Simple past vs present perfect

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Transcript of Simple past vs present perfect

  • 1. PAST TENSESone happy family

2. SIMPLE PASTWhen, when, tell me when?... 3. I start-edDid I start?I did not/ didnt startYou started Did you start?You did not/ didnt startHe startedDid he start?He did not/didnt start.She started.Did she start?She didnt startIt started Did it start?It didnt start.We startedDid we start?We didnt startYou started Did you start? You didnt start.They started. Did they start? They didnt start.(Of course there are also IRREGULAR VERBS you have to learn by heart) 4. Completed Action in the PastUse the Simple Past to express the idea that an action startedand finished at a specific time in the past. (Sometimes, thespeaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they dohave one specific time in mind)Examples: I saw a movie yesterday. I didnt see a play yesterday. Last year, I traveled to Japan. Last year, I didnt travel to Korea. Did you have dinner last night? She washed her car. He didnt wash his car. 5. A Series of Completed ActionsWe use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions inthe past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.Examples: I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place toswim. He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at9:00, and met the others at 10:00. Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs? 6. Duration in PastThe Simple Past can be used with a duration which startsand stops in the past. A duration is a longer action oftenindicated by expressions such as: for two years, for fiveminutes, all day, all year, etc.Examples: I lived in Brazil for two years. Shauna studied Japanese for five years. They sat at the beach all day. They did not stay at the party the entire time. We talked on the phone for thirty minutes. A: How long did you wait for them?B: We waited for one hour. 7. Habits in the PastThe Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit whichstopped in the past. (It can have the same meaning as "used to.) To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, weoften add expressions such as: always, often, usually,never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.Examples: I studied French when I was a child. He played the violin. He didnt play the piano. Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid? She worked at the movie theater after school. They never went to school, they always skipped class. 8. practice on S.Past1. The weather . (be) very warm in April.2. When (you /phone) Mary?3. Im sure .. (he /receive) my letter three days ago.4. They .. (not/ use) their car to go to the mall.5. .. (it /rain) while you were in England?6. Where (be) Mark?7. I called Kate but she (not/be) at home.8. The kids .. (be) in the garden all evening.9. Last month we .. (be) in Paris. Where you?10. He .. (buy) the house in 1999. 9. Used to (do)1. We use used to for something that happened regularly in the past but no longer happens. Ben used to travel a lot in his job but now he doesnt. I used to drive to work but now I take the bus.2. We use it for something that was true but no longer is. There used to be a cinema in the town but now there isnt. She used to have really long hair but shes had it all cut off. I didnt use to like him but now I do. 10. Asking/answering questions using use to We use did when we ask about past habits.Did you use to watch Mickey Mouse?Did you use to like school?Did you used to wear a schol uniform?YES, I used to wear a horrible uniform!NO, I didnt use to wear a uniform, NO, I never used to wear a uniform NO, I never wore a uniformNO, I used not to wear a uniform(too formal,rarely used any more) 11. would instead of used toWe use would when we want to stress how often a past habit happenened. : I used to go swimming twice a week.I would go swimming twice a week. Note: DO NOT use WOULD without a time expressionI used to play the piano. I would play piano.(WRONG)I used to play the piano. I would practise every day. (RIGHT) 12. PRESENT PERFECTI dont care when 13. I have started Have I started? I havent start edYou have startedHave you started? You havent startedHe has started Has he started? He hasnt staredShe has started.Has she started?She hasnt startedIt has started Has it started? It hasnt startedWe have started Have we started?We havent startedYou have startedHave you started? You havent startedThey have started. Have they started? They havent started(Of course there are also IRREGULAR VERBS you have to learn by heart) 14. Unspecified Time Before NowWe use the Present Perfect to say that an action happenedat an unspecified time before now. The exact time isnot important.You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific timeexpressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week,when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment,that day, one day, etc.We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressionssuch as: ever, never, once, many times, several times,before, so far, already, yet, etc. 15. ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc. 16. I dont remember when exactlybut I have seen that movie twenty times! I think I have met him once before. There have been many earthquakes inCalifornia. People have traveled to the Moon. People have not traveled to Mars. Have you read the book yet? Nobody has ever climbed that mountain. A: Has there ever been a war in the UnitedStates?B: Yes, there has been a war in the UnitedStates. 17. ExperienceYou can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience.It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You canalso use this tense to say that you have never had a certainexperience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe aspecific event.Examples: I have been to France.This sentence means that you have had the experience of being inFrance. Maybe you have been there once, or several times. I have been to France three times.You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence. I have never been to France.This sentence means that you have not had the experience ofgoing to France. I think I have seen that movie before. He has never traveled by train. Joan has studied two foreign languages. A: Have you ever met him?B: No, I have not met him. 18. Change Over TimeWe often use the Present Perfect to talk aboutchange that has happened over a period oftime.Examples: You have grown since the last time I saw you. The government has become more interested inarts education. Japanese has become one of the most popularcourses at the university since the Asian studiesprogram was established. My English has really improved since I moved toAustralia. 19. An Uncompleted Action You AreExpectingWe often use the Present Perfect to say that anaction which we expected has not happened.Using the Present Perfect suggests that we arestill waiting for the action to happen.Examples: James has not finished his homework yet. Susan hasnt mastered Japanese (yet), butshe can communicate. Bill has still not arrived. The rain hasnt stopped. (yet) 20. Duration From the Past Until Now (Non- Continuous Verbs)We use the Present Perfect to show that something startedin the past and has continued up until now."For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "sinceTuesday" are all durations which can be used with thePresent Perfect.Examples: I have had a cold for two weeks. She has been in England for six months. Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl. 21. Time Expressions with Present PerfectWhen we use the Present Perfect it means that somethinghas happened at some point in our lives before now.Remember, the exact time the action happened is notimportant. Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in foran experience. We can do this with expressions such as: inthe last week, in the last year, this week, this month, sofar, up to now, etc.Examples: Have you been to Mexico in the last year? I have seen that movie six times in the last month. They have had three tests in the last week. She graduated from university less than three years ago.She has worked for three different companies so far. My car has broken down three times this week. 22. Simple Past vs. Present Perfect exercises1. A: Did you like the movie "Star Wars?" B: I dont know. I ..(see, never) that movie.2. Sam .(arrive) in San Diego a week ago.3. My best friend and I (know) each other for over fifteen years. We still get together once a week.4. Stinson is a fantastic writer. He (write) ten very creative short stories in the last year. One day, hell be as famous as Hemingway.5.I ..(have, not) this much fun since I .. (be) a kid.6. Things (change) a great deal at Coltech, Inc. When we first ..(start) working here three years ago, the company ..(have, only) six employees. Since then, we (expand) to include more than 2000 full-time workers. 23. 7.I ..(tell) him to stay on the path while he was hiking,but he (wander) off into the forest and(be) bitten by a snake.8. Listen Donna, I dont care if you ..(miss) the bus this morning. You (be) late to work too many times. You are fired!9. Sam is from Colorado, which is hundreds of miles from the coast,so he (see, never) the ocean. He should come withus to Miami.10. How sad! George ..(dream) of going to Californiabefore he died, but he didnt make it. He .(see,never) the ocean.11. In the last hundred years, traveling. (become)much easier and very comfortable. In the 19th century, it.(take) two or three months to cross North Americaby covered wagon. The trip (be) very rough and oftendangerous. Things ..(change) a great deal in the lasthundred and fifty years. Now you can fly from New York to LosAngeles in a matter of hours.12. Jonny, I cant believe how much you (change)since the last time I (see) you. You (grow) at least afoot! 24. Since computers were first introduced to the public in the early 1980s, technology 1.. (change) a great deal. The first computers 2. .. (be) simple machines designed for basic tasks. They 3. . (ha