Smith Chart, Custom ADS Session Plotting, and TLine ...eas.uccs.edu/wickert/ece5250/notes/ADS_...

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    Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient ResponseIntroductionIn this second session we consider more details of ADS for spe-cific types of measurements. In particular we will address theneeds of Problem Set #2, which reviews the Smith Chart, moretransmission line frequency domain modeling, including lossytransmission lines, and transmission line transient analysis.

    ADS support for the above topics will have us explore theSmith Chart Utility, using equations and custom plot functionsfor plot windows, AC Simulation and the use of the PowerProbe schematic component from the Probe Components pal-ette, and finally Transient Simulation and the use of theSources-Time Domain palette.

    Smith Chart Utility The Smith chart utility available in ADS is available under

    the Tools menu when a schematic window is open

    When it is first opened the window appears with just a 50

    ADS Ses

    2

    ECE 5250/4250 ADS Session 21

  • Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient Response

    source and load defined

    One of the purposes of the utility is to aid you in the graphi-cal design of matching networks

    Circuit elements placed between the source and load in thetool can then be placed in the schematic

    Here we will only consider the utility as a stand-alone tool

    Suppose we wish to model the following circuit:

    ZL 50 j50+=Z0 50=

    l 90= =

    z0l

    Zin

    Lin Lej2

    =

    ADS Session 22 ECE 5250/4250

  • Smith Chart Utility

    The Smith chart provides a graphical means to determine and/or for a given , , and

    Clearly to obtain , all we are doing is rotating by degrees (counter clockwise) in the -plane

    Other elements, such as series and shut inductors or capac-itors are also easily managed via the graphical capabilitiesof the Smith chart (and the Smith chart utility); here the -plane trajectories are along constant resistance or constantconductance circles, depending upon whether we have aseries or shunt element (more on this when lumped ele-ment matching circuits are discussed)

    Moving forward with the transmission line example, wechange the load ZL to in the Smith ChartUtility

    Next we pick a series transmission line element from thecomponent palette with ZL selected, and then click on theSmith chart itself (this insures that the line section be placedin front of the load ZL, that is between the ZL and ZS)

    Zinin L Z0

    in L2

    ZL 50 j50+=

    ECE 5250/4250 ADS Session 23

  • Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient Response

    Note that you can drag the point you just clicked in theSmith chart constrained to a circle of constant , and itwill adjust the line length as it constrains the locus ofpoints on the Smith chart to represent a trajectory towardsthe generator

    This is the graphical-like action of the utility, similar tousing a real Smith chart; what do you think?

    All of the displays at the bottom of the window updatedynamically

    The display of impedance/admittance related quantitiescan either be as normalized values or actual

    Clickcomponentto make itactive foradjustmentin chart

    Change display format

    Drag to changeline length andthen read newvalues

    ADS Session 24 ECE 5250/4250

  • Smith Chart Utility

    An interesting fact is that the maximum and minimum stand-ing wave magnitude values occur when the value of look-ing into the line of length sits on the real axis at valueseither greater than one or less than one, respectively

    In the Smith Chart Utility we move to the greater than onecrossing point first, and find that the corresponding linelength in degrees is

    We can use the total voltage anywhere along a line of electri-cal length to perform a mathematical check

    31.71

    Line lengthin degrees

    l

    ECE 5250/4250 ADS Session 25

  • Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient Response

    We construct the following mathematical model in Mathe-matica from notes equation (1.127)

    Using this function we can then plot the standing wave pat-tern as or equivalently as we move back fromthe load towards the source

    For the parameters we are considering, the plot is as shownbelow

    With the solving capability of Mathematica we can now findthe location of the minimum and maximum values as shown

    V_, l_, Z0_, Zg_, ZL_ : Moduleg, L, Vg 1,

    g Zg Z0

    Zg Z0;

    L ZL Z0

    ZL Z0;

    Vmag AbsVgZ0

    Z0 Zg

    1 L 2

    1 g L 2 l l

    V z( ) V ( )

    PlotV 180, 2, 50, 50, 50 50, , 180, 0

    150 100 50

    0.4

    0.5

    0.6

    0.7

    V ( )

    z 4 0

    Elect.Length

    PhysicalLength

    -31.72o

    -121.72o

    ADS Session 26 ECE 5250/4250

  • Smith Chart Utility

    below:

