She has a good knowledge of.. · A link/ linking verb does not add much to the meaning of a...

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-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 7 -à-v°œ-™¸ 2013 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2 Spoken English - §ƒ-ûª - ¢√u≤ƒ-© éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ... www.eenadupratibha.net [email protected] Mail your comments and suggestions to Divakar: I didn't go there yesterday because I thought I didn't need to. (E†o ؈’ Åéπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞Ïx Å´-Ææ®Ωç Öçúøü¿’ ņ’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’ 鬕öÀd ¢Á∞¡x- ™‰ü¿’.) Bhaskar: Yea. You did the right thing. Ramesh needed to go there, and he did. (Å´¤†’. †’´¤y ÆæÈ®j† °æØË î˨»´¤. ®Ω¢Ë’≠ˇ ¢Á∞«x-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ÖçúÕçC, Åûªúø’ ¢Á∞«xúø’.) Divakar: But I need to find out when I must be there. Otherwise the boss may get angry. (Åéπ\úø ØËØÁ-°æ¤p-úø’ç-ú≈™ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç Ø√èπ◊çC. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ´’† boss èπ◊ éÓ°æç ®√´îª’a.) Bhaskar: Do you have to go there now itself to find that out? (†’Ny-°æ¤púË ¢Á∞«x™« ÅC ûÁ©’-Ææ’- èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊?) Divakar: Of course I need not. But go there I must, sooner or later. Better sooner than later. (ÅD Eï¢Ë’. É°æ¤púË ¢Á∞¡x†´-Ææ-®Ωç-™‰ü¿’. é¬F ´·çü¿-È®jØ√ ûª®√y-ûÁjØ√ ¢Á∞«x-LqçüË éπüΔ? Åçü¿’-´©x ûª®√yûª éπçõ‰ ´·çü¿®Ω ¢Á∞¡xúøç ¢Ë’©’ éπüΔ?) Look at the following sentences from the conversation above: 1) I didn't go there yesterday because I didn't need to . 2) Ramesh needed to go there , and he did. 3) I need to find out when I must be there. 4) Of course I needed not , but go there I must. We are now going to know some more uses of 'need'. We have so far seen that 'need' is both a main verb, and a helping verb. eg: He needs money ('need' here is a main verb). she needs to earn money ('need' here is a helping verb, because it forms a part of the verb, 'need to earn'). Hasith: When must / should / have I to go there? (؈-éπ\úÕéÀ á°æ¤púø’ ¢Á∞ «xL ?) Giri: You need not go there at all. (†’´y-éπ\-úÕ-Èé- ∞«x-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’.) ´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπüΔ – must/ should/ have to/ has to - É´Fo duty (NCμí¬ îËߪ÷-Lq† °æE)/ com- mand (Çïc)/ necessity (Å´-Ææ®Ωç éÌDl) îËߪ ÷-Lq† °æ† ’-©† ûÁ©’-°æ¤-û√®·. Oô-Eo-öÀéà opposite , need not/ not have to = îËߪ’- †-´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’. must = should = have to/ has to Å®·ûË must not = should not - Ñ È®çúø’ ´÷vûªç äéπõ‰. äéπ °æE îËߪ’-èπÿ-úøü¿’ ÅE – negative command = E≠œü¿l¥ç. Yaswanth: Should I see the secretary? (؈’ secretary E îª ÷ú≈™« ?) Jaisankar: No, you should not = ™‰ü¿’. †’´¤y îª÷úø-èπÿ-úøü¿’. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: a) You must do it/ should do it/ have to do it = †’´yC îËߪ÷L. (Duty/ command) X you must not/ should not do it (îËߪ’-èπÿ-úøü¿’ – negative com- mand. b) Prasanth: You have to send it now (= You must/ should send it now) Sudhakar: I think I don't have to / I need not = ؈’ °æç°æ-†-´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿-† ’-èπ◊çö« ). Don't/ Doesn't have to = need not/ do not (don't) need to/ don't have to/ doesn't have to (îËߪ ’-†-´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’ ). 'Not' ™‰éπ-§ÚûË need = must = should = have to/ has to. You must go = You should go = You have to go = You need to go. Need I finish it before tomorrow? = Must I finish it before tomorrow = ؈C Í®°æöÀ-™í¬ °æ‹Jh îËߪ ÷-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ÖçüΔ? îËߪ÷™«? ÉO 'need' Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’. Should I see the secretary? Pratibha Mayuri, Khammam. Q: The song is mixed with/ in the air - please say the cor- rect one. A: The song mixed/ got mixed in the air. Q: Çߪ’†èπ◊ Çéπ-™‰-Ææ’hçC. Åçõ‰ Çߪ’-†èπ◊ Çéπ-Lí¬ ÖçC. - He is hungry/ hunger/ He feels hungry/ hunger - Say the correct one. A: 1) He is/ He feels hungry. Q: Is the word 'whose' used for plural nouns/ pronouns? for e.g. 'The students whose exam is over/ completed are asked to submit their answer sheets. A: Whose - both singular and plural Q: "Where are you?" T hey asked me - should the underlined capi- tal or small. A: In the sentence, 'Where are you? they asked me, 't' in they should not be a capital letter. Q: O’®Ω’ Éçéπ exam ®√ߪ’çúÕ. Åçõ‰ ¢√Rx-°æ¤púø’ exam ®√Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’ You write/ take your exam now - is this translation correct? A: You can say, 'start writing (your answers)/ start answering'. Q: Please explain the uses of the words 'during' and 'Link verbs' - without asking me to refer to the earlier lessons. A: During - all through a whole period/ at some point of time in the period. Eg: During 2012 - from Jan 1st 2012 to Dec 31st 2012/ at some point(s) of time in the year 2012. a) He studied here during 2012 - May be the whole of the year/ at some point of time, in the year. b) He attended the college during 2011-2012: He was a student here during the whole of 2011- 12. A link/ linking verb does not add much to the meaning of a sentence. Link verb èπ◊ ¢√éπuç Å®Ωnç O’ü¿ Åçûª v°æ¶μ«´ç Öçúøü¿’. ÅC BÊÆÊÆh sentence Öçúøü¿’. é¬F Ç group of words†’ ´’†ç Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-í∫©ç. Eg: He is a minister. Ééπ\úø 'is' link verb. ÅC BÊÆÆœ îªC-NØ√– He a minister Çߪ’† ´’çvA ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´’†èπ◊ ¶üμ¿-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC. É™«çöÀ verbs †’ link verbs Åçö«ç. ÅEo 'be' forms èπÿú≈ link verbs Å´¤- û√®·. áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ ÅN ™‰éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√, sen- tence Å®Ωnç ´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC. She was a great singer- Ééπ\úø was ('be' form) ™‰éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√, Å®Ωnç ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC. ii) 'be' forms é¬E link verbs èπÿú≈ ÖØ√o®·. ÅN, 'appear, seem, become, go, feel, look, prove, remain, taste, smell, etc- ÉN link verbs í¬ é¬èπ◊çú≈, action verbs í¬ èπÿú≈ °æE îË≤ƒh®·. appear, seem ûª°æp. He looks angry- He angry- (éÓ°æçí¬ éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’)– looks BÊÆ-ÆœØ√ Å®Ωnç Ææ’p¥J-Ææ’hçC. He looked at the scenery- Ééπ\úø looked, action verb , áçü¿’-éπçõ‰, looked BÊÆÊÆh Å®Ωnç àç Ææ’p¥Jç-îªü¿’– He at the scenery - meaningless. The biriyani tastes good - Taste Ééπ\úø link verb, áçü¿’-éπçõ‰, The biriyani good, Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç ÖçC. He tasted the biriyani - Ééπ\úø, taste, link verb é¬ü¿’ . áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ ÅC ™‰éπ-§ÚûË– He biriyani, Å®Ωnç ™‰ü¿’. Ééπ\úø taste, action verb Å´¤-ûª’çC. Å™«Íí N’í∫û√ verbs èπÿú≈. Ææ÷: O’®Ω’ English ÆæJí¬ ´÷ö«x-úËç- ü¿’èπ◊, link verbs ûÁL-ߪ÷-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç àç ™‰ü¿’ éπüΔ? É™«çöÀN grammar O’ü¿ research îËÊÆ¢√JéÀ Å´-Ææ®Ωç. She has a good knowledge of.. Sumanjali Pallavi, Guntur. Q: "I will do it", he/ He said – Ééπ\úø "he" ÅØË °æü¿ç ¢Á·ü¿öÀ Åéπ~®Ωç (H/h) capital ™ ®√≤ƒh®√? ™‰üΔ small ™Ø√? áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ éÌEo °æ¤Ææh-鬙x 'he' capital (He) ÖçC. ´’J-éÌEoçöx small (He) ÖçC. A: 'h' in 'he' here should be small and not capital, in your sentence. Q: Is/ are the difination of clause and sentence same? Here 'and' is there so, what is the first word of the above? And also please say whether the two definations are same (i.e.,) clause and sentence) or not. A: 'clause' and 'sentence' are two differ- ent things. So the verb should be in plural. The correct question: Q: Are the definitions (not 'defina- tions') of the clause and the sen- tence the same? Ans: No. A sentence is a group of words with a complete meaning. A clause is a group of words with a verb . Q: If a person translates Telugu (stories, matters, passages of Telugu lan- Link Verbs Pavitra Singhania, Dilsuknagar. Q: I have a knowledge / knowledge - say the correct one. A: 'Knowledge' in the general sense of knowing some- thing is uncountable, so 'a knowl- edge' is incorrect. However when we talk of knowing some subject, we say, 'a knowledge'. He is a man of knowledge ('knowledge' used with the meaning of knowing something/ something in general). But when we talk of some- body knowing some branch of edu- cation/ subject, we say a knowledge. a) He has a wide knowledge of dance. b) She has a good knowledge of art and painting. Q: 'They are as follows ' - Is the underlined letter added to the verb 'follow'? Such as we add the letter 's' to V 1 (Knows ) A: ..... as follows - correct. Q: He is looking great - say in Telugu. A: Åûªúø’ íÌ°æpí¬ éπE°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. ÅûªúÕ B®Ω’™/ ¢ËÆæ’-èπ◊†o ü¿’Ææ’h™x/ †öÀç-îª-ú≈- EéÀ ¢ËÆæ’èπ◊†o ¢Ë≠æç™. Q: Let me know the meaning of the grammatical form 'Link verbs' with a few examples. A: -Ñ -™„Ææ-Ø˛-™-ØË Link verbs í∫’-Jç-* - N-´-Jç-î√ç. -îª÷-úøç-úÕ. Q: O’®√ lessons †’ äéπ-®Óñ‰ îÁ°æp-èπ◊çú≈ î√™« ®ÓV©’ îÁ§ƒpL (Åçõ‰ î√™« class ©’ BÆæ’-éÓ-¢√L/ classes E §ÒúÕ- Tç-î√L áèπ◊\´ ®ÓV©’) How to say this in English? A: Do/ teach the lesson for some days. Q: Watch/ look / stare - Explain. A: Refer to the earlier lessons. Q: She shook her hand to me - Is this correct? A: She shook hands with me. 729 M. SURESAN guage) to English, will his knowledge (English) improved?/ increased? A: Yes. It will. Q: îÁô’dèπ◊ é¬ßª’©’ é¬≤ƒh- ߪ÷/ Çèπ◊©’ é¬≤ƒh-ߪ÷. DEo English ™ ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL? A: Does a tree bear fruit? (é¬ßª’©’ é¬≤ƒhߪ÷?)/Put on leaves? (Çèπ◊©’ ûÌúø’í∫’- ûª’çüΔ?) Q: His hand was broken/ broke - say the cor- rect one. A: His hand was broken/ He broke his hand. Feroze Shah Zafar, Vizag Q: Feroze makes Zafar does the work/ do the work. Which is correct? A: 1) Feroze makes Zafar do the work. Q: Comprise/ consisting - Explain. A: Comprise = Consisting of Q: We are taught discipline, punctuality and some other good things besides education - please say if it is correct or not. A: We are taught discipline, punctuality and some other good things besides our subjects of study - correct. ('Teach edu- cation' is wrong. You can say impart education but that is a bit scholarly (§ƒçúÕûªuç). Q: ؈’ Çߪ’†’o îª÷Æœ ´÷ ņoߪ’u ņ’-èπ◊- Ø√o†’ – I have mistaken him by my brother. Is it correct or not? A: Correct.

