SWEDE 2008 ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-Compliance LOU WHITE, P.E.

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SWEDE 2008 ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-Compliance LOU WHITE, P.E.
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SWEDE 2008 ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-Compliance LOU WHITE, P.E. ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-Compliance. kVA. kVAR. θ. kW. ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-Compliance. Reduction in kVAR (lagging) Increase system power factor Decrease system current - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of SWEDE 2008 ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-Compliance LOU WHITE, P.E.

  • SWEDE 2008

    ERCOT Power FactorCompliance/Non-Compliance

    LOU WHITE, P.E.

  • ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-CompliancekWkVARkVA

  • ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-ComplianceReduction in kVAR (lagging)Increase system power factorDecrease system currentIncrease system voltage Decrease system kW losses

    FY 2006-2010 TSIP

  • ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-CompliancePower Factor ImprovementCAPACITOR BANK ADDITIONSFEEDER RECONFIGURATIONSFEEDER RECONDUCTORFEEDER ADDITIONSNEW SOURCE (SUBSTATION)DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    (COST EFFECTIVE)

  • ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-ComplianceDistribution Power Factor Improvement

    Distribution System AdvantagesPower Factor ImprovementVoltage SupportConductor Load ReductionkW Loss Reduction (= $$$)

  • ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-ComplianceDistribution Power Factor Improvement

    Transmission System AdvantagesDefer Transmission System Improvement ProjectsGreater Emergency Reactive Generation MarginsBetter Economical Solution at Distribution LevelEstablished Minimum Standards for DSPs

  • ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-ComplianceERCOT VOLTAGE AND REACTIVE REQUIREMENTS AND COMPLIANCE MONITORING

    TDSP REQUIREMENTSufficient static reactive power capability shall be installed by a DSP in substations and on the distribution voltage system to maintain at least a 0.97lagging power factor for the maximum net active power supplied from a substation transformer at its distribution voltage terminals to the distributionvoltage system. For any substation transformer serving multiple DSPs, thispower factor requirement shall be applied to each DSP individually for its portion of the total load served. ROS Reactive Standard 04-09-03 as approved.doc

  • ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-ComplianceTRE Enforcement of Reactive Requirements

    Initial ViolationConcern/Complaint ISO/RTO drivenViolation posted on TRE websiteLetter of Violation sent to DSP and PUCDSP to provide Plan to Correct Violation

    Continued ViolationPUC Letter of Violation sent to DSP and/or Fine

  • ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-ComplianceTRE Considerations for ComplianceHistory of ComplianceFuture System PlanningProject Scheduling

  • ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-ComplianceERCOT Annual Load Data Request (ALDR)LCRA currently files on behalf of 41 customersLoad Data includes delivery point kW & p.f. for:Current Year Winter & Summer NCPFuture Years (1-6) Winter & Summer NCPERCOT Current Year Winter & Summer CPERCOT Current Year Coincident MinimumLoad Data is reflected to PWT high-side for use in ERCOT load flow cases

  • ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-ComplianceERCOT VOLTAGE AND REACTIVE REQUIREMENTS AND COMPLIANCE MONITORING

    TDSP REQUIREMENT Sufficient static reactive power capability shall be installed by a DSP in substations and on the distribution voltage system to maintain at least a 0.97 lagging power factor for the maximum net active power supplied from a substation transformer at its distribution voltage terminals to the distribution voltage system. For any substation transformer serving multiple DSPs, this power factor requirement shall be applied to each DSP individually for its portion of the total load served. ROS Reactive Standard 04-09-03 as approved.doc

  • ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-ComplianceLoad Forecast

    Performed annually

    Includes historical kW and power factors

  • ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-Compliance Support Your Power Factor Monitor Delivery Point Data System Maintenance/Inspections

  • ERCOT Power Factor Compliance/Non-Compliance

    Questions ?

    When kVAR is present, voltage and current are out of phase with each other.

    kW=kilowatts kVAR=kilovolt-amperes reactivekVA=kilovolt-amperes

    Inductive loads (motors, transformers, magnetic ballasts) carry kW and kVAR.

    Active (Real) Power does the work.

    Reactive Power generates the magnetic field required for inductive devices to operate.

    Apparent (Total) Power is the vector sum of kW and kVAR.

    Power Factor leading: I leads V (negative p.f.)

    Power Factor lagging: V leads I (positive p.f.)Power Factor can be improved through normal distribution system projects.

    For a well maintained, robust system, capacitor banks are the most cost effective method for improving a lagging power factor.

    TRE Texas Regional Entity (formerly ERCOT Compliance Group)

    Enforcement of NERC standards influenced formation of TRE.

    ISO Independent System Operator (ERCOT)RTO Regional Transmission Organization

    Presently no NERC standard for power factors.

    Light ERCOT p.f. compliance at this time. Level of concern will dictate future compliance measures.Compliance is not based solely on current snapshot of data.ALDR How ERCOT typically receives load data.

    What entails a delivery point?ALDR load information may be provided by total load at the high side bus per customer or by the individual delivery points (PWTs) connected to the high side bus.

    ALDR includes: Delivery Point Name County Name Bus Number Load ID (Customer ID) Transmission Delivery VoltageQuestion: What about the power factor at a substation with multiple power transformers? Does a 97% p.f. for the sum of the loads meet the ERCOT requirement?

    Although ALDR may allow reporting of total high side bus load and p.f. per customer, the ERCOT requirement specifies a minimum allowable power factor at peak load from a substation transformer distribution voltage terminals, i.e. low side bus.

    Not only does p.f. requirements apply to individual PWTs, it also applies to each DSP individually where the PWT serves multiple DSPs.Annual Load Forecast Data collection How LCRA typically receives projected load data.

    LCRA annually collects load projection data from its customers.Load projection forms are mailed to the customers.

    Capacitor banks not in service during system peak.Non-functioning capacitor controls.