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  • Stable Isotope (δ18O and δ2H) Data for Precipitation, Stream Water, and Groundwater in Puerto Rico

    By Martha A. Scholl, Angel Torres-Sanchez, and Manuel Rosario-Torres

    Open-File Report 2014–1101

    U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

  • U.S. Department of the Interior SALLY JEWELL, Secretary

    U.S. Geological Survey Suzette M. Kimball, Acting Director

    U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia: 2014

    For more information on the USGS—the Federal source for science about the Earth, its natural and living resources, natural hazards, and the environment—visit http://www.usgs.gov or call 1–888–ASK–USGS (1–888–275–8747)

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    To order this and other USGS information products, visit http://store.usgs.gov

    Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

    Although this information product, for the most part, is in the public domain, it also may contain copyrighted materials as noted in the text. Permission to reproduce copyrighted items must be secured from the copyright owner.

    Suggested citation: Scholl, M.A., Torres-Sanchez, A., and Rosario-Torres, M., 2014, Stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) data for precipitation, stream water, and groundwater in Puerto Rico: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014–1101, 29 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20141101.

    ISSN 2331 1258 (online)

    http://www.usgs.gov/ http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod http://store.usgs.gov/

  • iii

    Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. 1

    Description of Study Area ....................................................................................................................................... 1 Purpose and Scope ................................................................................................................................................. 3

    Methods ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Field Sample Collection .......................................................................................................................................... 3

    Monthly Rain-Water Isotope Samples ................................................................................................................. 3 Cloud-Water Isotope Samples ............................................................................................................................. 4 Stream-Water Isotope Samples .......................................................................................................................... 4 Groundwater Isotope Samples ............................................................................................................................ 4

    Laboratory Analysis Methods .................................................................................................................................. 6 Stable Isotope Data .................................................................................................................................................... 7

    Monthly Rain-Water Isotope Data ........................................................................................................................... 7 Cloud-Water Isotope Data ..................................................................................................................................... 18 Stream-Water Isotope Data .................................................................................................................................. 18 Groundwater Isotope Data .................................................................................................................................... 26

    Acknowledgments ..................................................................................................................................................... 28 References Cited ...................................................................................................................................................... 28

    Figures 1. Map of the Luquillo Mountains and San Agustin study areas in Puerto Rico, showing geology, streams,

    and sample-collection sites ............................................................................................................................ 2 2. Comparison of 18O values (WEBB sites, averaged, and San Agustin) for monthly rain samples for the

    time period that the two datasets overlap. ................................................................................................... 12

    Tables 1. Rain-water, stream-water, and groundwater sampling sites for monitoring natural-water isotopic

    composition in eastern Puerto Rico. .............................................................................................................. 5 2. Monthly rain-water isotope data for sites LQR3, LQR4, LQR5, and LQR6 in eastern Puerto Rico,

    2005–2013. .................................................................................................................................................... 7 3. Monthly rain isotope and rainfall data for the San Agustin rain gage site, USGS 182328066423500,

    with monthly rainfall totals from the Arecibo Observatory, NOAA station GHCND:RQC00660426. ............. 12 4. Cloud-water isotope data collected at Pico del Este in eastern Puerto Rico in September 2007,

    May 2010, and March 2013. ........................................................................................................................ 18 5. Stream-water isotope data for Rio Mameyes near Sabana USGS 50065500 and Rio Icacos above

    Lago Icacos in eastern Puerto Rico, 2007–2013. ........................................................................................ 18 6. Contemporaneous stream stable isotope data collected from sites at different elevations in the

    Rio Mameyes and Rio Blanco/Rio Icacos watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains study area, eastern Puerto Rico. ................................................................................................................................................. 23

    7. Groundwater stable isotope data from sites in the Luquillo Mountains study area, eastern Puerto Rico. .... 26

  • iv

    Conversion Factors SI to Inch/Pound

    Multiply By To obtain

    Length

    centimeter (cm) 0.3937 inch (in.)

    millimeter (mm) 0.03937 inch (in.)

    meter (m) 3.281 foot (ft)

    kilometer (km) 0.6214 mile (mi)

    meter (m) 1.094 yard (yd)

    Area

    square meter (m2) 0.0002471 acre

    hectare (ha) 2.471 acre

    square kilometer (km2) 247.1 acre

    square meter (m2) 10.76 square foot (ft2)

    hectare (ha) 0.003861 square mile (mi2)

    square kilometer (km2) 0.3861 square mile (mi2)

    Volume

    liter (L) 0.2642 gallon (gal)

    cubic meter (m3) 35.31 cubic foot (ft3)

    Flow rate

    meter per second (m/s) 3.281 foot per second (ft/s)

    millimeter per year (mm/yr) 0.03937 inch per year (in/yr)

    Mass

    gram (g) 0.03527 ounce, avoirdupois (oz)

    kilogram (kg) 2.205 pound avoirdupois (lb)

    Pressure

    hectopascal (hPa) 1 millibar (mb)

    Hydraulic conductivity

    meter per day (m/d) 3.281 foot per day (ft/d)

    Temperature in degrees Celsius (°C) may be converted to degrees Fahrenheit (°F) as °F = (1.8 × °C) + 32.

    Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (°F) may be converted to degrees Celsius (°C) as °C = (°F – 32) / 1.8.

    Datum Vertical coordinate information is referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88).

    Horizontal coordinate information is referenced to the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83)

    Altitude, as used in this report, refers to distance above the vertical datum.

  • v

    Supplemental Information Note to USGS users: Use of hectare (ha) as an alternative name for square hectometer (hm2) is restricted to the measurement of small land or water areas. Use of liter (L) as a special name for cubic decimeter (dm3) is restricted to the measurement of liquids and gases. No prefix other than milli should be used with liter. Metric ton (t) as a name for megagram (Mg) should be restricted to commercial usage, and no prefixes should be used with it.

  • 1

    Stable Isotope (δ18O and δ2H) Data for Precipitation, Stream Water, and Groundwater in Puerto Rico

    By Martha A. Scholl, Angel Torres-Sanchez, and Manuel Rosario-Torres

    Introduction Description of Study Area

    Puerto Rico is located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea (18.2 °N, 66.3 °W), with the Atlantic Ocean on its northern coast. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program study area in which most of these data were collected comprises the El Yunque National Forest and surrounding area of eastern Puerto Rico. Samples were collected in two forested watersheds, the Rio Mameyes and the Rio Icacos/Rio Blanco, on opposite sides of a ridge in the Luquillo Mountains on the eastern end of the island (fig