SPM Physics Formula List Form4

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1. Prefi xes Value Stand ard form Sy m bol Tera 1 000 000 000 000 1012 T Giga 1 000 000 000 109 G Meg a 1 000 000 106 M Kilo 1 000 103 k deci 0.1 10-1 d centi 0.01 10-2 c milli 0.001 10-3 m micr o 0.000 001 10-6 nano 0.000 000 001 10-9 n pico 0.000 000 000 001 10-12 p Physics Equation List :Form 4 Introduction to Physics Relative Deviation Relative Deviation = Mean Deviation 100%Mean Value Prefixes 2. ONE- SCHOO L.NET Force and Motion Average Speed v = final velocity (ms-1 ) Units for Area and Volume 1 m = 102 cm (100 cm) 1 2 1 cm = 10-2 m ( m ) 1 m2 = 104 cm(10,000 cm2 ) 100 1 m3 = 106 cm3 (1,000,000 cm3 ) 1 1 cm2 = 10-4 m2 ( m 2 )10,000 3 1 31 cm3 = 10-6 m( m )1,000,000 Total DistanceAverage Speed = Total Time Velocity v = velocity (ms-1 ) s s = displacement (m) v = t = time (s) t Acceleration a = acceleration (ms-2 )vu a = u = initial velocity (ms-1 )t t =time for the velocity change (s) Equation of Linear Motion u = initial velocity (ms-1 ) v = final velocity (ms-1 ) a = acceleration (ms-2 ) s = displacement (m) t = time (s) 3. ONE-SCHOOL.NE 4. T 5. Ticker Tape Finding Velocity: s velocity = number of ticks 0.02s 1 tick = 0.02s Finding Acceleration: vu a = t a = acceleration (ms-2 ) v = final velocity (ms-1 ) u = initial velocity (ms-1 ) t = time for the velocity change (s) Graph of Motion 6. Displacement-Time Graph Velocity-Time Graph Gradient = Velocity (ms- 1) Gradient = Acceleration (ms-2) Area in between the graph and x- a xi s = Displacement p = momentum (kg ms-1 ) 1 1 m u +2 2 m u =1 1 m v +2 2 m v m1 = mass of object 1 (k g) m2 = mass of object 2 u1 = initial velocity of object 1 u2 = initial velocity of object 2 v1 = final velocity of object 1 v2 = final velocity of object 2 (k g) (m s- 1) (m s- 1) (m s- 1) (m s- 1) Newtons Law of Motion Newtons First Law The gradient 'm' of a line segment between two points and is defined as follows: Change in y coordinate, y Gradient, m = Change in x coordinate, x or y m = x Momentum m = mass (kg) v = velocity (ms-1 ) Principle of Conservation of Momentum 7. ONE-SCHOOL.NET Newtons Second Law mv muF t F = ma The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. F = Net Force (N or kgms-2) m = mass (kg) a = acceleration (ms-2) Implication When there is resultant force acting on an object, the object will accelerate (moving faster, moving slower or change direction). Newtons Third Law In the absence of external forces, an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continues in motion with a constant velocity (that is, with a constant speed in a straight line). Newton's third law of motion states that for every force, there is a reaction force with the same magnitude but in the opposite direction. Impulse F = force (N) Impulse = Ft t = time (s) Impulse = mv mu m = mass (kg) v = final velocity (ms-1 ) u = initial velocity (ms-1 ) Impulsive Force F = Force (N or kgms-2 )mv mu t = time (s)F = m = mass (kg) t v = final velocity (ms-1 ) u = initial velocity (ms-1 ) Gravitational Field Strength g = gravitational field strength (N kg-1 )F F = gravitational force (N or kgms-2 )g = m = mass (kg)m Weight 8. Vertical Motion 9. Wmg= W = Weight (N or kgms-2) m = mass (kg) g = gravitational field strength/gravitational acceleration (m s- 2) 10. If an object is release from a high position: If an object is launched vertically upward: The initial velocity, u = 0. The velocity at the maximum height, v = 0. The acceleration of the object = gravitational acceleration = 10ms-2(or 9.81 ms-2). The deceleration of the object = -gravitational acceleration = -10ms-2(or -9.81 ms-2). The displacement of the object when it reach the The displacement of the object when it reach the ground = the height of the original position, h. ground = the height of the original position, h. In Stati onar y Rmg= When a man standing inside an elevator, there are two forces acting on him. (a) His weight which acting downward. (b) Normal reaction (R), acting in the opposite direction of weight. The reading of the balance is equal to the normal reaction. Lift 11. Moving Upward with positive acceleration Moving downward with positive acceleration Rmgma= + Rmgma= Moving Upward with constant velocity Moving downward with constant velocity. Rmg= Rmg= Moving Upward with negative acceleration Moving downward with negative acceleration Rmgma= Rmgma= + 12. ONE- SCHOOL.NE 13. T 14. T1 = T2 Moving with uniform speed: T1 = mg Stati onar y: T1 = mg Accelerating: T1 mg = ma Finding Acceleratio n: (If m2 > m1) m2g m1g = (m1+ m2)a Finding Tension: (If m2 > m1) T1 = T2 T1 m1g = ma m2g T2 = ma Magnitude = x 2 + y 2 y Smooth Pulley With 1 Load With 2 Loads Vector Vector Addition (Perpendicular Vector) 1 ||Direction = tan || x ||| x = p | sin ||| y = p | cos 15. Inclined Plane 16. Component parallel to the plane = mgsin Component perpendicular to the plane = mgcos Forces In Equilibrium T 3 = mg T3 = mg T2 sin= mg T2 cos = T1 cos T sin+ T sin = mg T2 cos = T1 21 T 1 tan = mg Work Done W = Fx cos W = Work Done (J or Nm) F = Force (N or kgms-2 ) x = displacement (m) = angle between the force and the direction of motion (o ) When the force and motion are in the same direction. W = Work Done (J or Nm)WFs = F = Force (N or kgms-2 ) s = displacement (m) 17. Energ 18. y 19. 