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Transcript of Solucionario Raymond Serway - Capitulo 9

Chapter 9 Solutions

9.1

m = 3.00 kg, v = (3.00i 4.00j) m/s (a) p = mv = (9.00i 12.0j) kg m/s Thus, px = 9.00 kg m/s and py = 12.0 kg m/s (b) p= p x + py =2 2

(9.00)2 + (12.0)2 = 15.0 kg m/s

= tan1 (py/px) = tan1 (1.33) = 307*9.2 (a) (b) At maximum height v = 0, so p = 0 Its original kinetic energy is its constant total energy, Ki = 1 1 2 mv i = (0.100) kg(15.0 m/s)2 = 11.2 J 2 2

At the top all of this energy is gravitational. Halfway up, one-half of it is gravitational and the other half is kinetic: K = 5.62 J = 1 (0.100 kg) v2 2

v=

2 5.62 J = 10.6 m/s 0.100 kg

Then p = mv = (0.100 kg)(10.6 m/s)j p = 1.06 kg m/s j *9.3 The initial momentum = 0. Therefore, the final momentum, pf , must also be zero. We have, (taking eastward as the positive direction), pf = (40.0 kg)(vc) + (0.500 kg)(5.00 m/s) = 0 vc = 6.25 102 m/s (The child recoils westward.) *9.4 pbaseball = pbullet (0.145 kg)v = (3.00 103 kg)(1500 m/s) = 4.50 kg m/s

v=

4.50 kg m/s = 31.0 m/s 0.145 kg

Chapter 9 Solutions*9.5 I have mass 85.0 kg and can jump to raise my center of gravity 25.0 cm. I leave the ground with speed given by v f v i = 2a(x xi) 0 vi2 2 2

3

= 2(9.80 m/s2)(0.250 m)

vi = 2.20 m/s Total momentum is conserved as I push the earth down and myself up: 0 = (5.98 1024 kg)ve + (85.0 kg)(2.20 m/s) v e ~1023 m/s 9.6 (a) For the system of two blocks p = 0,M

3M Before

or

pi = pf(a) v 2.00 m/s

Therefore, 0 = Mvm + (3 M)(2.00 m/s) Solving gives vm = 6.00 m/s (motion toward the left) (b) *9.7 (a) 1 2 1 1 2 2 kx = MvM + (3 M) v3M = 8.40 J 2 2 2 The momentum is p = mv, so v = p/m and the kinetic energy is K = 1 mv2 implies v = 2 1 1 p 2 p2 mv2 = m = 2 2 m 2mM

3M After (b)

(b)

K=

2K/m , so

p = mv = m 2K/m = 9.8

2mK

I = p = m v = (70.0 kg)(5.20 m/s) = 364 kg m/s F= p 364 = = 438 N t 0.832

4

Chapter 9 Solutions I = Fdt = area under curve20,000

9.9

(a)

F (N) F = 18,000 N

1 = (1.50 103 s)(18000 N) = 13.5 N s 2 (b) (c) 9.10 13.5 N s F= = 9.00 kN 1.50 103 s From the graph, we see that Fmax = 18.0 kN

15,000 10,000 5,000 0 0 1 2 3 t (ms)

Assume the initial direction of the ball in the x direction. (a) Impulse, I = p = pf pi = (0.0600)(40.0)i (0.0600)(50.0)(i) = 5.40i N s (b) Work = Kf Ki = 1 (0.0600) [(40.0)2 (50.0)2] = 2y

27.0 J 9.11 p = F t py = m(vfy viy) = m(v cos 60.0) mv cos 60.0 = 0 px = m(v sin 60.0 v sin 60.0) = 2mv sin 60.0 = 2(3.00 kg)(10.0 m/s)(0.866) = 52.0 kg m/s Fave = px 52.0 kg m/s = = 260 N t 0.200 s60 60

Goal Solution G: If we think about the angle as a variable and consider the limiting cases, then the force should be zero when the angle is 0 (no contact between the ball and the wall). When the angle is 90 the force will be its maximum and can be found from the momentum-impulse equation, so that F < 300N, and the force on the ball must be directed to the left. O: Use the momentum-impulse equation to find the force, and carefully consider the direction of the velocity vectors by defining up and to the right as positive.

