347,

    751.79

    47,125

    .7534,

    568.73

    32,023

    .6331,

    796.45

    29,742

    .3529,

    598.67

    31,498

    .9533,

    685.42

    34,030

    .029,

    148.80

    1,625.

    271,8

    59.92

    1,911.

    761,9

    86.0

    1,979.

    572,0

    60.98

    2,227.

    122,1

    59.19

    2,387.