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Page 1: She has a good knowledge of.. · A link/ linking verb does not add much to the meaning of a sentence. Link verb èπ ¢√éπuç Å®Ωnç O’ü¿ Åçûª v°æ¶μ«´ç Öçúøü¿’.

--Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 7 -à-v°œ-™¸ 2013 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Spoken English - §ƒ-ûª - ¢√u≤ƒ-© éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ... www.eenadupratibha.net [email protected] your comments and suggestions to

Divakar: I didn't go there yesterday because Ithought I didn't need to. (E†o ؈’ Åéπ\-úÕéÀ¢Á∞Ïx Å´-Ææ®Ωç Öçúøü¿’ ņ’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’ 鬕öÀd ¢Á∞¡x-™‰ü¿’.)

Bhaskar: Yea. You did the right thing.Ramesh needed to go there, and he did.(Å´¤†’. †’´¤y ÆæÈ®j† °æØË î˨»´¤. ®Ω¢Ë’≠ˇ ¢Á∞«x-Lq†Å´-Ææ®Ωç ÖçúÕçC, Åûªúø’ ¢Á∞«xúø’.)

Divakar: But I need to find out when I mustbe there. Otherwise the boss may get angry.(Åéπ\úø ØËØÁ-°æ¤p-úø’ç-ú≈™ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-Lq† Å´-Ææ®ΩçØ√èπ◊çC. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ´’† boss èπ◊ éÓ°æç ®√´îª’a.)

Bhaskar: Do you have to go there now itselfto find that out? (†’Ny-°æ¤púË ¢Á∞«x™« ÅC ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊?)

Divakar: Of course I need not. But go there Imust, sooner or later. Better sooner thanlater. (ÅD Eï¢Ë’. É°æ¤púË ¢Á∞¡x†´-Ææ-®Ωç-™‰ü¿’. é¬F´·çü¿-È®jØ√ ûª®√y-ûÁjØ√ ¢Á∞«x-LqçüË éπüΔ? Åçü¿’-´©xûª®√yûª éπçõ‰ ´·çü¿®Ω ¢Á∞¡xúøç ¢Ë’©’ éπüΔ?)

Look at the following sentences from theconversation above:1) I didn't go there yesterday because I didn't

need to.2) Ramesh needed to go there, and he did.3) I need to find out when I must be there.4) Of course I needed not, but go there I must.

We are now going to know some moreuses of 'need'.

We have so far seen that'need' is both a main verb, anda helping verb.eg: He needs money ('need'

here is a main verb).she needs to earn money

('need' here is a helping verb,because it forms a part of theverb, 'need to earn').Hasith: When must/ should/

have I to go there? (؈-éπ\úÕéÀ á°æ¤púø’ ¢Á∞«xL?)Giri: You need not go there at all. (†’´y-éπ\-úÕ-Èé-

∞«x-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’.)´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπüΔ – must/ should/ have to/

has to - É´Fo duty (NCμí¬ îËߪ÷-Lq† °æE)/ com-mand (Çïc)/ necessity (Å´-Ææ®Ωç éÌDl) îËߪ÷-Lq†°æ†’-©†’ ûÁ©’-°æ¤-û√®·.Oô-Eo-öÀéà opposite, need not/ not have to = îËߪ’-†-´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’.must = should = have to/ has to Å®·ûË mustnot = should not - Ñ È®çúø’ ´÷vûªç äéπõ‰. äéπ

°æE îËߪ’-èπÿ-úøü¿’ ÅE – negativecommand = E≠œü¿l¥ç.Yaswanth: Should I see the

secretary? (؈’ secretaryE îª÷ú≈™«?)

Jaisankar: No, you shouldnot = ™‰ü¿’. †’´¤y îª÷úø-èπÿ-úøü¿’.í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ:a) You must do it/ should doit/ have to do it = †’´yC

îËߪ÷L. (Duty/ command) X you must not/should not do it (îËߪ’-èπÿ-úøü¿’ – negative com-mand.b) Prasanth: You have to send it now (= You

must/ should send it now)Sudhakar: I think I don't have to/ I need not

= ؈’ °æç°æ-†-´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿-†’-èπ◊çö«).Don't/ Doesn't have to = need not/ do not

(don't) need to/ don't have to/ doesn't have to(îËߪ’-†-´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’).

