• date post

04-Mar-2018
• Category

## Documents

• view

227

7

Embed Size (px)

### Transcript of Smith Chart, Custom ADS Session Plotting, and TLine ...eas.uccs.edu/wickert/ece5250/notes/ADS_...

• sion

Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient ResponseIntroductionIn this second session we consider more details of ADS for spe-cific types of measurements. In particular we will address theneeds of Problem Set #2, which reviews the Smith Chart, moretransmission line frequency domain modeling, including lossytransmission lines, and transmission line transient analysis.

ADS support for the above topics will have us explore theSmith Chart Utility, using equations and custom plot functionsfor plot windows, AC Simulation and the use of the PowerProbe schematic component from the Probe Components pal-ette, and finally Transient Simulation and the use of theSources-Time Domain palette.

Smith Chart Utility The Smith chart utility available in ADS is available under

the Tools menu when a schematic window is open

When it is first opened the window appears with just a 50

2

ECE 5250/4250 ADS Session 21

• Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient Response

source and load defined

One of the purposes of the utility is to aid you in the graphi-cal design of matching networks

Circuit elements placed between the source and load in thetool can then be placed in the schematic

Here we will only consider the utility as a stand-alone tool

Suppose we wish to model the following circuit:

ZL 50 j50+=Z0 50=

l 90= =

z0l

Zin

Lin Lej2

=

ADS Session 22 ECE 5250/4250

• Smith Chart Utility

The Smith chart provides a graphical means to determine and/or for a given , , and

Clearly to obtain , all we are doing is rotating by degrees (counter clockwise) in the -plane

Other elements, such as series and shut inductors or capac-itors are also easily managed via the graphical capabilitiesof the Smith chart (and the Smith chart utility); here the -plane trajectories are along constant resistance or constantconductance circles, depending upon whether we have aseries or shunt element (more on this when lumped ele-ment matching circuits are discussed)

Moving forward with the transmission line example, wechange the load ZL to in the Smith ChartUtility

Next we pick a series transmission line element from thecomponent palette with ZL selected, and then click on theSmith chart itself (this insures that the line section be placedin front of the load ZL, that is between the ZL and ZS)

Zinin L Z0

in L2

ZL 50 j50+=

ECE 5250/4250 ADS Session 23

• Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient Response

Note that you can drag the point you just clicked in theSmith chart constrained to a circle of constant , and itwill adjust the line length as it constrains the locus ofpoints on the Smith chart to represent a trajectory towardsthe generator

This is the graphical-like action of the utility, similar tousing a real Smith chart; what do you think?

All of the displays at the bottom of the window updatedynamically

The display of impedance/admittance related quantitiescan either be as normalized values or actual

Clickcomponentto make itactive foradjustmentin chart

Change display format

Drag to changeline length andthen read newvalues

ADS Session 24 ECE 5250/4250

• Smith Chart Utility

An interesting fact is that the maximum and minimum stand-ing wave magnitude values occur when the value of look-ing into the line of length sits on the real axis at valueseither greater than one or less than one, respectively

In the Smith Chart Utility we move to the greater than onecrossing point first, and find that the corresponding linelength in degrees is

We can use the total voltage anywhere along a line of electri-cal length to perform a mathematical check

31.71

Line lengthin degrees

l

ECE 5250/4250 ADS Session 25

• Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient Response

We construct the following mathematical model in Mathe-matica from notes equation (1.127)

Using this function we can then plot the standing wave pat-tern as or equivalently as we move back fromthe load towards the source

For the parameters we are considering, the plot is as shownbelow

With the solving capability of Mathematica we can now findthe location of the minimum and maximum values as shown

V_, l_, Z0_, Zg_, ZL_ : Moduleg, L, Vg 1,

g Zg Z0

Zg Z0;

L ZL Z0

ZL Z0;

Vmag AbsVgZ0

Z0 Zg

1 L 2

1 g L 2 l l

V z( ) V ( )

PlotV 180, 2, 50, 50, 50 50, , 180, 0

150 100 50

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

V ( )

z 4 0

Elect.Length

PhysicalLength

-31.72o

-121.72o

ADS Session 26 ECE 5250/4250

• Smith Chart Utility

below:

