RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

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RFID Overview RFID Overview Greg Leeming Greg Leeming Intel Corporation Intel Corporation 11/8/2004 11/8/2004
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Transcript of RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Page 1: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

RFID OverviewRFID Overview

Greg LeemingGreg Leeming

Intel CorporationIntel Corporation

11/8/200411/8/2004

Page 2: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

RRadio adio FFrequency requency IDIDentificationentification

Frequency

DistanceExample

Application

LF 125khz Few cmAuto-

Immobilizer

HF 13.56Mhz 1mBuilding Access

UHF 900Mhz ~7m Supply Chain

μwave 2.4Ghz 10m Traffic Toll

Four main frequencies:Four main frequencies:

• Tag wirelessly sends bits of data whenTag wirelessly sends bits of data when it is triggered by a reader it is triggered by a reader

• Power source not required for Power source not required for passive tags… a defining benefitpassive tags… a defining benefit

• Superior capabilities to Superior capabilities to barcode:barcode:– Non Line of SightNon Line of Sight– Hi-speed, multiple readsHi-speed, multiple reads– Can read Can read andand write to tags write to tags– Unit specific IDUnit specific ID

Focus of this presentation is on UHF

Page 3: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Presentation Objectives:Presentation Objectives:

• Explain technical principles behind Explain technical principles behind RFID RFID

• Provide overview of RFID technology Provide overview of RFID technology

• Discuss:Discuss:– Forces driving the adoption of RFIDForces driving the adoption of RFID– Challenges RFID deployment must Challenges RFID deployment must

overcome overcome – The futureThe future

Page 4: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

AgendaAgenda

• RFID historyRFID history

• Technical principlesTechnical principles

• Tag overviewTag overview

• Reader overviewReader overview

• Adoption challengesAdoption challenges

• The UHF marketThe UHF market

• The future??The future??

Page 5: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

RFID HistoryRFID History• First Bar code patents – 1930sFirst Bar code patents – 1930s• First use of RFID device – 2First use of RFID device – 2ndnd world war – Brittan used RFID-like world war – Brittan used RFID-like

technology for Identify- Friend or Foe technology for Identify- Friend or Foe • Harry Stockman October 1948 Paper – Communication by means of Harry Stockman October 1948 Paper – Communication by means of

reflected power ( The proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers)reflected power ( The proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers)• First RFID Patent - 1973First RFID Patent - 1973• Auto-ID center founded at MIT – 1999Auto-ID center founded at MIT – 1999

– Standardization effort taken over by EPC Global (Electronic Product Code)Standardization effort taken over by EPC Global (Electronic Product Code)

• Current thrust primarily driven by Wal-Mart and DoDCurrent thrust primarily driven by Wal-Mart and DoD– Automate Distribution:Automate Distribution:

• Reduce cost (man power, shipping mistakes)Reduce cost (man power, shipping mistakes)• Increase sales (keep shelves full)Increase sales (keep shelves full)• DoD Total Asset Visibility InitiativeDoD Total Asset Visibility Initiative

Source of data: EDN – October 2004 - “Reading Between the Lines” Brian DipertSource of data: EDN – October 2004 - “Reading Between the Lines” Brian Dipert

Page 6: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Basic Tag Operational PrinciplesBasic Tag Operational Principles

NN

SS

TAG

Read

er

Read

er

TAG

BackscatterBackscatter

• Near field (LF, HF): inductive coupling of tag to magnetic field circulating around antenna (like a transformer)• Varying magnetic flux induces current in tag. Modulate tag load to communicate with reader• field energy decreases proportionally to 1/R3 (to first order)

• Far field (UHF, microwave): backscatter. • Modulate back scatter by changing antenna impedance• Field energy decreases proportionally to 1/R

• Boundry between near and far field: R = wavelength/2 pi so, once have reached far field, lower frequencies will have lost significantly more energy than high frequencies• Absorption by non-conductive materials significant problem for microwave frequencies

Inductive CouplingInductive Coupling

Source of data: “Introduction to RFID” CAENRFID an IIT CorporationSource of data: “Introduction to RFID” CAENRFID an IIT Corporation

Page 7: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

TagsTags

Page 8: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Types of TagsTypes of Tags– PassivePassive

• Operational power scavenged Operational power scavenged

from reader radiated powerfrom reader radiated power

– Semi-passiveSemi-passive• Operational power provided by batteryOperational power provided by battery