Chapter 9 Solutions

5

A: p = F t py = mvyf mvyx = m(v cos 60.0 v cos 60.0) = 0 So the wall does not exert a force on the ball in the y direction. px = mvxf mvx = m(v sin 60.0 v sin 60.0) = 2mv sin 60.0 px = 2(3.00 kg)(10.0 m/s)(0.866) = 52.0 kg m/s p pxi 52.0 i kg m/s F = = = = 260 i N t t 0.200 s L: The force is to the left and has a magnitude less than 300 N as expected.

9.12

Take x-axis toward the pitcher (a) pix + Ix = pfx 0.200 kg(15.0 m/s)(cos 45.0) + Ix = 0.200 kg(40.0 m/s) cos 30.0 Ix = 9.05 N s piy + Iy = pfy 0.200 kg(15.0 m/s)(sin 45.0) + Iy = 0.200 kg(40.0 m/s) sin 30.0 I = (9.05i + 6.12j) N s (b) 1 1 I = (0 + Fm)(4.00 ms) + Fm (20.0 ms) + Fm (4.00 ms) 2 2 Fm 24.0 103 s = (9.05i + 6.12j) N s Fm = (377i + 255j) N

9.13

The force exerted on the water by the hose is F= pwater mvf mvi (0.600 kg)(25.0 m/s) 0 = = = 15.0 N t t 1.00 s

According to Newton's 3rd law, the water exerts a force of equal magnitude back on the hose. Thus, the holder must apply a 15.0 N force (in the direction of the velocity of the exiting water steam) to hold the hose stationary.

6

Chapter 9 Solutions

*9.14

If the diver starts from rest and drops vertically into the water, the velocity just before impact is found from Kf + Ugf = Ki + Ugi 1 2 mvimpact + 0 = 0 + mgh vimpact = 2 2gh

With the diver at rest after an impact time of t, the average force during impact is given by m(0 vimpact) m 2g h F = = t t or m 2g h F= t (directed upward)

Assuming a mass of 55 kg and an impact time of 1.0 s, the magnitude of this average force is (55 kg) F = *9.15 2(9.8 m/s2)(10 m) = 770 N, or ~ 103 N 1.0 s

(200 g)(55.0 m/s) = (46.0 g)v + (200 g)(40.0 m/s) v = 65.2 m/s

9.16

For each skater, m v (75.0 kg)(5.00 m/s) F = = = 3750 N t (0.100 s) Since F < 4500 N, there are no broken bones.

9.17

Momentum is conserved (10.0 103 kg)v = (5.01 kg)(0.600 m/s) v = 301 m/s

Chapter 9 Solutions

7

Goal Solution G: A reasonable speed of a bullet should be somewhere between 100 and 1000 m/s. O: We can find the initial speed of the bullet from conservation of momentum. We are told that the block of wood was originally stationary. A: Since there is no external force on the block and bullet system, the total momentum of the system is constant so that p = 0 p1i + p2i = p1f + p2f (0.0100 kg)v1i + 0 = (0.0100 kg)(0.600 m/s)i + (5.00 kg)(0.600 m/s) i v1i = (5.01 kg)(0.600 m/s)i = 301 i m/s 0.0100 kg

L: The speed seems reasonable, and is in fact just under the speed of sound in air (343 m/s at 20C).

