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### Transcript of Rock Slope Stability Analysis: Limit Equilibrium Slope Stability Analysis: Limit Equilibrium ......

• Rock Slope Stability Analysis: Limit Equilibrium Method

Plane failure analysis

Wedge failure analysis

Toppling failure analysis

• Planar Failure Analysis

A block is rest on a slope having angle

The block is considered to undergoes slippage along the plane for the value of ratio < 1, else it is stable

• Plane failure analysis along a discontinuity

A

B C

H

Unstable Block blockW

W

Geometry of a slope for plane failure

• Plane failure analysis along a discontinuity

Planar Failure Analysis

the plane on which sliding occurs must strike parallel or nearly parallel (within approximately + 200 ) to the slope face

the failure must daylight in the slope face. This means that its dip must be smaller than the dip of the slope face

the dip of the failure plane must be greater than the angle of internal friction angle of this plane

• Plane failure analysis along a discontinuity

W cosW

W sin

R

Block A

sShearStresgthShearStren

Factor of safety =

s

c

tan+Factor of safety =

Aw

Awc

sin

tancos+

sintancos

wwcA +

Factor of safety = =

Aw )sin( =Normal Stress;

Aw )cos( =Shear Stress ,

• Water is filled in discontinuities

='

2

41 gh =

The effective normal stress due to present of water in the joint, is given as

• Tension crack present in the upper slope surface

Tension crack in upper surface of slope and in the face

• plane failure with tension crack

B

D

W

z

b C The depth of critical tension crack, zc and its

location, bc behind the crest can be calculated by the

following equations:

cot)cot(cot =Hbc

• Length of discontinuities; SinCDHAD =

The weight of the block;

Factor of safety =

sin

tancoswwcA +

• Tension crack present in the slope surface

plane failure with tension crack

B

C

D

W

)tan)(tancot( = bHz

The weight of the block =

Factor of safety =

sin

tancoswwcA +

• Compound slope with water in upper slope angle

Compound slope with a positive upper slope angle

Geometry of slope with tension crack in upper slope angle

c

Compound slopes have appreciable angle with the horizontal. High slope formation has in generally a positive upper slope angle while the shorter slope has a negative slope angle

• Depth of tension crack, tan)cot(tan HbbHZ c ++=

Weight of unstable block, ( ))cot21 2 bZbHXXHW ++=

)cottan1( =X

or

Area of failure surface, sec)cot( bHA +=

Driving water force, 221

ww ZV =

Uplift water force, AZU ww21

=

Factor of safety =

cossin

tan)sincos(VW

VUwcA+

+

• Effect of rock bolts

Geometry of slope with tension crack in upper slope and its interaction with rock bolt

• FOS =

sincossin

tan)cossincos(TVW

TVUwcA+

++

• Wedge Failure Analysis

Geometric conditions of wedge failure: (a) pictorial view of wedge failure; (b) stereoplot showing the orientation of the line of intersection

• Analysis of wedge failure considering only frictional resistance

Resolution of forces to calculate factor of safety of wedge: (a) view of wedge looking at face showing definition of angles and , and reactions on sliding Plane RA and RB, (b) stereonet showing measurement of angles and , (c) cross-section of wedge showing resolution of wedge weight W.

• Plane failure analysis along a discontinuity

• Analysis of wedge failure with cohesion and friction angle

Pictorial View of wedge showing the numbering of intersection lines and planes

• Analysis of wedge failure with cohesion and friction angle

br

wa

r

wba

r

YBXAYCXCH

FS

tan)2

(tan)2

()(3 +++=

245

24

cossinsin

na

X

=

nbnai

nbnabaA.

2.

sinsincoscoscos

=

135

13

cossinsin

na

Y

=

nbnai

nbnaabB.

2.

sinsincoscoscos

=

• Analysis of wedge failure with cohesion and friction angle

Where, Ca and Cb are the cohesive strength of plane a and b, a and b are the angle of friction along plane a and b, is the unit weight of the rock, and H is the total height of the wedge. X, Y, A and B are dimensionless factors, which depend upon the geometry of the wedge, a and b are the dips of planes a and b, whereas, i is the plunge of the line of their intersection.

Under fully drained slope condition, the water pressure is zero. Therefore, factor of safety of the wedge against failure is given by:

babar

BAYCXCH

FS

tantan)(3 +++=

• Toppling Failure Analysis

• Kinematics of block toppling failure

Case 1:

Case 2:

Case 3:

Case 4:

• Inter-layer slip test

If is the dip of slope face and is the dip of the planes forming the sides of the blocks, then

the condition for interlayer slip is given by:

(180 ) (90 )

or

(90 ) +

• Block alignment test

The dip direction of the

planes forming sides of the

blocks, d is within about 100

of the dip direction of the

slope face f, i.e.

|(f d)|

• Limit equilibrium analysis for toppling failure

The factor of safety can be calculated as the ratio of resisting

moments to driving moments

• Limit equilibrium analysis for toppling failure

Model for limiting equilibrium analysis of toppling on a stepped base (Goodman and Bray, 1976).

• Forces acting on the nth column sitting on a stepped base

• Figure 17: Limiting equilibrium conditions for toppling and sliding of nth block: (a) forces acting on nth block; (b) toppling of nth block;