1 2 Kinetic Energy EK = Kinetic Energy (J) 20. Force and Pressure ONE- SCHOO L.NET Density = m V Pressur e = density m = mass V = volume (kg m-3) (kg) (m3) E K = mv m = mass (kg) 2 v = velocity (ms-1 ) Gravitational Potential Energy EP = Potential Energy (J)E P = mgh m = mass (kg) g = gravitational acceleration (ms-2 ) h = height (m) Elastic Potential Energy EP = Potential Energy (J)1 E P = kx 2 k = spring constant (N m-1 )2 x = extension of spring (m) 1 E P = Fx F = Force (N) 2 Power and Efficiency Power W P = power (W or Js-1 ) P = W = work done (J or Nm)t E = energy change (J or Nm) E t = time (s) P = t Efficiency Useful Energy Efficiency = 100% Energy Or Power Output Efficiency = 100% Power Input Hookes Law F = Force (N or kgms-2 )F = kx k = spring constant (N m-1 ) x = extension or compression of spring (m) P = Pressure (Pa or N m-2 )F P = A = Area of the surface (m2 )A F = Force acting normally to the surface (N or kgms- 2 ) Liquid Pressure Phg h = depth (m)= = density (kg m-3 ) g = gravitational Field Strength (N kg-1 ) Pressure in Liquid h = depth (m)PP atm + h= g = density (kg m-3 ) g = gravitational Field Strength (N kg-1 ) Patm = atmospheric Pressure (Pa or N m-2 ) Gas Pressure Manometer P = P atm + h g Pgas = Pressure (Pa or N m-2 ) Patm = Atmospheric Pressure (Pa or N m-2 ) g = gravitational field strength (N kg-1 ) 21. h 22. 23. = 24. h 25. 26. Pressure in unit cmHg Pressure in unit Pa Pa = 0 Pa = 0 Pb = 26 Pb = 0.261360010 Pc = 76 Pc = 0.761360010 Pd = 76 Pd = 0.761360010 Pe = 76 Pe = 0.761360010 Pf = 84 Pf = 0.841360010 11 22 Pressure in a Capillary Tube Pgas = gas pressure in the capillary tube (Pa or N m-2 ) Patm = atmospheric pressure (Pa or N m-2 ) h = length of the captured mercury (m) = density of mercury (kg m-3 ) g = gravitational field strength (N kg-1 ) Barometer (Density of mercury = 13600kgm-3 ) 27. Pascal 28. 29. s Principle 30. 1 2 1 2 F F AA = F1 = Force exerted on the small piston A1 = area of the small piston F2 = Force exerted on the big piston A2 = area of the big piston 31. Weight of the object, 11W V g = Upthrust, 22F V g= 1 = density of wooden block V1 = volume of the wooden block 2 = density of water V2 = volume of the displaced water g = gravitational field strength Density of water > Density of wood F = T + W Vg T mg =+ Density of Iron > Density of water T + F = W Vg T mg += Archimedes Principle 32. Heat ONE- SCHOOL.N ET Heat Change Qmc= m = mass c = specific heat capacity = temperature change (kg) (J kg-1 oC-1) (o) Electric Heater Mixing 2 Liquid Energy Supply, E = Pt Energy Receive, Qmc= Energy Supply, E = Energy Receive, Q Pt mc= E = electrical Energy (J or Nm) P = Power of the electric heater (W) t = time (in second) (s) Q = Heat Change (J or Nm) m = mass (kg) c = specific heat capacity (J kg-1 oC-1) = temperature change (o) Heat Gain by Liquid 1 = Heat Loss by Liquid 2 11 1 2 2 2mc m c = m1 = mass of liquid 1 c1 = specific heat capacity of liquid 1 1 = temperature change of liquid 1 m2 = mass of liquid 2 c2 = specific heat capacity of liquid 2 2 = temperature change of liquid 2 Specific Latent Heat QmL= Q = Heat Change (J or Nm) m = mass (kg) L = specific latent heat (J kg-1 ) Boyles Law PV = PV 11 22 (Requirement: Temperature in constant) Pressure Law PP 1 = 2 T 1 T 2 (Requirement: Volume is constant) 33. Charles 34. 35. s Law 36. 1 V 2V 1T 2T (Requirement: Pressure is constant) Universal Gas Law 11PV 2 2PV 1T 2 T P = Pressure (Pa or cmHg .) V = Volume ( m 3 or cm3) T = Temperature (MUST be in K(Kelvin)) 37. sin sin i n r = n = refractive index (No unit) i = angle of incident (o) r = angle of reflection (o) D n d = n = refractive index (No unit) D = real depth (m or cm) d = apparent depth (m or cm) Speed of light Total Internal Reflection c n v = 1 sin n c = n = refractive index (No unit) n = refractive index (No unit) c = speed of light in vacuum (ms-1) c = critical angle (o) v = speed of light in a medium (like water, glass ) (ms-1) Light Refractive Index Snells Law Real depth/Apparent Depth 38. ONE-SCHOOL.NET Lens Power P = 1 f P = Power f = focal length (D(Diopter)) (m) Linear Magnifi cation i o h m h = v m u = i o h h v u = m = linear magnification u = distance of object v = distance of image hi = heigth of image ho = heigth of object (No unit) (m or cm ) (m or cm ) (m or cm ) (m or cm ) Lens Equatio n positi ve neg ative u Real object Virtual object v Real image Virtual image f Conve x lens Conca ve lens Conventional s