'Not' ™‰éπ-§ÚûË need = must = should = haveto/ has to. You must go = You should go = Youhave to go = You need to go.Need I finish it before tomorrow? = Must Ifinish it before tomorrow = ؈C Í®°æöÀ-™í¬°æ‹Jh îËߪ÷-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ÖçüΔ? îËߪ÷™«?ÉO 'need' Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’.

Should I see the secretary?

Pratibha Mayuri,Khammam.

Q: The song is mixedwith/ in the air -please say the cor-rect one.

A: The song mixed/got mixed in the air.Q: Çߪ’†èπ◊ Çéπ-™‰-Ææ’hçC. Åçõ‰ Çߪ’-†èπ◊

Çéπ-Lí¬ ÖçC. - He is hungry/hunger/ He feels hungry/ hunger- Say the correct one.

A: 1) He is/ He feels hungry.Q: Is the word 'whose' used for

plural nouns/ pronouns? for e.g.'The students whose exam isover/ completed are asked tosubmit their answer sheets.

A: Whose - both singular and pluralQ: "Where are you?" They asked

me - should the underlined capi-tal or small.

A: In the sentence, 'Where are you?they asked me, 't' in they shouldnot be a capital letter.

Q: O’®Ω’ Éçéπ exam ®√ߪ’çúÕ. Åçõ‰¢√Rx-°æ¤púø’ exam ®√Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’ Youwrite/ take your exam now - isthis translation correct?

A: You can say, 'start writing (youranswers)/ start answering'.

Q: Please explain the uses of thewords 'during' and 'Link verbs' -without asking me to refer to theearlier lessons.

A: During - all through a wholeperiod/ at some point of time inthe period.

Eg: During 2012 - from Jan 1st2012 to Dec 31st 2012/ at somepoint(s) of time in the year2012.

a) He studied here during 2012 -May be the whole of the year/at some point of time, in theyear.

b) He attended the college during2011-2012: He was a studenthere during the whole of 2011-12.

A link/ linking verb does not addmuch to the meaning of a sentence.

Link verb èπ◊ ¢√éπuç Å®Ωnç O’ü¿ Åçûªv°æ¶μ«´ç Öçúøü¿’. ÅC BÊÆÊÆh sentenceÖçúøü¿’. é¬F Ç group of words†’´’†ç Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-í∫©ç. Eg: He is aminister. Ééπ\úø 'is' link verb. ÅCBÊÆÆœ îªC-NØ√– He a minister Çߪ’†´’çvA ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´’†èπ◊ ¶üμ¿-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC.É™«çöÀ verbs †’ link verbs Åçö«ç.ÅEo 'be' forms èπÿú≈ link verbs Å´¤-û√®·. áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ ÅN ™‰éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√, sen-tence Å®Ωnç ´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC.She was a great singer- Ééπ\úø was('be' form) ™‰éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√, Å®Ωnç ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC.ii) 'be' forms é¬E link verbs èπÿú≈

ÖØ√o®·. ÅN, 'appear, seem,become, go, feel, look, prove,remain, taste, smell, etc- ÉN linkverbs í¬ é¬èπ◊çú≈, action verbs í¬èπÿú≈ °æE îË≤ƒh®·. appear, seemûª°æp.

He looks angry- He angry- (éÓ°æçí¬éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’)– looks BÊÆ-ÆœØ√ Å®ΩnçÆæ’p¥J-Ææ’hçC.

He looked at the scenery- Ééπ\úølooked, action verb, áçü¿’-éπçõ‰,looked BÊÆÊÆh Å®Ωnç àç Ææ’p¥Jç-îªü¿’– Heat the scenery - meaningless.

The biriyani tastes good - TasteÉéπ\úø link verb, áçü¿’-éπçõ‰, Thebiriyani good, Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç ÖçC.

He tasted the biriyani - Ééπ\úø,taste, link verb é¬ü¿’. áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ ÅC™‰éπ-§ÚûË– He biriyani, Å®Ωnç ™‰ü¿’. Ééπ\úøtaste, action verb Å´¤-ûª’çC.

Å™«Íí N’í∫û√ verbs èπÿú≈.

Ææ÷: O’®Ω’ English ÆæJí¬ ´÷ö«x-úËç-ü¿’èπ◊, link verbs ûÁL-ߪ÷-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωçàç ™‰ü¿’ éπüΔ? É™«çöÀN grammar O’ü¿research îËÊÆ¢√JéÀ Å´-Ææ®Ωç.

She has a good knowledge of..

Sumanjali Pallavi, Guntur.Q: "I will do it", he/ He said – Ééπ\úø

"he" ÅØË °æü¿ç ¢Á·ü¿öÀ Åéπ~®Ωç (H/h)capital ™ ®√≤ƒh®√? ™‰üΔ small ™Ø√?áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ éÌEo °æ¤Ææh-鬙x 'he' capital ™(He) ÖçC. ´’J-éÌEoçöx small (He)ÖçC.

A: 'h' in 'he' here should be small andnot capital, in your sentence.

Q: Is/ are the difination of clause andsentence same? Here 'and' is thereso, what is the first word of theabove? And also please say whetherthe two definations are same (i.e.,)clause and sentence) or not.

A: 'clause' and 'sentence' are two differ-ent things. So the verb should be inplural. The correct question:Q: Are the definitions (not 'defina-

tions') of the clause and the sen-tence the same?

Ans: No. A sentence is a group ofwords with a complete meaning.

A clause is a group of words with averb.

Q: If a person translates Telugu (stories,matters, passages of Telugu lan-

Link Verbs

Pavitra Singhania,Dilsuknagar.

Q: I have a knowledge /knowledge - say thecorrect one.

A: 'Knowledge' in thegeneral sense of knowing some-thing is uncountable, so 'a knowl-edge' is incorrect. However whenwe talk of knowing some subject,we say, 'a knowledge'.He is a man of knowledge

('knowledge' used with the meaningof knowing something/ something ingeneral). But when we talk of some-body knowing some branch of edu-cation/ subject, we say a knowledge.a) He has a wide knowledge of

dance.b) She has a good knowledge of art

and painting.Q: 'They are as follows' - Is the

underlined letter added to the

verb 'follow'?Such as we addthe letter 's' to V1(Knows)

A: ..... as follows - correct.Q: He is looking great - say in

Telugu. A: Åûªúø’ íÌ°æpí¬ éπE°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. ÅûªúÕ

B®Ω’™/ ¢ËÆæ’-èπ◊†o ü¿’Ææ’h™x/ †öÀç-îª-ú≈-EéÀ ¢ËÆæ’èπ◊†o ¢Ë≠æç™.

Q: Let me know the meaning of thegrammatical form 'Link verbs'with a few examples.

A: -Ñ -™„Ææ-Ø˛-™--ØË Link verbs í∫’-Jç-* -N-´-Jç-î√ç. -îª÷-úøç-úÕ.

Q: O’®√ lessons †’ äéπ-®Óñ‰ îÁ°æp-èπ◊çú≈

î√™« ®ÓV©’ îÁ§ƒpL (Åçõ‰ î√™«class ©’ BÆæ’-éÓ-¢√L/ classes E §ÒúÕ-Tç-î√L áèπ◊\´ ®ÓV©’) How to saythis in English?A: Do/ teach the lesson for some

days.Q: Watch/ look / stare - Explain.A: Refer to the earlier lessons.

Q: She shook her hand to me - Isthis correct?

A: She shook hands with me.

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M. SURESAN

guage) to English,will his knowledge(English) improved?/increased?

A: Yes. It will.Q: îÁô’dèπ◊ é¬ßª’©’ é¬≤ƒh-

ߪ÷/ Çèπ◊©’ é¬≤ƒh-ߪ÷.DEo English ™ ᙫîÁ§ƒpL?

A: Does a tree bear fruit?(é¬ßª’©’é¬≤ƒhߪ÷?)/Put onleaves? (Çèπ◊©’ ûÌúø’í∫’-ûª’çüΔ?)