    If we want to find the impedance looking into a line of length, we simply drag the marker or type the line length of

    into the window, and then we can read the new at thebottom of the chart

    FindMaximumV 180, 2, 50, 50, 50 50, , 30

    0.723607, 31.7175

    FindMinimumV 180, 2, 50, 50, 50 50, , 100

    0.276393, 121.717

    Agrees with ADS

    Agrees with ADS(not shown here)

    490 Zin

    Both Z and Y circlesare turned on

    Read Zin in Ohms

    Z-Y Grids on

    Line length set to 90

    Series T-lineelement selected

    ECE 5250/4250 ADS Session 27

  • Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient Response

    Explore other capabilities on your own

    Custom Plotting Consider the analysis of a quarter-wave matching circuit to

    match 100 ohms to 50 ohms, at 1 GHz

    Note in particular here that we have set up a one-port cir-cuit, since we have let the output be terminated in a resistor, as opposed to using a termination block

    It is possible to write custom functions for plotting or usepre-built functions

    In the above we see that when analyzing with S-parameterswe may not have the options we wish immediately available,e.g., VSWR

    100

    ADS Session 28 ECE 5250/4250

  • Custom Plotting

    Eqn SWR=vswr(S(1,1))

    0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.80.4 2.0

    1.2

    1.4

    1.6

    1.8

    2.0

    1.0

    2.2

    freq, GHz

    SW

    R

    After entering thefunction in the advanced dialogit now appearsas a trace

    Knowing about vswr( )already, we could godirectly to the function

    Same result in either case

    Custom functionplaced in plotwindow

    Brings up MeasurementExpressions help(see next page)

    ECE 5250/4250 ADS Session 29

  • Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient Response

    To explore the function library for writing equations visit theADS HTML help system and look under MeasurementExpressions

    The AC Simulation and Power Measurements To take actual power measurements in a linear circuit, the AC

    controller can be useful

    AC circuit simulation is very much like AC analysis avail-able in Spice

    More asyou scrolldown

    ADS Session 210 ECE 5250/4250

  • The AC Simulation and Power Measurements

    Analysis is performed using sinusoidal sources with the nodevariables being voltages and currents, each of which are com-plex quantities

    Node voltages are available by placing probe points on anywire connecting two components

    Branch currents are obtained by placing current probes inseries

    Power delivered to a portion of a circuit can be obtainedusing a power probe (grounded or floating)

    The frequency of the sinusoidal source is swept over a start/stop range, so all measure measurements are obtained assteady-state values versus frequency

    We begin by placing an AC controller from the Simulation-AC palette

    ECE 5250/4250 ADS Session 211

  • Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient Response

    We are going to model a simple bandpass filter created usinga single quarter-wave length section of transmission line

    We will also include loss in the resonator

    We need to place an AC signal source down as well as loadand source resistances and a transmission line that incorpo-rates loss, but does not assume a particular geometry

    We obtain the AC voltage source is obtained from theSources-Freq Domain palette

    The resistors are obtained from the Lumped-Compo-nents palette (note ctr-r rotates components)

    The transmission line is obtained from the TLines-Idealpalette

    Note we have also set the sweep to run from 0.5 GHz to1.5 GHz in 10 MHz steps

    We want the quarter-wave frequency of the resonator to be at

    ADS Session 212 ECE 5250/4250

  • The AC Simulation and Power Measurements

    1 GHz and choose the characteristic impedance to obtain aparticular 3 dB bandwidth via design equations (here wehave simply set )

    The TLINP element has parameters similar to the coax

    We will set the line up with an air dielectric ( )and set the loss tangent to zero (TanD = 0)

    Loss can then be controlled via A, which sets the line lossin dB per meter

    To obtain the proper line length we use the fact that, where m/s, so mm

    Set the amplitude and phase of the source to

    Place voltage probes at the input and output toolbar probebutton (diamond with red square and name below); click andthen enter a name for the probe and click on the wire wherethe probe is to be placed

    Z0 resonator, 100=

    r K 1= =

    g c f0= c 3810= g 4 75=

    10 0

    in

    ECE 5250/4250 ADS Session 213

  • Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient Response

    We are now ready for the first run of the simulation (with noline loss)

    We plot the input and output voltage