T e t r a g r a mmat o n - Greek New Testament Patristic writings Peshitta Vulgate U s

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  • 12/25/2018 Tetragrammaton - Wikipedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetragrammaton 1/24

    Tetragrammaton The tetragrammaton (/ˌtɛtrəˈɡræmətɒn/; from Greek Τετραγράμματον, meaning " [consisting of] four letters"), יהוה in Hebrew and YHWH in Latin script, is the four-letter

    biblical name of the God of Israel.[1][2] The books of the Torah and the rest of the Hebrew

    Bible (with the exception of Esther and Song of Songs) contain this Hebrew name.

    Religiously observant Jews and those who follow Talmudic Jewish traditions do not

    pronounce יהוה , nor do they read aloud transliterated forms such as Yahweh; instead the

    word is substituted with a different term, whether used to address or to refer to the God of

    Israel. Common substitutions for Hebrew forms are hakadosh baruch hu ("The Holy One, Blessed Be He"), Adonai ("The Lord"),[3] or HaShem ("The Name").

    Four letters Pronunciation

    YHWH and Hebrew script Yehowah Yahweh Theophoric names

    Textual evidence Non-biblical sources Hebrew Bible

    Scholarly texts of the Hebrew Bible Leningrad Codex Dead Sea Scrolls

    The occurrence of the Tetragrammaton in some manuscripts at Qumran Septuagint and other Old Greek translations

    Apocrypha Greek New Testament Patristic writings Peshitta Vulgate

    Usage in religious traditions Judaism

    Spoken prohibitions Written prohibitions Kabbalah

    Samaritans Christianity

    Christian translations Eastern Orthodoxy Catholicism

    See also Notes References

    Citations Bibliography

    The tetragrammaton in Phoenician (12th century BCE to 150 BCE), Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA/English https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_language https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torah https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Esther https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Song_of_Songs https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talmud https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yahweh https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_God_in_Judaism#Adonai https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_God_in_Judaism#HaShem https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tetragrammaton_scripts.svg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenician_alphabet https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleo-Hebrew_alphabet https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_alphabet

  • 12/25/2018 Tetragrammaton - Wikipedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetragrammaton 2/24


    The pronunciation as it is vowel pointed in the Masoretic Text. The vast majority of scholars do not hold the pronunciation to be correct.

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    The letters, properly read from right to left (in Biblical Hebrew), are:

    Hebrew Letter name Pronunciation

    Yod י [j]

    He ה [h]

    Waw ו [w], or placeholder for "O"/"U" vowel (see mater lectionis)

    He ה [h] (or often a silent letter at the end of a word)

    The letters YHWH are consonantal semi-vowels. In unpointed Biblical

    Hebrew, most vowels are not written and the rest are written only

    ambiguously, as certain consonants can double as vowel markers (similar to

    the Latin use of V to indicate both U and V). These are referred to as matres

    lectionis ("mothers of reading"). Therefore, it is, in general, difficult to deduce

    how a word is pronounced only from its spelling, and the tetragrammaton is a

    particular example: two of its letters can serve as vowels, and two are vocalic place-holders,

    which are not pronounced. Thus the first-century Jewish historian and philosopher

    Josephus said that the sacred name of God consists of "four vowels".[4]

    The original consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible was, several centuries later, provided

    with vowel marks by the Masoretes to assist reading. In places that the consonants of the

    text to be read (the qere) differed from the consonants of the written text (the ketiv), they wrote the qere in the margin as a note showing what was to be read. In such a case the vowels of the qere were written on the ketiv. For a few frequent words, the marginal note was omitted: these are called qere perpetuum.