Q: His hand was broken/broke - say the cor-rect one.

A: His hand was broken/He broke his hand.

Feroze Shah Zafar, VizagQ: Feroze makes Zafar does the work/ do

the work. Which is correct?A: 1) Feroze makes Zafar do the work.Q: Comprise/ consisting - Explain.A: Comprise = Consisting ofQ: We are taught discipline, punctuality

and some other good things besideseducation - please say if it is correct ornot.

A: We are taught discipline, punctualityand some other good things besides oursubjects of study- correct. ('Teach edu-cation' is wrong. You can say imparteducation but that is a bit scholarly(§ƒçúÕûªuç).

Q: ؈’ Çߪ’†’o îª÷Æœ ´÷ ņoߪ’u ņ’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’ – I have mistaken him by mybrother. Is it correct or not?

A: Correct.

Page 2: She has a good knowledge of.. · A link/ linking verb does not add much to the meaning of a sentence. Link verb èπ ¢√éπuç Å®Ωnç O’ü¿ Åçûª v°æ¶μ«´ç Öçúøü¿’.

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Ekambar: You've (you have) been complain-ing of a headache since morning. Whydon't you see a doctor? (§Òü¿’l-öÀ-Eç* ûª©-ØÌ°œpÅE ¶«üμ¿-°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤ éπüΔ? ú≈éπd®˝E áçü¿’èπ◊îª÷úøèπÿúøü¿’?)

Ganesh: I don't want to for a simple headachethey prescribe umpteen drugs. That'sworse than the headache. (Ø√èπ◊ É≠ædç ™‰ü¿’.*†o ûª©-§Ú-ô’èπ◊, ÉEo ´’çü¿’©’ ®√≤ƒh®Ω’. ÅCûª©-ØÌ°œp éπçõ‰ ÅüμΔy-†oçí¬ Öçô’çC.)

Ekambar: Then how about trying somehome remedy? (àüÁjØ√ í∫%£æ« ¢Ájü¿uç îËÆæ’-éÓ-´îª’aéπüΔ?)

Ganesh: I think I'd (I had) better go out andhave some fresh air. That might be of help.(é¬Ææh •ßª’-öÀ-ÈéRx ¨¡Ÿv¶μº-¢Á’i† í¬L °‘©’a-éÓ-́ úøç ´’ç*-ü¿-†’-èπ◊çö«.)

Ekambar: You ought to have a rest instead Ifeel. (üΔE •ü¿’©’ Nv¨»çA áçü¿’èπ◊ BÆæ’éÓ-èπÿúøü¿’?)

Ganesh: Haven't (Have not) I had enoughrest? Let me go out. How about going outwith me? (BÆæ’-èπ◊†o Nv¨»çA î√©üΔ? ††’o •ßª’-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡xF. Ø√ûÓ •ßª’-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡xúøç Ææçí∫-ûËçöÀ?)

Ekambar: No problem. Let's go. (Ŷμºuç-ûª®Ω癉ü¿’. °æü¿.)

Now look at the following expressions fromthe conversation above:1) Why don't you see a doctor?2) How about trying some home remedy?3) You ought to have a rest instead, I feel.

°j-† underline îËÆœ†- expressions ÅFoÆæ÷ (suggestions) É´yú≈-EéÀ ¢√úøû√ç, Englishconversation ™ practise îËüΔlç.a) Hrithik: It's getting hotter by the minute.

I'm (I am) afraid I can't walk any more.

(EN’≠æ EN’-≥ƒ-EéÀ ¢ËúÕ/áçúø áèπ◊\-¢Áj-§Ú-ûÓçC.Éçéπ ؈’ †úø-´-™‰-ØË¢Á÷ÅE-°œ-≤ÚhçC - Ééπ\úøafraid = ÅE-°œç-îªúøç,¶μºßª’ç é¬ü¿’.)

Divya: Yes. I feel sotoo. How about hav-ing some chilleddrink? (Ø√èπÿ Å™«ØËÅE-°œ-≤ÚhçC. xöÀ§ƒFߪ’ç à´’Ø√oBÆæ’èπ◊çõ‰?)

b) Indraneel: I find it difficult to talk to him.He simply wouldn't let me say anything.(ÅûªúÕûÓ ´÷ö«x-úøôç éπ≠ædç. ††o-Æ晉çîÁ°æpE´yúø’.)

Jagannadh: How about taking the help of/what about taking the help of Sumanth?He can do the job for you. (Ææ’´’çû˝ ≤ƒßª’çBÆæ’-èπ◊çõ‰?/ áçü¿’èπ◊ BÆæ’-éÓèπÿ-úøü¿’?/ BÆæ’-èπ◊ØËÆæçí∫-ûËçöÀ?)

Suggestions ÉîËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ¢√úËÉçéÓ expression, Why don't we?/ Whydon't you? etc.

a) Kantharao: A sunday at last fol-lowed by a holiday on Monday. Wehave two full days. I feel like goingsomewhere. (*´-JéÀ ≤Ú´’-¢√®ΩçÂÆ©´¤ûÓ éπ©-Æœ† ÇC-¢√®Ωç ´*açC.È®çúø’-°æ‹Jh ®ÓV©’ ÂÆ©´¤. áéπ\-úÕ-ÈéjØ√¢Á∞«lç ÅE-°œ-≤ÚhçC.)

Krishna Rao: Why don't we make atrip to Araku? That'd be reallyenjoyable. (Å®Ω-èπ◊ ¢Á∞Ïh? ÅC î√™«Ææ®ΩüΔí¬ Öçô’çC.)

b) Lakshman: Why don't you go to Ooty thissummer? You haven't been there at all. (Ñ¢ËÆæN-™ Üöà áçü¿’èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡x-èπÿ-úø--ü¿’? Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊¢Á∞¡x-™‰ü¿’ †’´y-éπ\-úÕéÀ).

Lavanya: Why don't you accompany me?(†’´¤y Ø√ûÓ áçü¿’èπ◊ ®√èπÿ-úø-ü¿’?)

ÉN practice îËüΔlç.

Why don't we make a trip..?

Shivaji Rao,Rajahmundry

Q: He fought him/ withhim- Clarify.

A: He fought him = Hebeat him/ kicked him.

He fought with = He took part in a waragainst somebody/ him(fight = hit and kick somebody; fightwith = fight in a war.)Q: Rustum saved his country from

foreign invasions/ invaders.A: Rustum saved his country from the

attacks by foreign (enemy) coun-tries/ attacks by people who makewars. (invasion = ü¿çúø-ߪ÷vûª.invader = ü¿çúÁAh ´îËa-¢√∞¡Ÿx.)

Q: I would like to work in youresteemed institu-tion/ EsteemedInstitution - Pleasesay whether thefirst letters of theabove underlinedwords should besmall or capital?

A: They should be insmall letters.

Q: Where do you put

up? O’È®-éπ\úø •Ææ îËÆæ’h-Ø√o®Ω’/ îË≤ƒh®Ω’ –is this correct?

A: Where have you put up? = O’È®-éπ\úø•Ææ îËÆœ ÖØ√o®Ω’?

Q: My having three children isenough to raise eyebrows - trans-late into Telugu.

A: Ø√èπ◊ ´·í∫’_®Ω’ °œ©x-©’-Ø√o-®Ω-ØËüË Ç¨¡a®ΩuçéπL-Tç-îË-Cí¬/ ÅÆæ-´’tA 鬮Ω-ùçí¬ ÖçC.

Q: He didn't want that should be hap-pen - say in Telugu.

A: He didn't want that should happen/that to happen (that should be hap-pen - Wrong) = ÅC ï®Ω-í∫-èπÿ-úø-ü¿E ņ’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’/ éÓ®Ω’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.

Q: Show the book to me/ show me thebook.

A: Both are correct.Q: a) Ç¢Á’ ¶Ôô’d °ô’d-

èπ◊çC/ °ô’d-èπ◊ç-ôC.b) Ø√ í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úø’ûª÷

O’ Æ洒ߪ’ç áçü¿’èπ◊´%ü∑Δ îË≤ƒh®Ω’? translateinto English.

A: a) She wore/ wears adot on the forehead.

b) Why do you wasteyour time talkingabout me?

