Six sigma ajal

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for software quality management

Transcript of Six sigma ajal

  • 1. 1
  • 2. 6/ 6 - and its application to software development S.MUTHUKUMAR AJAL. A. J AP CSE ; UEC EPGP IIM KOZHIKODE
  • 3. JIT 6 TEI Kaizen SPC Quality Assurance ProblemSolving tools Customer Satisfaction Taguchi Methods 4
  • 4. COPQ (Cost of Poor Quality) - Inspection - Warranty - Scrap - Rework - Rejects - More Setups - Expediting Costs - Lost Sales - Late Delivery - Lost Customer Loyalty - Excess Inventory - Long Cycle Times - Costly Engineering Changes Traditional Quality Costs: - Tangible - Easy to Measure Lost Opportunities The Hidden Factory Hidden Costs: - Intangible - Difficult to Measure
  • 5. What are the forms of waste? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Waste of Correction Waste of Overproduction Waste of processing Waste of conveyance (or transport) Waste of inventory Waste of motion Waste of waiting Waste absorb resources but creates no value. First step towards waste reduction is waste identification. Majority of six sigma projects focus on one or more of these areas.
  • 6. Six Sigma - Three Dimensions Customer Define Measur e Analyze Improve Process A Process B Vendor Control Driven by customer needs Process Map Analysis LSL Led by Senior Mgmt Methodology Organization Tools US L Regression Upper/Lower specification limits 35 100% 30 25 80% 60% 20 15 Enabled by quality team. Process variation 40% 10 5 20% 0 0% L K A Frequency F B C G R D Cumulative Frequency Pareto Chart 7
  • 7. On target, minimum process variation
  • 8. A Problem Statement should be SMART: Specific - It does not solve world hunger Measurable - It has a way to measure success Achievable - It is possible to be successful Relevant - It has an impact that can be quantified Timely - It is near term not off in the future
  • 9. Booming Software/IT Industry 10
  • 10. Process Definition & Standards Formal Technical Reviews Analysis & Reporting Measurement Test Planning & Review Six Sigma is a disciplined, data-driven approach and a methodology for eliminating defects in any process -- from manufacturing to transactional and from product to service
  • 11. Software safety is a software quality assurance activity that focuses on the identification and assessment of potential hazards that may affect software negatively and cause an entire system to fail. If hazards can be identified early in the software process, software design features can be specified that will either eliminate or control potential hazards. 12
  • 12. changes in business requirements changes in technical requirements changes in user requirements other documents software models Project Plan data Test code
  • 13. programs The pieces documents data
  • 14. Levels of Software Process Maturity Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) 15
  • 15. Software generally has low product volume compared with manufactured products But what if we measure units, tests, objects, screens, functions, etc? Software development process has very high variance Does it need to? Is that necessarily bad? 16
  • 16. Eight Wastes of Software Developme 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Partially Done Work Extra Processes Extra Features Task Switching Time Waiting Motion Defects Underutilization of Employees Quality Cost Note: Seven Wastes of SD defined by Mary Poppendieck
  • 17. 18
  • 18. Six Sigma Improvement Methods DMAIC vs. DMADV Define Measure Analyze Continuous Improvement Reengineering Improve Design Control Validate
  • 19. Tools for DMAIC Define What is wrong? Benchmark Baseline Contract / Charter Kano Model Voice of the Customer Quality Function Deployment Process Flow Map Project Management Management by Fact Measure Data & Process capability 7 Basic Tools Defect Metrics Data Collection, Forms, Plan, Logistics Sampling Techniques Improve Analyze How to get to six sigma When and where are the defects Cause & Effect Diagrams Failure Models & Effect Analysis Decision & Risk Analysis Statistical Inference Control Charts Capability Reliability Analysis Root Cause Analysis Systems Thinking Control Design of Experiments Modelling Tolerancing Robust Design Process Map Ishikawa Diagram (Fishbone) Display key measures Statistical Controls Control Charts Time Series Methods Non Statistical Controls Procedure adherence Performance Mgmt Preventive activities Poke yoke