If we want to find the impedance looking into a line of length, we simply drag the marker or type the line length of

into the window, and then we can read the new at thebottom of the chart

FindMaximumV 180, 2, 50, 50, 50 50, , 30

0.723607, 31.7175

FindMinimumV 180, 2, 50, 50, 50 50, , 100

0.276393, 121.717

Agrees with ADS(not shown here)

490 Zin

Both Z and Y circlesare turned on

Read Zin in Ohms

Z-Y Grids on

Line length set to 90

Series T-lineelement selected

ECE 5250/4250 ADS Session 27

• Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient Response

Explore other capabilities on your own

Custom Plotting Consider the analysis of a quarter-wave matching circuit to

match 100 ohms to 50 ohms, at 1 GHz

Note in particular here that we have set up a one-port cir-cuit, since we have let the output be terminated in a resistor, as opposed to using a termination block

It is possible to write custom functions for plotting or usepre-built functions

In the above we see that when analyzing with S-parameterswe may not have the options we wish immediately available,e.g., VSWR

100

ADS Session 28 ECE 5250/4250

• Custom Plotting

Eqn SWR=vswr(S(1,1))

0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.80.4 2.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

1.0

2.2

freq, GHz

SW

R

After entering thefunction in the advanced dialogit now appearsas a trace

Knowing about vswr( )already, we could godirectly to the function

Same result in either case

Custom functionplaced in plotwindow

Brings up MeasurementExpressions help(see next page)

ECE 5250/4250 ADS Session 29

• Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient Response

To explore the function library for writing equations visit theADS HTML help system and look under MeasurementExpressions

The AC Simulation and Power Measurements To take actual power measurements in a linear circuit, the AC

controller can be useful

AC circuit simulation is very much like AC analysis avail-able in Spice

More asyou scrolldown

ADS Session 210 ECE 5250/4250

• The AC Simulation and Power Measurements

Analysis is performed using sinusoidal sources with the nodevariables being voltages and currents, each of which are com-plex quantities

Node voltages are available by placing probe points on anywire connecting two components

Branch currents are obtained by placing current probes inseries

Power delivered to a portion of a circuit can be obtainedusing a power probe (grounded or floating)

The frequency of the sinusoidal source is swept over a start/stop range, so all measure measurements are obtained assteady-state values versus frequency

We begin by placing an AC controller from the Simulation-AC palette

ECE 5250/4250 ADS Session 211

• Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient Response

We are going to model a simple bandpass filter created usinga single quarter-wave length section of transmission line

We will also include loss in the resonator

We need to place an AC signal source down as well as loadand source resistances and a transmission line that incorpo-rates loss, but does not assume a particular geometry

We obtain the AC voltage source is obtained from theSources-Freq Domain palette

The resistors are obtained from the Lumped-Compo-nents palette (note ctr-r rotates components)

The transmission line is obtained from the TLines-Idealpalette

Note we have also set the sweep to run from 0.5 GHz to1.5 GHz in 10 MHz steps

We want the quarter-wave frequency of the resonator to be at

ADS Session 212 ECE 5250/4250

• The AC Simulation and Power Measurements

1 GHz and choose the characteristic impedance to obtain aparticular 3 dB bandwidth via design equations (here wehave simply set )

The TLINP element has parameters similar to the coax

We will set the line up with an air dielectric ( )and set the loss tangent to zero (TanD = 0)

Loss can then be controlled via A, which sets the line lossin dB per meter

To obtain the proper line length we use the fact that, where m/s, so mm

Set the amplitude and phase of the source to

Place voltage probes at the input and output toolbar probebutton (diamond with red square and name below); click andthen enter a name for the probe and click on the wire wherethe probe is to be placed

Z0 resonator, 100=

r K 1= =

g c f0= c 3810= g 4 75=

10 0

in

ECE 5250/4250 ADS Session 213

• Smith Chart, Custom Plotting, and TLine Transient Response

We are now ready for the first run of the simulation (with noline loss)

We plot the input and output voltage