Vasu Naidu, Gandhipur.Q: Dinner/ Supper - Say differ-

ence.A: Dinner is the main/ the most

important meal of the day.Usually for us in India it is thenight meal.

Supper - usually the food taken atnight, before going to bed - may not be a regular meal. InIndia we don't usually have supper. In the West, the din-ner is eaten late in the afternoon, and before going to bed,if somebody still feels hungry, they may have supper.

Q: "Being" †’ Past Tense ™ èπÿ-ú≈ ¢√úø-û√®√?A: ¢√úø-´îª’a. Being angry, she stopped speaking to him-

éÓ°æçí¬ Öçúø-ôç-´©x Ç¢Á’ Åûª-úÕûÓ ´÷ö«xúøôç ´÷ØË-ÆœçC.Q: "The curse of Baskerville - Please translate into Telugu.A: Baskeville ´ç¨¡-Ææ’h-©†’ °æöÀd °‘úÕÆæ’h†o ¨»°æç.Q: Çߪ’† ûª† bike E áçûª-ÈéjûË éÌØ√oúÓ ÅçûªÍé Å´·t-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’. A: He sold his bike for the same price as he had bought it.Q: ØËØËç Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o-†E O’®Ω’ ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’? - How to

say in Telugu?A: What do you think I have understood it as?/ What do

you think I have taken it for?Q: i) He is looking at his watch to know if the time of

going home has come or not.ii) I have had/ made all the students study all the answers.

-Ñ -¢√é¬u-©’ éπ®ΩÍéd-Ø√?A: i) and ii) - correct.

Rekha Sindhia, Vanasthalipuram.Q: She was cooking during three hours/

She was cooking in three hours - Pleasetranslate the above in Telugu, let meknow the uses of the word "during" inSpoken English, explain in Telugu.

A: She has been working for the past/ the lastthree hours - Correct.She was working during three hours/ Shewas cooking in three hours - WRONG.For the uses of during and the differencebetween 'during', 'for', and 'in' refer to one ofthe past lesson.

Q: Let me know about 'link verbs' in Telugu.A: Refer to lesson No.729Q: Model Verbs - Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? ¢√öÀE Å™« áçü¿’èπ◊

°œ©’-≤ƒh®Ω’?A: 'Modal Verbs', not Model Verbs.

Modal verbs = Helping verbs/ auxiliaryverbs. Any grammar book will give you infor-mation about them.Q: Spiritual help/ intellectual/ logical help - Åçõ‰

àN’öÀ – N -́Jç-îªçúÕ.

A: Spiritual help = Help inthe matters of the soul -help you need to know what is virtue (°æ¤ùuç)and what is sin, how to get moksham (salva-tion) etc.Intellectual help = Help you need to improveyour knowledge/ understanding. eg: The helpa student gets from a teacher.Logical help - This can be explained only ifthe context is known - Ææçü¿®Ωs¥ç ûÁLߪ’çüË Ñ´÷ôèπ◊ Å®Ωnç îÁ°æp™‰ç.

Q: The angry boy killed the dog - is the under-lined adjective?

A: Yes. 'Angry' here qualifies the noun, 'boy'.

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M. SURESAN

Sukanya Joshi, Tirupathi.Q: His brother was one of the most kind heart-

ed men who ever breathed. Say the meaningof the underlined word.

A: Ñ v°æ°æç-îªç™ E´-Æœç-*† (breathed = Ü°œJ§ÒçüΔ®Ω’ = E´-Æœç-î√®Ω’) ¢√∞¡xç-ü¿-J™ Åûªúø’Åûªuçûª ü¿ßª’-í∫-©-¢√úø’.)

Q: She sleeps on/ inthe bed - whichone is right?

A: She sleeps in thebed - Correct.

Q: An old dametaught the boyhis letters - Saythe meaning ofthe above underlined words.

A: Letters = alphabet. Q: Constituency/ Segment - say the meanings in

Telugu.A: Constituency = A group of voters (from an

area) that elects an MLA or MP. Eg: Hyderabad East constituency = The

group of people in the eastern part elect-ing their representatives = EßÁ÷-ï-éπ-´®Ω_ç.

Segment = a part of the constituency.Q: Laurie did a Charles when he filled his

wagon full of mud - translate into Telugu.A: Did a charles = did what Charles usually

does = Charles ™«/ îËÊÆ °æE, Laurie î˨»úø’.Q: Chapathis are made from flour/ made of

flour - Which is correct?A: Chapathis are made of flour - Correct.Q: ¢√∞¡Ÿx Ø√ í∫’Jç* àç îÁ§ƒp®Ω’? Say in English.A: What did they say about me?Q: He was lucky that he won the prize - is this

correct?A: Correct.Q: Unless they leave now, they won't be home/

at home.A: Won't be home (American) = Won't be at

home (British).Q: We came here in/ on/ by a car.A: By car/ in a car

She sleeps in the bed Sheetal Agarwal, Rudrampur.Q: She went to Vijayawada along with

her children/ with her children -which one is correct?

A: Both are correct.Q: He is quite at home/ at home with -

Which one is correct?A: Both are correct, with a slight differ-

ence in meaning - He is quite =(completely) at home in Vijayawada.

Q: He himself drove the car/ He drovethe car himself - Which one is cor-rect?

A: Both are correct and have the samemeaning.

Q: Please translate the following intoEnglish.

a) ¢√∞¡Ÿx v§ƒù«-©ûÓ îÁ©-í¬ôç Çúø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.b) Åûªúø’ ¢√∞¡x Ø√†o Åúø’-í∫’-ñ«-úø™x †úø’-≤ƒhúø’.c) Ø√ îË®·/ 鬩’/ ûª© ØÌ°œp-™‰-Ææ’hçC.

A: a) They are playing with their lives.b) He follows in the footsteps of his

father.c) My hand/ leg/ head is aching.

Page 3: She has a good knowledge of.. · A link/ linking verb does not add much to the meaning of a sentence. Link verb èπ ¢√éπuç Å®Ωnç O’ü¿ Åçûª v°æ¶μ«´ç Öçúøü¿’.

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Kishore: How do you know Yashwin? (Fèπ◊ߪ’≠œyØ˛ ᙫ ûÁ©’Ææ’?)

Wesley: What do you mean? We went toschool together. We have been very closesince then. (àçôç-ô’-Ø√o´¤? ¢Ë’ç äÍé Ææ÷\™x îªü¿’-´¤-èπ◊Ø√oç. Å°æpöÀ †’ç* ¢Ë’ç ÆæEo-£œ«-ûª’-©’í¬ ÖØ√oç.)

Kishore: Did you go to the same collegetoo? (äÍé college™ èπÿú≈ îªü¿’-́ ¤-èπ◊-Ø√o®√?)

Wesley: No, dad got transferred and wehad to move from Vijayawada; ofcourse, thatwas after I took the X class exams. (™‰ü¿’.´÷Ø√†o •CM Åߪ÷uúø’, ¢Ë’ç Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø ´CL¢Á∞«}Lq ´*açC. Å®·ûË ÅC ؈’ X Class °æK-éπ~©’®√Æœ† ûª®√yûª.)

Kishore: What about your younger broth-er? What's he now? (O’ ûª´·túÕ Ææçí∫-ûËçöÀ?ÅûªØËç îËÆæ’h-Ø√o-úÕ-°æ¤púø’?)

Wesley: He is doing Intermediate now.Coming April he is taking his exams. (Åûª-E-°æ¤púø’ Éçô-Kt-úÕ-ߪ’ö¸ îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’-Ø√oúø’. ´îËa àv°œ-™¸™Åûª†’ °æK-éπ~©’ ®√≤ƒhúø’.)

Kishore: Which college will you put himin next? Which course will he do? (ûª®√yûªÅûªúÕo à 鬙‰--@™ îË®Ω’≤ƒh´¤? àç course?)

Wesley: I'd prefer a college where the

classes get over by 4.30 or 5.00 in theevening. I don't want these jail-like residentialjunior colleges. (≤ƒßª’çvûªç 4.30 / 5.00éÀ -Åçû√Å®·-§ÚßË’ éπ∞«-¨»-©-™xØË -°ö«d-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o. ñ„j∞¡x-™«çöÀ Residential Junior Colleges ™ °ö«d-©-†’-éÓôç ™‰ü¿’.)