8

Chapter 9 Solutions

9.18

Energy is conserved for the bob between bottom and top of swing: Ki + Ui = Kf + Uf 1 2 Mvb + 0 = 0 + Mg 2l 2 vb2

= g 4ll m v

vb = 2 gl Momentum is conserved in the collision: v mv = m + M 2 gl 2 v= 9.19 4M m gl

M v/2

(a) and (b) Let vg and vp be the velocity of the girl and the plank relative to the ice surface. Then we may say that vg vp is the velocity of the girl relative to the plank, so that vg vp = 1.50 (1)

But also we must have mgvg + mpvp = 0, since total momentum of the girl-plank system is zero relative to the ice surface. Therefore 45.0vg + 150vp = 0, or vg = 3.33 vpinitial

Putting this into the equation (1) above givesvg vb final

3.33 vp vp = 1.50, or

vp = 0.346 m/s

Then vg = 3.33(0.346) = 1.15 m/s 9.20 Gayle jumps on the sled: p1i + p2i = p1f + p2f (50.0 kg)(4.00 m/s) = (50.0 kg + 5.00 kg)v2 v2 = 3.64 m/s They glide down 5.00 m: Ki + Ui = Kf + Uf 1 1 2 (55.0 kg)(3.64 m/s) 2 + 55.0 kg(9.8 m/s2)5.00 m = (55.0 kg) v3 2 2

Chapter 9 Solutions

9

v3 = 10.5 m/s

10

Chapter 9 Solutions

Brother jumps on: 55.0 kg(10.5 m/s) + 0 = (85.0 kg)v4 v4 = 6.82 m/s All slide 10.0 m down: 1 1 2 (85.0 kg)(6.82 m/s) 2 + 85.0 kg (9.80 m/s2)10.0 m = (85.0 kg) v5 2 2 v5 = 15.6 m/s 9.21 pi = pf (a) mc vic + mT viT = mc vfc + mTvfT vfT = vfT = 1 [m v + mT viT mc vfc] mT c ic 1 [(1200 kg)(25.0 m/s) + (9000 kg)(20.0 m/s) (1200 kg)(18.0 m/s)] 9000 kg East

= 20.9 m/s (b) K lost = K i K f =

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 m c vic + mT viT mcvfc m v 2 2 2 2 T fT 1 2 2 2 2 [mc (vic vfc ) + mT(viT vfT ] 2 1 [(1200 kg)(625 324)(m2/s2) + (9000 kg)(400 438.2)m2/s2] 2 becomes internal energy.

= =

K lost = 8.68 kJ

(If 20.9 m/s were used to determine the energy lost instead of 20.9333, the answer would be very different. We keep extra significant figures until the problem is complete!) 9.22 (a) mv1i + 3mv2i = 4mvf where m = 2.50 104 kg vf = (b) 4.00 + 3(2.00) = 2.50 m/s 4 1 1 1 2 2 2 (4m) v f m v1i + (3m)v 2i 2 2 2

Kf Ki =

= 2.50 104 [12.5 8.00 6.00] = 3.75 104 J

Chapter 9 Solutions*9.23 (a) The internal forces exerted by the actor do not change total momentum.vi

11

m

m

m

m

2.00 m/s

4.00 m/s

m

m

m

m

(4m)vi = (3m)(2.00 m/s) + m(4.00 m/s) vi = 6.00 m/s + 4.00 m/s = 2.50 m/s 4 1 1 [(3m)(2.00 m/s)2 + m(4.00 m/s)2] (4m)(2.50 m/s) 2 2 2

(b)

Wactor = Kf Ki =

W actor = (c)

(2.50 104 kg) [12.0 + 16.0 25.0](m/s)2 = 37.5 kJ 2

The explosion considered here is the time reversal of the perfectly inelastic collision in problem 9.22. The same momentum conservation equation describes both processes.

*9.24

We call the initial speed of the bowling ball vi and from momentum conservation, (7.00 kg)(vi) + (2.00 kg)(0) = (7.00 kg)(1.80 m/s) + (2.00 kg)(3.00 m/s) gives vi = 2.66 m/s

9.25

(a)

Following Example 9.8, the fraction of total kinetic energy transferred to the moderator is f2 = 4m 1m 2 (m 1 + m 2 ) 2

where m2 is the moderator nucleus and in this case, m2 = 12m1 f2 = 4m 1(12m 1) 48 = = 0.284 or 28.4% (13m 1)2 169

of the ne