    One of the frequent cases was the tetragrammaton, which according to later Jewish

    practices should not be pronounced but read as "Adonai" ("My Lord"), or, if the previous or next word already was Adonai, as

    "Elohim" ("God"). The combination produces יְהָֹוה and יֱהֹוה respectively, non-words that would spell "Yehovah" and "Yehovih" respectively.[5][6]

    The oldest complete or nearly complete manuscripts of the Masoretic Text with Tiberian vocalisation, such as the Aleppo Codex and the Leningrad Codex, both of the 10th or 11th century, mostly write ְיהָוה (yhwah), with no pointing on the first h. It could be because

    the o diacritic point plays no useful role in distinguishing between Adonai and Elohim and so is redundant, or it could point to the qere being Shema, which is Aramaic for "the Name".

    The vowels in יְהָֹוה (Yehowah) and ֲאדֹנָי (Adonai) are not identical. The shva in YHWH (the vowel " ְ" under the first letter) and the hataf patakh in 'DNY (the vowel " ֲ" under its first letter) appear different. The vocalisation can be attributed to Biblical Hebrew phonology,[7] where the hataf patakh is grammatically identical to a shva, always replacing every shva naḥ under a guttural letter. Since the first letter of ֲאדֹנָי is a guttural letter while the first letter of יְהָֹוה is not, the hataf patakh under the (guttural) aleph reverts to a regular shva under the (non-guttural) Yod.

    The table below considers the vowel points for יְהָֹוה (Yehowah) and ֲאדֹנָי (Adonai), respectively:

    Four letters


    YHWH and Hebrew script

    Transcription of the divine name as ΙΑΩ in the 1st-century BCE Septuagint manuscript 4Q120


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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:He-YHWH.ogg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masoretic_Text https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:Media https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biblical_Hebrew https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yodh https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA/Hebrew https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/He_(letter) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA/Hebrew https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waw_(letter) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA/Hebrew https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mater_lectionis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/He_(letter) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA/Hebrew https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_letter https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mater_lectionis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josephus https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abjad https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masoretes https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qere_and_Ketiv https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qere_and_Ketiv https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qere_and_Ketiv#Qere_perpetuum https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_God_in_Judaism#Adonai https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adonai https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elohim https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghost_word https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masoretic_Text https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiberian_vocalisation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleppo_Codex https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leningrad_Codex https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elohim https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aramaic_language https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shva https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niqqud https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shva https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guttural https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleph https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yodh https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:4Q120_frg20_with_Divine_Name.jpg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septuagint_manuscripts https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4Q120

  • 12/25/2018 Tetragrammaton - Wikipedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetragrammaton 3/24

    Hebrew word No. 3068 YEHOWAH


    Hebrew word No. 136 ADONAY


    Yod י Y Aleph א glottal stop

    ְ Simple Shewa e ֲ Hataf Patakh A

    Heh ה H Daleth ד D

    ֹ Holem O ֹ Holem O

    Waw ו W Nun נ N

    ָ Kametz A ָ Kametz A

    Heh ה H Yod י Y

    In the table directly above, the "simple shewa" in Yehowah and the hataf patakh in Adonai are not the same vowel. The difference being, the "simple shewa" is an "a" sound as in

    "alone", whereas the hataf patakh is more subtle, as the "a" in "father". The same information is displayed in the table above and to the right, where YHWH is intended to be pronounced as Adonai, and Adonai is shown to have different vowel points.

    The Hebrew scholar Wilhelm Gesenius [1786–1842] suggested

    that the Hebrew punctuation יְַהֶוה , which is transliterated into English as Yahweh, might more accurately represent the pronunciation of the tetragrammaton than the Biblical Hebrew

    punctuation "יְהָֹוה ", from which the English name Jehovah has been derived. His proposal to read YHWH as "ַיְהֶוה " (see image to

    the left) was based in large part on various Greek transcriptions,

    such as ιαβε, dating from the first centuries CE but also on the

    forms of theophoric names. In his Hebrew Dictionary, Gesenius supports Yahweh (which would have been pronounced [jahwe],

    with the final letter being silent) because of the Samaritan pronunciation Ιαβε reported by

    Theodoret, and because the theophoric name prefixes YHW [jeho] and YW [jo], the theophoric name suffixes YHW [jahu] and YH [jah], and the abbreviated form YH [jah] can be derived from the form Yahweh.[8] Gesen