RLM & Associates LLC Your Lean Six Sigma & Project Management Trainers

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RLM & Associates LLC Your Lean Six Sigma & Project Management Trainers. Lean Six Sigma DMAIC Workshop Green Belt Part 3. 6 σ Green Belt. Building Effective Teams. Building Effective Teams. Why Teams?. Improves productivity Better results (products, processes, services) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of RLM & Associates LLC Your Lean Six Sigma & Project Management Trainers

  • RLM & Associates LLCYour Lean Six Sigma & Project Management TrainersLean Six Sigma DMAIC WorkshopGreen Belt Part 36 Green Belt**Kraft Foods Green Belt

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Building Effective TeamsBuilding Effective Teams

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Why Teams? Improves productivity

    Better results (products, processes, services)

    Better able to handle complex problems

    Can handle many aspects of the business

    Differentiation through diversity of thoughts

    Improves morale, enthusiasm and creativity

    Teams succeed over the work of the lone genius!

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*High Performing TeamsTeams have a sense of Purpose, they are Empowered, they practice good Relationships & Communication, they exhibit Flexibility, then try for Optimal Performance, they Recognize & Appreciate others and have high Morale.Blanchards Model When all components are strong,location or product becomes irrelevant

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Characteristics of Effective Teams Effective teamwork encompasses: Developing a charter Defining team members/leaders roles Establishing procedures and ground rules Establishing relationshipsEffective TeamsWhich individuals do which activities or tasks?How do we feel about each other, talk with each other, and affect each other?What do we do, intend to do, and why?(Purpose, Scope, Goals, Selection)How do we do what we do? What processes and systematic approaches do we use?

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Team Growth StagesAll effective teams move though stages of growth. A team must work through four developmental stages to be successful. Team leader and members must understand the different stages and adapt their behavior to maximize team effectiveness.Team Growth Stages FormingPerforming Storming


  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Conflict ResolutionIn order for teams to move forward from Storm to Norm, teams must understand:

    How to identify conflict and how to resolve it

    How to identify blockages and how to unblock

    How team blockages affect progress and how to unblock them

    When managed correctly, conflict produces new ideas, solves problems, expands capabilities, and improves creativity

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Helping Teams with ConflictListed below are some key steps for helping a team work through conflict. This is a suggested approach, but team leaders may use different steps. Team leaders may have to alternate between these steps as they work through conflict with the team. Clarify and summarize different points of view Ask for points of agreement and disagreement Look at situation from customers points of view Get data Place yourself in the other persons position Ask how to resolve differences

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Define Phase ChecklistIs the project charter complete, accurate, and SMART?

    Is the as-is process mapped appropriately?

    Are Critical Customer Requirements documented?

    Have any quick wins been identified?

    If so, implemented?

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*MeasureMeasure

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Measure Phase Process Flow

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Measure Phase Objectives Define the process measures

    Identify the types, sources, and causes of variation in the process

    Determine data requirements

    Develop a data collection plan

    Perform Measurement System Analysis

    Conduct data collection

    Determine baseline capability of the project as SQL(Sigma Quality Level)

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Why Measure? Measurement allows teams to

    Establish baseline performance

    Isolate sources of variation

    Identify areas in which improvements can be made

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Value Performance Measures Customer Value Achieved?Input MeasuresProcess MeasuresOutput Performance MeasuresCustomer Value

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Input, Process and Output Indicators# of customer inquiriesType of customer inquiries# of orders# of positions openType of position openAccuracy of the credit analysisTimeliness of the contract submitted for review Cost per transaction Time per activity Amount of rework Turnaround time Variability of an activity Percent defective Number of errors Total response time Invoice/billing accuracy RevenueThese should all appear on your process mapCritical Customer RequirementsCritical to the Process

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Process Elements/Indicator RelationshipsStart Boundary __________ End Boundary ____________ Process





    Input IndicatorsProcess IndicatorsOutput IndicatorsMeasures that evaluate the degree to which process inputs, provided by suppliers, are consistent with what the process needs to convert into customer-satisfying outputs.

    Examples: # of customer inquiriesType of customer inquiries# of orders # of positions open Type of position openAccuracy of the credit analysisTimeliness of the contract Measures that evaluate the quality of the transformation processes the steps used to convert inputs into customer-satisfying outputs

    Examples: Availability of service personnel Time required to perform credit review % of non-standard approvals required # of qualified applicants Total cost of service delivery Total overtime hours Measures that evaluate dimensions of the output may focus on the performance of the business as well as that associated with the delivery of services and products to customers.

    Examples: # of calls/hour taken by each service rep 2nd year customer retention figures Total # of meals delivered % customer complaints

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*More on Measurement ConsiderationsOne rule holds regardless of the measures you select; try to use as few indicators as possible

    There is a cost/benefit and relevance relationship to measuring. Too many measures are costly, unproductive, and may divert attention from critical areas.

    Not enough or incorrect process indicators will not allow you to identify defects before they occur

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*CCRs and Multiple Output IndicatorsSome CCRs may be measured in terms of one specific expectation a customer has. Others may require several output indicators. The table shows how one CCR can have one or several associated output indicators.

    This table lists the second CCR from the above table, but shows it as three different critical customer requirements associated with the delivery of a vehicle.

    Regardless of how the CCR is stated, teams must be sure to identify all of the CCRs associated with a process production service and make sure that the CCRs are measured by the output indicator.

    Output IndicatorProduct delivery cycle time from the completion of the customer order to the delivery of the productnumber and type of vehicle specifications delivered correctlyactual delivery time vs. promiseddelivery time for each vehiclenumber of times vehicles were delivered to location other than what is specified on agreement.

    Critical Customer RequirementProduct is delivered within three hours of order takenRight vehicle is delivered at the right time tot he right location Output

    Output IndicatorNumber and type of vehicle specificationsdelivered correctlyactual delivery time vs. promised deliverytime for each vehiclenumber of times vehicles were delivered to location other than what is specified on agreement

    Critical Customer RequirementThe vehicle delivered meets the vehicle specifications as described in the contractThe vehicle is delivered within the time specified in the contract

    The vehicle is delivered at the location specified in the contract

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Indicators

    Input IndicatorsProcess IndicatorsOutput Indicators

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Measurement PlanningMeasurement Planning

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*VariationVariation means that a process does not produce exactly the same result every time the product or service is delivered

    Variation exists in all processes

    Measuring and understanding variation in our business processes helps identify specifically what the current level of performance is and what needs to change in order to reduce the variability and therefore reduce the defects delivered to customers

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Two Basic Types of Data

    Attribute Data

    Go/No GoGood/BadPass/Fail

    Whether something is happening or notVariable Data


    Information about what is happening

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Two Basic Types of DataBefore data collections starts, classify the data into different types: continuous or discrete. This is important because it will:

    Provide a choice of data display and analysis tools Dictate sample size calculation Provide performance or cause information Determine the appropriate control chart to use Determine the appropriate method for calculation of Sigma

  • *Kraft Foods Green Belt*Obtaining the MeasurementsData collected will only be as good as the collection system itself. In order to assure timely and accurate data, the collection method should be simple to use and understand. There are several methods. The most common are: Checksheet - a simple log of tick marks representing the volume and type of work Time stamps - a recording of the time that each activity begins and ends Example: Checksheet Applications Returned for Missing Data All data can be collected manually (writing in the log, recording the time, etc.) or automatically. Automatic data collection assure