Shugni Language

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A Pamir language, informations about

Transcript of Shugni Language

: ,

:xunn ziv ( )



:- ( )

:90 000 ( )



7.7597: 815

ISO 639-1:

ISO 639-2:

ISO 639-3:sgh

. : :

. - . , - (90 . 1999 ) .

1 2 3 4 5


1931 , XX , . :

A aB C c D d F f

G g H hI iJ jK kL lM m

N nO o P pQ qR rS s

T t U uV vW wX xX xH h

Z z

1938 , . , 1980- . . . , , . [1]


, , , (, , ).


pesr ()pisar ()putspucptsputrzojputra

ti ()ota ()jotsyucjutsrniwortar

b ()ob ()xatsxatsxatsjupkobaiwy, ap

dst ()dast ()ustoststastlszasta

p ()po ()popu:pepuppxa, pa

dndn ()dandon ()inninonanunnkx, ?

tm ()tam ()tsemcamtsemtmstrachashman

sb ()asp ()vordvurdvurdjasaspa

br ()abr ()abriabrvarmmururidz?

gndom ()gandum ()indamindamandamdimanm?

ut ()ut ()uxtuxtxtutwxa, wa?

besjr ()bisjor ()bisjorghak,fanaprtqier, purapaoiri, paoirsh, pouru

bolnd ()baland ()bilandbilandblandblandlwberez, berezat

dur ()dur ()arararirlredra, drt

ub ()ub ()ubbashandtardbafx, vohu

kutik ())urd ()dzulbucikdzldzqlail, l?

goft ()guft ()lvdluvdlevdxnakwajlaoj-, mr-, sangh-

krd ()kard ()tidtigoteitsrakkawlkar-

did ()did ()wintwuntwandwinwinmd-

1. ., . . : , 2000. .134.2. // . : , 2005. .3. 606. 1200 . ISBN 5-02-011237-23. Gawarjon (/Go rqing) Outline of the Tajik language (/Tjky Jinzh). Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House, 1985. ... . .-.,1960;

amizodt M.B. Xugnni alifb. ullajen t. Sitalinobod Tokand 1931

amizoda amed. Alifbe. Awaln sol at. Stalinobod, 1937

. - . 3 . ., 19881999.

Wakhi language

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Wakhi language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator


xik zik

Native toAfghanistan, China, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Russia

Native speakers45,000 (19922012)[1]

Language familyIndo-European



Eastern Iranian

Southeastern Iranian



Writing systemArabic, Cyrillic, Latin

Language codes

ISO 639-3wbl


This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Wakhi is an Indo-European language in the branch of Eastern Iranian language family and is intimately related to other Southeastern Iranian languages in the Pamir languages group.


1 Classification and distribution

1.1 In Afghanistan 1.2 In Tajikistan 1.3 In Pakistan 1.4 In China 2 Orthography 3 Vocabulary 4 Phonology

4.1 Vowels 4.2 Consonants 5 Books 6 References

6.1 See also 7 External linksClassification and distributionWakhi is one of several languages that belong to the Pamir language group. A reflection of this is the fact that the Wakhi people are occasionally called Pamiris. The origin of this language is Wakhan in Afghanistan and it is, according to sources, more than four thousand years old. It is spoken by the inhabitants of the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan, parts of GilgitBaltistan (the former NAs) of Pakistan, Gorno-Badkhshan (mountainous-Badakhshan, in Russian) region of Tajakistan, and Xinjiang in western China. The Wakhi use the self-appellation Xik (ethnic) and suffix it with wor/war to denote their language as Xik-wor themselves. The noun Xik comes from oxik (an inhabitant of Ox, for Wakhan, in Wakhi. There are other equivalents for the name Wakhi (Anglicised) or Wakhani (Arabic and Persian), Vakhantsy (Russian), Gojali/Gojo (Dingrik-wor/Shina), Guyits/Guicho (Borushaski), Wakhigi/Wakhik-war (Kivi-wor/Khow-wor) and Cert (Turki). The language belongs, as yet to be confirmed according to studies and sources, to the southern group of the Pamir languages, in the Iranian group of the Indo-European family (450) of languages, where the different Ishkashmi, Shighni/nani and Wakhi languages are included. A very rough estimate of the population of Wakhis is 50,000 worldwide. The Wakhi live in four different countries. In the GilgitBaltistan region of Pakistan, the Wakhi people mainly live in Gojal, Ishkoman, Darkut and in Chitral District's Broghol. They also live in some parts of Gorno-Badakhshan in Tajikistan and Xinjiang in China.

