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.. :

. , () ( ), ( ) ( ). ( : , , .: ) (), . ( ), .... .... . : ) .... .1 .1 " (. ) 10 ( . 100 2,83 . register ton.) ". : 1 2 3 , 10 .

) .... .3 .1 " , , , , , , . : " ", . . 10 (racing boats), (fishing boats), (service boats) .. .4 .1 .... " " 2

.. : . "" (Shipbuilding). - (Navigation). . . () - (...), ..., (Registers). , : 1. ( .. , ) , . (: , . , , , . 1, 4 ) 2. ( ) (...) (...) ( ). 3. ( ) . - . ( , ). (: , . , ). 4. ... ( ) 30 (...). SVAA SZZZ, () (...). (: ... . , ... , ). , ... 3

.. : . - . , , "" , . "" , (sui generis). "" . .

, . (). , . , . . . , , , . :

. . , . . . , . . . ( fiberglass, ) .

, . ' 4

.. : 9000 .. . . , 4000 .. . . 1200 .. , .. . . , . ( 50 ) , . 700 .. . , . . , . 500 .. , , . , , . . () 1000 . , , . , . 50 200 . , . , 7-8 .., " " " ". , , . , . , . , . . 5

.. : (. Mary Rose, Santa Maria, ), man of wars (.. Pinta Nina, ), . , 15 16 .

6

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7

.. :

8

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(hull) : (fore), (admit) (aft). , , (water line). . (freeboard) (bottom). (), (bow) (quarter). " " (central line) , (starboard) (port) " ". - (keel) "" "" "" (stern). "" . (deck) (lower deck), (middle deck), (main deck), (upper deck) ( ). "" (superstructures). (forecastle). (bridge) (poop). (.: / , ). , , (holds) (tanks) , ( , , ), (engine room), (stokehold), (pumps room) (crew quarters). "" (fore-peak tank) (after-peak tank). () (bottom) "" (double bottoms) . . "" , , . "" (steering gear), (cargo winches), (capstan), , , ..

:

. . 9

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.

" " , , () . : . , (, , ). 1). , . 2). (computers) , , , . 3). 14-18 maximum 20 (liners) 25-30 ( 14-20) 60-70 . . , . , / 500.000 ., ... 150.000 ., " " bulk carriers 70-80.000 . ( 3-4 ) . (optimum size) . . . , , , - - - .. . . () , , , (), , (), (diesel electric) (turbo-electric) ( ) . . . . ( , , (classification). (surveyors) , . (certificate of class) :

(tonnage certificate) 10

.. :

(load line certificate) (certificate of seaworthiness) (cargo gear certificate) () (certificate of damages) .

. 17 . , Lloyd Register of Shipping, "" . () "" , , . "" , (Lloyd) . " " (Bureau Veritas) , , . , 14 , (Lega Anseatica) Lombard str. . 1600 Champers of Assicurance, " ". . () (coffee-houses). (Edward Lloyd) 1691. 1696 " " (Lloyd's News), 3 , A,E,I,O,U G,M,B Good (=), Middling (=) Bad (=) . 11

.. : (-G) 13 . 8 6 . , . . - , :

, "Lloyd's Register of Shipping", 1760, : , , : L.R. , "Bureau Veritas", 1828, : , : B.V. , "American Bureau of Shipping", 1862 1898, , : A.B.S. A.B. , "Det Norske Veritas", 1864, : , : N.V. , "Registro Navale Italiano", 1865 1920, : , : RINA R.I. , "Germanischer Lloyd", 1867, : , : G.L. , "Veritas Hellenique", 1870 1919 " " "Hellenic Register of Shipping" , : , : . H.R. , "Nippon Kaiji Kyokai ("Imerial Japanese Marime Corporation") "Teikoku Kaiji Kyokai", 1899, : , : N.K. J.R. , "Morskoi Registr Rusia" "Morskoi Registr SSSR", 1913, : R.R. , "Nederlandsche Vereenigener van Assuradensen", : N.V. )

, . . . SOLAS 1960-66, , . (), . , , . 12

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. ( ) . . ) ), ) , ) (, , ), ) , ) ) . . (sea vessels), (river ships vessels) (lakers lake ships). . , (passenger ships) (cargo ships). ) , , (transocean ships). E ( ) ( - ) 24. (passenger liners) (cruise ships). ( ) - (passenger/car ferries) , (ferry boats) (hovercrafts), (hydrofoils) Cats. ) : 1) , 2) , 3) ( - ) 4) . 1) (tramps) () (liners). (general cargo) (in bulk). S.D.14 , freedom , MK II , Santa Fe .. bulk carriers, grain carriers, ore carriers .. (liners) 13

.. : containerships, Roll on/Roll off /, LASH, SEABEE mini-carriers. 2) (tankers) (oil tankers), (liquefied gas carriers) (vegetable oils), (wine tankers) 3) () - (oil/ore carriers) () oil/bulk/ore carriers O.B.O (=) 4) (timber carriers), (cement carriers), (meat carriers), (chemical carriers), (car carriers) . . . . )Full scandling vessels ( ), )Complete superstructure vessels ( ), )Shelterdeck ships ( ) closed shelterdeck open shelterdeck, )Longbridge ship ( - ) ) Three-island ships ( . ). . , ( , ), . . () ( ) , (- - ) . . , . . , . ( 15-40 .) . , , , .

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.. : (Types) : - - . A/K - - F/S / - / - S/B C/S / - S/S / - / - Cr/S - T/O / - H/C / - . / - F/C - H/F / - D/S / - / - () FDD - W/T / - Tanker* / - / - F/B C/S** E/ - - P/S / / / - CGS LASH C/S

/ - D/S

/ O/C

/ - L/S

/ - T/B : . (/) (.) S.S (=Steam Ship).

: 1. 2. 3. 4.

, () . () - . . 10 30-40 1 3 . . 15

.. :

. 50 350 ( (displacement) (weight of dispacement), (displacement tons), (volume of displacement) 15.000 550.000 , . () (bulk carriers), (container ships), ( , .), , (VLCC - Very Large Crude oil Carrier) (ULCC - Ultra Large Crude oil Carrier). , 15.000 40.000 . , , ( McGreggor). 20 , , "" . .. (, ..), - "". . , . , , container ships ( .) "" . , , . ( 60.000 ) . . . . 250 200.000 . 250 200.000 . 550.000 . .

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. . " " " ". ... 23 1917. " " 1958 . 8.2 ... 1982, 29. , ( , , ) . , , . .. , . ... 30: " , , ". . " ". , . . , 17

.. : . . .

1821 :

(/): . . : , , . : . :(/): 20 . . : . : , (), (), (). : ( ) . :(/): . : . : () . : . : . : . : . : 1920 : . : , (=). 1821 . . . ()( ): . ( ): ( Bombarda). ), , (. ). (), 2,3 ( ). . ( ): Bracciera.