Kishore: I am there with you. (؈’ ä°æ¤p-èπ◊çö« Ç N≠æ-ߪ’ç™.)

- ✫ ✫ ✫

Functional English á°æ¤púø÷ informal í¬(éπ*a-ûªçí¬ E•ç-üμ¿-†©’, grammar Ææ÷vû√© v°æ鬮Ωçé¬èπ◊çú≈) Öçô’ç-ü¿E ´’†ç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. É°æ¤púø’NüΔu, NüΔu-©-ߪ÷© N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ Functional Englishexpressions îª÷üΔlç.

Look at the following expressions fromthe conversation above:

1) We went to school together.2) Did you go to the same college?3) We had to move from Vijayawada to

Hyderabad.4) He is doing Intermediate now.5) Which college will you put him in next?

6) Which course will he do?í∫´’-Eç-î√®Ω’ éπüΔ? ´’†ç ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-†oC îªü¿’´¤

N≠æ-ߪ’¢Ë’ Å®·Ø√ study, learning, pursuing™«çöÀ °ü¿l °ü¿l ´÷ô©’ ¢√úø-èπ◊çú≈ áçûª ´÷´‚©’´÷ô™x îªü¿’´¤ N≠æߪ’ç îÁ°æp-í∫-©¢Á÷! ÉC ´’† spo-ken Englishèπ◊ Ææ£æ«-ï-û√y-Eo-Ææ’hçC.

Vali: Hi, what a sur-prise! You visiting usafter such a longtime? (áçûª Ǩ¡a®Ωuç!†’´¤y ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ ®√´ôçî√-™« 鬩ç ûª®√yûª!)

Tarun: I've beenbusy. How is everybody? How about thekids? (BJ-éπ-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ÖØ√o†’. Åçü¿®Ω÷ ᙫÖØ√o®Ω’? °œ©x© Ææçí∫-ûËçöÀ?)

Vali: They are atschool. They will beback home only at 5.(School™ ÖØ√o®Ω’. âCç-öÀéÀ ÉçöÀéÀ AJ-íÌ-≤ƒh®Ω’.)

School, the school ûËú≈:He goes to school = Åûª†’ NüΔuJn.He goes to the school = Åûª†’ NüΔuJn é¬éπ-§Ú-

´îª’a.My children are at school - Ééπ\úø school

´·çü¿’ 'the' ™‰ü¿’: Å®Ωnç: véπ´’ç-ûª-°æp-èπ◊çú≈ schoolèπ◊¢Á∞Ïx-¢√∞¡Ÿx, school ûÓ Ææç•çüμ¿ç Öç-úÕ – NüΔu-®Ω’n©’.

1) Prasad: How long have you known her?(Ç¢Á’ FÈéç-ûª-é¬-©çí¬ ûÁ©’Ææ’?)

Jyothi: Oh, since our school days. We wentto school together / We went to the same

school. (´÷ Ææ÷\™¸ ®ÓV© †’ç*.¢Ë’ç äÍé school™ îªC¢√ç.)

´’†ç we were classmates /schoolmates ÅØË •ü¿’©’ É™« ÅØË----ßÁ·îª’a. We attended the sameschool ÅE èπÿú≈ ÅØÌa.

We were classmates ņôçéπØ√o É™« áèπ◊\´ Åçö«®Ω’.

2) 'Doing' instead of studying/ pursuing.

a) Rahim: Which class areyou in? (†’¢Ëy class?)

Sunil: I am doing secondyear Inter. (؈’ Éçô®˝ È®çúÓ àúø’îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’-Ø√o†’.)

In which class are you studying? I amstudying.....,

studying •ü¿’©’ ´’†ç ¢√u -́£æ…-J-éπçí¬:a) I am in Inter second year / I am doing Inter

second year – Åç-õ‰ î√-™«- Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬, conversa-tionalí¬ Öçô’çC. ´’J-éÌEo --N-≠æ-ߪ÷-©’ ´îËa-≤ƒJ.

We went to school together

- Saif Patodi, Vijayawada.Q: It is two hours since he came

Çߪ’† ´*a È®çúø’ í∫çô-©-®·çC - Isthis translation correct?

A: Correct.Q: ÇN-úøéÀ î√™« §Òí∫®Ω’/ §Òí∫®Ω’ í∫©

´uéÀh - Please trans-late into English.

A: She is a very arro-gant/ very haughty.she is an arrogantperson.

Q: What kind of noun isit? / what kind of anoun is it? - Pleasesay the correct one.

A: What kind of noun is it? -

correct.Q: I don't understand / I am not

understood / Are you under-stood? / Do you understand? -please clarify.

A: I don't understand = Ø√éπ®Ωnç é¬ -́ôç-™‰ü¿’. I am not under-stood = ؈®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓ-•-úø-™‰ü¿’– ´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’í∫’ – Éûª-®Ω’©’ ††o®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓôç ™‰ü¿’.

Are you understood? =†’´y®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓ-•-ú≈f¢√?/(´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’í∫’ – Éûª-®Ω’©’ E†’o Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’èπ◊-Ø√o®√?)

Do you understand? =†’´y®Ωnç îËÆæ’èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o¢√?

- Arabz Khadri & Shahid,Manchirial

Q: Above one's station isn't abovecheating at cards - please trans-late into Telugu.

A: ´’†-éπçõ‰ û√£æ«-ûª’-éπ-©-¢√-∞¡x®·-†çûª´÷vû√† Ê°é¬-ô™ ¢Á÷Ææç îËߪ’-®ΩEé¬ü¿’.

Q: My hand is abraded- Ø√ îË®· U®Ω’-éÌ-E-§Ú-®·çC. Is this correct?

A: Correct.Q: Congrous / incongrous, accentu-

ate / accent- please explain inTelugu. 'Preposition' as well.

A: Congruous (congrous é¬ü¿’) – notin use in present day English; theword in use now instead of it is,congruent = suitable / appropri-ate/ ÆæÈ®j†/ Å´’-J-§Ú-ßË’-ô-ô’-´çöÀ.Geometry™ congruent triangles= triangles having the sameshape and area.

Incongruous (x congruous) = not

suitable (ÆæJ-§ÚE). Such policiesare incongruous in the present sit-uation (Incongrous =Incongruent).

Q: ÅC ûª®Ωûª®√© †’ç-* -´Ææ’h-†o Çî√®Ωç - please translate in to English

A: It is a generations old tradition.Q: Ñߪ’-†èπ◊ ¢√∞¡x Ø√†o ©éπ~-ù«©’ ¶«í¬

´î√a®·. - Please translate intoEnglish

A: He has the triats of his father a lot/ He takes after his father a lot.

Q: Ø√èπ◊ Çéπ-™‰-Ææ’hçC - I am feeling/ Ifeel hunger / hungry - pleasesay the right one.

A: I am / feel hungry.Q: I gonna/ gotta go - please say in

Telugu.A: I gonna / I gotta - Not so well

educated American people(especially blacks) way of say-ing, 'I am going to / I got to.

- Vijay R Sindhiya, RajoleQ: The committee exonerated him/

exculpated him from all thecharges - please say the correctone.

A: Exhonerate = exculpate. Both arenearly the same, but there is aslight difference between thetwo.

Excullpate = prove or state (say) thata person is not guilty (has notcommitted a crime).

Exhonerate = To state (say) that aperson is not guilty (has not com-mitted a crime).

However, for all purposes, 'exhon-erate' is used. 'Exculpate' is rare.

Q: She cursed/ execrated him -please say the correct one.

A: She cursed him = say / think /wish rude / bad / insulting wordsabout / to somebody.

She execrated him - No such word as

'execrate' inEnglish. We have'execrable' whichmeans very bad/hateful. (ü¿’≠æfld™„j-†/-üËy-≠œç-°æ-ü¿í∫_).

Q: His exequies / funeral rites areover - please say the correct one.

A: No such word a s 'exequies'- thecorrect word is, 'obsequies' =funeral rites = funeral cere-monies.

Q: Once you said that the word 'too'shouldn't be used after a noun butin a lesson you wrote the follow-ing e.g: Shall I too- please clarify.

A: I am sure I never said 'too' shouldnot be used after a noun/pronoun.Nothing wrong in using 'too' aftera noun / pronoun.