In AfghanistanIn the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan, Wakhi is spoken from Putur, near Ishkashim, to the upper reaches of the Wakhan River.[2]In TajikistanIn Tajikistan the Wakhi and other communities that speak one of the Pamir languages refer to themselves as Pamiri or Badakhshani and there has been a movement to separate their identity from that of the majority Persian-speaking Tajiks. Linguists universally refer to Wakhi as an East Iranian language independent of Tajik Persian, but many Tajik nationalists insist that Wakhi and other Pamir languages are actually dialects of Tajik.[3]In PakistanIn Pakistan Wakhi is spoken in the sparsely populated upper portions of five of the northernmost valleys: Hunza (many ethnic Wakhi of this valley now speak Burushaski), Gojal that including the valleys of Chipursan and Shingshal, (Upper-Hunzamostly intact), Ishkoman (many ethnic Wakhi speak, now, Shina), Yasin (many ethnic Wakhi of this valley speak, now, Khow-wor or Burushaski/Virchik-wor), Gupis (many ethnic Wakhi speak, now, Shina) and Yarkhun (many ethnic Wakhi of this valley now speak Khow-wor). Yarkhun is located in the Chitral district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, while others are in the GilgitBaltistan. Gojal, in the Hunza valley, has the largest Wakhi population of any of the above five areas. The Wakhis of Ishkoman live primarily in the Karambar valley, in the town of Imit and beyond. In Yasin, they live mostly in the vicinity of Darkot, and in Yarhkun, they are found in Baroghil and in a few other small villages in the high, upper portion of valley. In Pakistan, the central organization of the Wakhi is the Wakhi Cultural Association Pakistan (WCA), an organization that is registered with the Government of Pakistan and which works with the collaboration of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and Lok Virsa Pakistan. The Association is working for the preservation of the Wakhi language and culture, as well as documenting their poetry and music.

Radio Pakistan Gilgit relays the Wakhi radio programme "Sadoyah Boomy Dunyo", the voice of the roof of the world. The Wakhi Cultural Association has arranged more than twenty programmes since 1984, which includes cultural shows, musical nights, and large-scale musical festivals with the collaboration of Lok Virsa Pakistan, the Aga Khan Cultural Service Pakistan (AKCSP), and Pakistan television. In 2000, the WCA won a "Best Programme" organizer award in the Silk Road Festival from the President of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf. A computerized codification of the Wakhi script has been released, which will help to promote the language development programme and documentation of Wakhi poetry, literature, and history. [4]In ChinaSee also: Tajiks of XinjiangOrthographyTraditionally Wakhi was not a written language. Writing systems have been developed for the language using Arabic script, Cyrillic and a modified Roman alphabet.[5] A modified roman alphabet was developed in 1984 by Haqiqat Ali.[6]

The new Wakhi Alphabet


Sample text from a Bible translation published in 2001 is shown below.[7]Lord's Prayer (Luke 11:2-4)

Wakhi in Roman alphabetWakhi in Cyrillic alphabetEnglish (KJV)

2 Yiso yavr xaty: Sayit i do carv, xanv: Ey bzrgwor Tat ki d osmont cy! Ti bzrg nung br olam mt! Lcr dwroni Ti podoyi at-t, zmin-t zmon d hkmi taw mt!2 : , : ! ! -, - !2 And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, "Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven, so in earth.

3 Spo rsq-t rzi sakr nsib car!3 - !3 Give us day by day our daily bread.

4 C spo gnon xs! Sak b kuy, ki sakr aki, c krk! kxter bax carn. C bandi nafs-t awasn, C waswasayi Iblisn saki niga r!4 ! , ! . - , !4 And forgive us our sins; for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil."

VocabularyThe Wakhi lexicon exhibits significant differences with the other Pamir languages. Gawarjon's comparison of the dialects of Sarikoli and Wakhi spoken in China is reproduced below.

Lexical comparison of seven Iranian languages[8]

English glossPersianTajikShughniSarikoliPashtoWakhiAvestan

onejk ()jak ()jiwiwjaw ()jiava-

meatut ()ut ()uxtxtwaxa, waa ()ut?

sonpesr ()pisar ()putsptszoi ()putrputra

firete ()ota ()jotsjutsor ()rnitar

waterb ()ob ()xatsxatsob ()jupkaiwy, ap

handdst ()dast ()uststls ()astzasta

footp ()po ()popepxa, pa ()ppad

toothdndn ()dandon ()innanunx, ()nk?

eyetm ()tam ()tsemtsemstra ()tmcashman

horsesb ()asp ()vordvurds ()jaaspa

cloudbr ()abr ()abrivarmurjadz ()murmaa-

wheatgndom ()gandum ()indamandamanam ()dim?

manybesjr ()bisjor ()bisjorprer, pura ( )tqipaoiri, paoirsh, pouru

highbolnd ()baland ()bilandblandlwa ()blandberez, berezat

fardur ()dur ()ararlre ()irdra, drt

goodub ()ub ()ubtardx, ()bafvohu

smallkutik ()urd ()dzuldzll, l