  • 20. Improve Potential Solutions How can we address the root causes we identified? Address the causes, not the symptoms. Evaluate Clarify Generate y = f (x1, x2, x3 . . . xn) Critical Xs Divergent | Convergent Decision
  • 21. Typical Ishikawa Diagram (Fishbone)
  • 22. Region : Product : Number of processes : Process : FTE : S . UPPLIERS 1. Org 1 2. Org 2 3. Org 3 4. Org 4. 23 Critical to Client Metric Critical SIPOC INPUTS *Interviews with the clients,Mails and Supporting docs by the client. Requirement Specification. The software with forms and the requirement specification. The software, Requirement specifications, supporting documents and Technical documents. Software with content,Client mails mentioning the competitors. Software/ application, content/functions to be updated, re-Analysis reports. PROCESS OUTPUTS CUSTOMERS Start Analysing the requirements Design and development Completed softwares Coding Testing Promotion Notes Maintenance and updating Make any notes here: End Tip: First start with Outputs and Customers. Next set process boundaries and do the process map steps and then list inputs and suppliers 1. 2. 3. Org 5 Org 6 Org 7.
  • 23. Process Map Process Name: St ep W ho 1 Analysing the requirements 2 Design and development 3 Coding 4 5 Promotion 6 24 Testing Maintenance and updating Elapsed Time 1st week 2nd week 3rd week 4th week 5th week 6th week 7th week
  • 24. Process Map Analysis 1 Process Step 2 3 4 Discussing with Specification the building customer about Complete the Designing require- analysis ments (Inputs) Design Materials Moments of Truth (MOT): Any time a customer draws a critical judgement, positive or negative, about the service, based upon a service experience (or lack of it). Value-Added (VA): Is the customer willing to pay for it? Is it done right the first time? Essential work that moves one step closer to the final product. Value-Add Enabler: step that is required to do VA 25 5 6 Developing 7 Total % Total % Steps Writing the Codes (by technical writer) Understanding the design (by programmer) Production Process (Outputs) Products Non-Value Add (NVA): Steps considered non-essential to produce and deliver the product or service to meet the customers requirements. The customer is NOT willing to pay for the step.
  • 25. The Speed of the Leader Determines the Rate of the Pack.
  • 26. Focus on customers. Improved customer loyalty. Reduced cycle time. Less waste. How Six Sigma can be Beneficial for You? Data based decisions. Time management Sustained gains and improvements. Systematic problem solving. Employee motivation Data analysis before decision making. Faster to market. Team building. Improved customer relations. Assure strategy planning.
  • 27. Effective Supply chain management Knowledge of Competition & Competitors. Develop Leadership skill. Breakdown barriers between departments and functions. Management training. Improve presentation skills. Integration of products ,services and distribution. Use of standard operating procedures. Better decision making. Improving Projects Planning kills.
  • 28. References 1 2 GE website (accessed on 20/Jan/2014) 3 Harry, M., and Crawford. D. (2005), Six Sigma The next generation, Machine Design, February Issue, pp. 126-132 4 Lucas, J.M. (2002), The essential Six-Sigma, Quality Progress, January, pp. 27-31 5 Motorola website (accessed on 20/Jan/2014) 6 Snee, R. D. and Hoerl, R.W. (2003), Leading Six Sigma: A Step by Step Guide Based on Experience at GE and Other Six Sigma Companies, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey 7 29 Dedhia, N.S. (2005), Six Sigma Basics, Total Quality Management, Vol.16, No.5, pp. 567-574 Thawani, S. (2004), Six Sigma Strategy for organizational excellence, Total Quality Management, Vol.15 No.5-6, pp. 655-664
  • 29. Contact information AJAL JOSE AKKARA EPGP, IIM - KOZHIKODE [email protected] 0487-2350675 - Res 890-730-5642 - cell
  • 30. The Six Sigma Toolbox Standard Deviation Cause & Effect Ishikawa Diagram SIPOC Pareto Diagram 80/20 Rule Variance Analysis Control Chart Process Mapping Kano Charting Failure Mode Effect Analysis