A: I will go tomorrowB: Shall I, too? (= shall I go too?)

Q: Cold war - please say in Telugu.

A: v°æîªa ¥†o ߪ·ü¿l¥ç.

Q: Excruciate - Is this word useful?As it isn't seen in OxfordDictionary, please let me know.

A: No such word. Excruciating =very painful.

Q: Please explain the use of 'cause'with an example.

A: I do not know the cause of all thistrouble.

Terrorists are the cause of thedeaths of hundreds of people.

Cause = something that makessomething happen (鬮Ωùç Å´ôç.)

Bacteria cause diseases (véÀ´·©’¢√uüμ¿’Lo éπ-L-T-≤ƒh®·.)

-Ahalya Pallavi, RajoleQ: He was the first manknow/ to know / knewabout it - Please say thecorrect one. If one of theabove is correct, please

let me know why the other ones arewrong.A: He was the first man

to know - correct.He was the first man

know / knew wrong con-structions.

When you want to saythat somebody has donesomething for the firsttime, the correct thing tosay is: He was the firstman + the infinitive (togo, to do, etc.)

Q: You should attend school in prop-er uniform - means tying a tie,wearing shoes etc- please say thecorrect one.

A: ...... uniform which means havinga tie on, wearing shoes, etc.

Q: They give advice/ advise/ theyadvise. Please say the correct one.

A: They giveadvice = Theyadvise (Theygive advise -wrong)

Q: The lot of trou-ble done byhim was waste/ no useful -please say if itis right or

wrong

A: The lot of trouble taken by himwas a waste/ no use/ useless.

Q: accenture, accountability - pleasesay the meanings.

A: No such word as 'accenture' inEnglish. Accountability - Beingresponsible for your actions.

Q: Please say the correct one of thefollowing - people is/ are speaking

A: 'are' correct.

Q: We celebrate the Republic Day /Republic Day every year - pleasesay correct one.

A: We celebate.... = We do it - =regular action.

.... every year = We do it once ayear.

731

M. SURESAN

The lot of trouble taken / done

Page 4: She has a good knowledge of.. · A link/ linking verb does not add much to the meaning of a sentence. Link verb èπ ¢√éπuç Å®Ωnç O’ü¿ Åçûª v°æ¶μ«´ç Öçúøü¿’.

--Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 28 -à-v°œ-™¸ 2013 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Spoken English - §ƒ-ûª - ¢√u≤ƒ-© éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ... www.eenadupratibha.net [email protected] your comments and suggestions to

Siva: Where are you from, Ganesh?(O’üË Ü®Ω’?)

Ganesh: I came from Nellore. That'swhere my parents belong too. Dadlooks after our fields. Mom is ahomemaker. And what are you?(´÷C ØÁ©÷x®Ω’. ´÷ ûªLx-ü¿çvúø’©D ÅüË.´÷ Ø√†o §Ò™«©’ îª÷Ææ’èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’. ´÷Å´’t í∫%£œ«ùÀ. †’¢Ëyç îËÆæ’hç-ö«´¤?)

Siva: I have a business (¢√u§ƒ®Ωç îËÆæ’hç-ö«†’)

Ganesh: What's the line? (àç¢√u§ƒ®Ωç?)

Siva: We deal in stationery (¢Ë’ç ÊÆd≠æ-†K¢√u§ƒ®Ωç îË≤ƒhç)

Ganesh: How long have you been inthe business? (áçûª-鬩çí¬ ÖØ√o®Ω’business™?)

Siva: Since Dad's time (´÷ Ø√†o ®ÓV©†’ç*)

Ganesh: Good. Do you like the busi-ness? (O’éÀ-≠æd-¢Ë’Ø√?)

Siva: I wouldn't be doing it, if I didn'tlike it. (†îªa-éπ-§ÚûË îËÊÆ-¢√-úÕE é¬ü¿’éπüΔ?)

✪ ✪ ✪

Look at the following:1) Where are you from? 2) I came from Nellore.

3) That's where my parents belong too.4) What's (what is) the line?5) We deal in stationery

É´Fo èπÿú≈ ´’† spoken English †’î√™« Ææ®Ω∞¡çí¬, Ææ£æ«ïçí¬ ÖçúËô’d îË≤ƒh®·.ÉN ´’†ç practice îËüΔlç.

≤ƒ´÷†uçí¬ O’üË Ü®Ω’? ÅE ÅúÕ-Ííç-ü¿’èπ◊, What is your native place?Åçô’çö«ç. ÉC, Åçõ‰ 'native place'English ™ ™‰ü¿’.

üΔEéÀ •ü¿’©’ am/ is/ are/ was/ werea native/ natives of Åçö«ç. Å™«Íí ´÷C°∂晫Ø√ Ü®Ω’ ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊, am/ is/ are/ was/were from, ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ come/ comes fromÅØÌa.

é¬F am/ is/ are comingfrom Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç ´÷J-§Ú-ûª’çC, Åéπ\úÕ †’ç* ´Ææ’h-Ø√o†’/ ´Ææ’hØ√oç É°æ¤púø’ ÅE.

a) Keerthi: Where is yourwife from?/ Wheredoes your wife comefrom? (O’ ÇNúøüË´‹®Ω’?)

Surendra: She is / comesfrom Kakinada (ÇNúøC

é¬éÀ-Ø√úø).b) Suguna: Where is your mom from?

(O’ Å´’t-í¬-J-üË-´‹®Ω’?)Bahuguna: She belongs to Kurnool.

(Ç¢Á’ éπ®Ω÷o-©’èπ◊ îÁçC†C– belong,conversational English™ ¢√úøç. ÅCé¬Ææh formal.) am/ is/ are belonging- ¢√úøç.(Ñ´’üμ¿u TV Reality shows™ éÌçûª-

´’çC participants, '؈’ £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛†’ç* ´î√a†’— Åçô’-Ø√o®Ω’– ´÷C £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛ Åçõ‰ Ææ£æ«ïçí¬ Öçô’çC éπüΔ)

Å™«Íí Landlord / agriculturist/ cul-tivator ÅØË •ü¿’©’, look after/ mindfields/ lands ÅØÌa simpleí¬.Å™«Íí 'O’Í®ç îËÆæ’hç-ö«®Ω’?— ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊,'What are you?/ he?/ they? ÅØËC î√™«simple question. é¬Ææh ´’®√uü¿í¬ Åúø-í¬-©çõ‰, 'May I know what you are?'(O’Í®ç îË≤ƒh®Ó ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´î√a?) ņ-´îª’a.

What are you doing´÷vûªç é¬ü¿’. What do youdo? ņ-´îª’a.

'What is yourfather?'/ What does yourfather do? ņ-´îª’a.Simplest: 'What is yourfather?'

ÉN ´’†ç practice îËÆœ´’† conversationÆæ£æ«ïçí¬ ÖçúËô’d îËüΔlç.

Usha, Kiran and Mayuri,Repalle.

Q: Is the first letter of thename of every tensecapital?

For example SimplePresent Tense, if it has to be writtenon a black-board by a teacher. e.g.Simple Past Tense. Please clarify.A: No, unless you begin the sentence

with the name of the tense, or if itis the heading of something thatfollows it.

Q: They appointed him after he hadbeen working- can the above sen-tence be written by using theabove underlined word? If notplease let me know whether theword after is used in the PastPerfect Continuous Tense, if itused please write one or two sen-tences using the word after.

A: 'After' is not used after the pastperfect continuous tense. 'When',we can use: your sentence can beimproved as:

He had beenworking here whenthey appointedhim.

We use 'after'before the past per-fect tense.I reached the sta-tion after the trainhad left.Q: Explain and uses of the following

with examples in Telugu- during,

associate, helper, assistant, andexcalt.

A: During: 1) Throughout a period oftime.

He was a student of the college during2011-13 = from the reopening of thecollege in 2011 till the closing of thecollege in 2013.2) At some point of time during a

period of time = During 2012 -2012 Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç™ á°æ¤púÓ äéπ-°æ¤púø’–

He got the job during 2012- Åûª-úÕéÀÖüÓuí∫ç ´*açC 2012™.Associate = 1) Some one who youspend a lot of time with = ´’†ç ÆæEo-£œ«ûªçí¬ ¢Á’L-Íí-¢√∞¡Ÿx.He has been my associate for the pastone year. í∫ûª Ææç´-ûªq®Ω 鬩çí¬ Ø√ûÓØËÖçô’-Ø√o-úø-ûª†’/ ¢Ë’N’-ü¿l®Ωç àú≈Cí¬ éπLÆœÖçô’Ø√oç.2) A person we do business with =

´’†ûÓ ¢√u§ƒ®Ω Ææç•ç-üμΔ-©’ç-úË-¢√∞¡Ÿx –They are our associates inHyderabad - ´÷èπ◊, ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ £j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛™ ¢√u§ƒ®Ω ™«¢√-üËO©’Ø√o®·.3) A person you work with = ´’†ûÓ

éπLÆœ °æE îËÊÆ¢√∞¡Ÿx – She was myassociate in writing the book - Ç°æ¤Ææhéπ ®Ωîª-†™ Ç¢Á’ Ø√ Ææ£æ«-®Ω-îª-®·ûª.

Helper = Someone who helps you= Ææ£æ…-ߪ’-èπ◊úø’Assistant = One who assists anoth-er person = someone who helpsanother person by doing less impor-tant work = ÉçéÌéπJéÀ Åçûª v§ƒ´·êu癉E °æ†’©’ îËÆœ °õ‰d-¢√∞¡Ÿx.

Excalt = Ø√èπ◊ ûÁLÆœ Ñ ´÷ô English™™‰ü¿’.

Usha Mayuri Singhal, NirmalQ: I am having exams - Is this

one right? As you have writ-ten in the lesson no-727 i.e.We will be having exams -Will it mean that we will beeating exams. As you saidonce that is I am having a car- ؈’ car Açô’-Ø√o†’. - Pleaseexplain.

A: We will be having exams =This is continuous action infuture. 'Will be having' cansometimes be used, but not'am /is/ are having. However,it is better to avoid it (will behaving) and say, 'will be tak-ing'.

Q: He has a widow / widowedsister - please say the meaningin Telugu.

A: ... a widowed sister - correct= He has a sister whose hus-band is dead.

Q: Usha makes Mayuri does thejob/ do the job- say the rightone.

A: .... do the job - correct.Q: 'Mayuri is here', she/ She said

- Here the underlined capitalor small?

A: 'Mayuri is here, 'she' said- 's' issmall.

Q: 'During' - please explain withexamples, similarly 'link verb'- please say the meaning andtheir usages with examples.

A: See the answer to Q1. 'Link verb'- See lesson No. 729.Q: I have been here in the past

three years/ for three years-please let us know the differ-ence.

A: I have been here in the pastthree years = I have been hereon some occasions (éÌEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x)

during the past three years.I have been here for the past

three years = Starting three yearsago till now / even now, I havebeen here.

What is your father?

M. Amba Rao, PalakolQ: éÀçC 3 °æüΔ™x Invitation °j print

îË®·ç-îª-ú≈-EéÀ ¶μ«≥ƒ-°æ-®Ωçí¬ à °æü¿çÆæÈ®jç-C?

a) Matured Function b) MatureFunction

c) Maturity Function A: English™ Ñ function èπ◊ ÆæÈ®j†

´÷ô ™‰ü¿’, áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ ¢√RxC functioní¬ îËÆæ’-éÓ®Ω’ 鬕öÀd. ÆæÈ®j† ´÷õ‰ ™‰ü¿’.鬕öÀd, Maturity function ÅØË ´÷ô¢√úø-´îª’a.

Venkat, DarisiQ: éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ ûÁ©’í∫’ Å®Ωnç -

ûÁ©°æç-úÕ.

i) His window was open, forthe beloved janitress springhad turned on a little warmththrough the walking registersof the earth.

A: ¢Á·ü¿ô Ñ ´÷ô©’ îª÷úøçúÕ.

janitress = É©’x, °ü¿l °ü¿lbuildings îª÷Ææ’-èπ◊ØË é¬°æ-™«-üΔ®Ω’(Æ‘Y) – °æ¤®Ω’-≠æfl-úÁjûË janitor (Schoolbuildings ™«çöÀ ¢√öÀéÀ watch-man, Éûª®Ω °æ†’©’ îËÊÆ-¢√∞¡Ÿx).

Spring = ´Ææçûª ®Ω’ûª’´¤,Western Countries™ winter(Qû√-鬩ç) ûª®√yûª ´îËa spring¢Áîªaü¿Ø√-Eo-Ææ’hçC. Åçü¿’-´©x ¢√∞¡Ÿx,spring éÓÆæç áü¿’®Ω’ îª÷Ææ’hç-ö«®Ω’.

Turn on = switch on/ switch¢Ëߪ’ôç.

Warmth = ¢Áîªa-ü¿†ç; Walkingregisters = (Ééπ\úø) ´’†’-≠æfl©’.Å®Ωnç: ´Ææçûª ®Ω’ûª’´¤ ÅØË jani-

tress (Çúø 鬰æ-™«-üΔ®Ω’) ¶μº÷N’O’ü¿ A®Ω’-í¬úË ´÷†-´¤--™x éπL-Tç-*†¢Áîªa-ü¿†ç ´©x, Ç ¢Áîªa-ü¿-Ø√EoÇ£æ…y-Eç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ Åûª-úÕ éÀöÀéà ûÁ®Ω*ÖçC. Åçõ‰ Ææçví∫-£æ…®Ωnç: ´Ææçûª®Ω’ûª’´¤ ´©x à®ΩpúË ¢Áîªa-ü¿†ç ™°æ-LéÀ ´îËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ O©’í¬ Åûª-úÕ éÀöÀéÃûÁJ* ÖçC. (îªL-é¬-©ç™ éÀöÀéé’´‚≤ƒhç éπüΔ?)

Q: She was beautiful in a waythat was decidedly unsteno-graphic. She forwent thepomp of the alluringPompadour.

A: Ç¢Á’ Åçü¿çí¬ ÖçC, é¬Féπ*aûªçí¬ stenographers -™«-´÷vûªç é¬ü¿’. Çéπ-®Ω{-ùÃߪ’çí¬ÖçúË ´·çí∫’®Ω’© Å©ç-éπ-®Ωù(pompadour) ´C-™‰-Æœç-üΔ¢Á’.

I reached the station after..Raghuveer Singh

Kranthikari,Balharshah.

Q: I was discussingthe matter with theofficers duringthree hours/ I wasdiscussing the matter with theofficers for three hours/ forthree hours/ in the past threehours - Say the difference andalso please let's know the usesof the word 'during'.

A: I was discussingthe matter withthe officers forthree hours - Correct. 'In thepast three hours'- wrong.

Q: Çߪ’† ´*a áçûª ÊÆ°æ-®·çC? =How long ago did he come? -

Is the above one correct?A: How long is it since he

came? = Çߪ’† ´*a áçûª-ÊÆ-°æ-®·çC?– correct.

How long ago did hecome? = áçûª-鬩ç véÀûªç´î√aúø’? – correct too.

Q: Not to ask me to do it /Don't ask me to do it -please clarify.

A: Not to ask me to do it - wrong.Don't ask me to do it - correct.

732

M. SURESAN

KC Venkatesham, NandyalQ: By the By, Bye the Bye ´’üμ¿u ´uû√uÆæç ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. OöÀ™ 'ÅC

ÆæÍ®— ÅØË Å®Ωl¥ç à °æüΔEéÀ ´Ææ’hçC?A: By the by/ By the bye = Topic ´÷®Ωa-ú≈-EéÀ ´·çü¿’ é¬F, ´÷ö«x-úø’-

ûª’†o N≠æߪ’ç é¬èπ◊çú≈ ´’®Ó N≠æߪ’ç v°æ≤ƒh-NçîË ´·çü¿’ é¬F É™«Åçö«ç. äéÓ\≤ƒJ by the way ÅE èπÿú≈ Åçö«ç = ÅC ÆæÍ®-é¬F! /Åü¿-ô’ç*.By the by/ by the bye/ by the way what happened to your

Delhi trip? = ÅC ÆæÍ® é¬F, F úμÕMx v°æߪ÷ùç Ææçí∫-ûËçöÀ?