– ActiveActive• Operational power provided by battery - transmitter built Operational power provided by battery - transmitter built

into taginto tag

Page 9: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Electronic Product CodeElectronic Product Code

Header - Tag version number EPC Manager - Manufacturer ID Object class - Manufacturer’s product ID Serial Number - Unit ID

With 96 bit code, 268 million companies can each categorize 16 million different products where each product category contains up to 687 billion individual units

Note: 64 bit versions also defined, 256 bit version under definition

Page 10: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Generic Tag Architecture Generic Tag Architecture (Highly Simplified)(Highly Simplified)

ProtocolEngine

ProtocolEngine

ReceiverReceiver

MemoryMemory

An

ten

na

An

ten

na

Write Path

D

S

G

Page 11: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Tag DetailsTag DetailsLFLF HFHF UHFUHF MicrowaveMicrowave

Freq. Freq. RangeRange

125 - 134KHz125 - 134KHz 13.56 MHz13.56 MHz 866 - 915MHz866 - 915MHz 2.45 - 5.8 GHz2.45 - 5.8 GHz

Read Read RangeRange

10 cm10 cm 1M1M 2-7 M2-7 M 1M1M

Market Market shareshare

74%74% 17%17% 6%6% 3%3%

CouplingCoupling MagneticMagnetic MagneticMagnetic Electro Electro magneticmagnetic

Electro Electro magneticmagnetic

Existing Existing standardsstandards

11784/85, 11784/85, 1422314223

18000-3.1, 18000-3.1, 15693,14443 15693,14443 A, B, and CA, B, and C

EPC C0, C1, EPC C0, C1, C1G2, 18000-6C1G2, 18000-6

18000-418000-4

ApplicatioApplicationn

Smart Card, Smart Card, Ticketing, Ticketing, animal animal tagging,tagging,

Access, Access, LaundryLaundry

Small item Small item management, management, supply chain,supply chain,

Anti-theft, Anti-theft, library, library, transportationtransportation

Transportation Transportation vehicle ID, vehicle ID, Access/SecuritAccess/Security, large item y, large item management, management, supply chainsupply chain

Transportation Transportation vehicle ID vehicle ID (road toll), (road toll), Access/SecuritAccess/Security, large item y, large item management, management, supply chainsupply chain

Page 12: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Competing UHF Protocols (EPC Competing UHF Protocols (EPC only)only)

Read RateRead Rate Read orRead or

Read/WriteRead/WriteTagTag

CosCostt

PrivacyPrivacy SecuritySecurity Global Global StandarStandar

dd

Class 0Class 0 NA: 800 reads/secEU: 200

reads/sec

Read Only $$ 24 bit password

Reader broadcasts OID or

Anonymous modes with

reduced throughput

No

Class 0+Class 0+ NA:800 reads/sec

EU:200 reads/sec

Read & Write

$$ See above See above No

Class 1Class 1 NA:200 reads/sec

EU: 50 reads/sec

Read & Write

$ 8 bit password

Reader broadcasts partial

OID

No

Class 1 Gen 2*Class 1 Gen 2*

(UHF Gen2)(UHF Gen2)

NA:1700 reads/secEU: 600

reads/sec

Read & Write

? 32 bit password and concealed mode

Authentication and Encryption

Yes

* Class 1 Gen 2 is still in development, expected to close in Q4, 2004

Page 13: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

ClassClass 0 Protocol0 Protocol BackscatterBackscatter North AmericaNorth America

Class 0 Tag Backscatter FrequencyClass 0 Tag Backscatter Frequency 3.3 Mhz for data “1”3.3 Mhz for data “1”

2.2 Mhz for data “0”2.2 Mhz for data “0”

Modulation FormatModulation Format FSKFSK

Typical data stored in tag:

• 96 bit EPC code

• 24 bit kill code

• 16 bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)

Reader/tag communication modes:

1. Start up signals (power up tags and sync. with them)

2. Tree Traversal (read individual tags)

3. Communication (send commands to tags)

Data rates: fast and slow defined: fast ( 12.5 micro sec bit period) and slow (62.5 micro second bit period) --- either 20% or 100% modulation depths

Typical data stored in tag:

• 96 bit EPC code

• 24 bit kill code

• 16 bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)

Reader/tag communication modes:

1. Start up signals (power up tags and sync. with them)

2. Tree Traversal (read individual tags)

3. Communication (send commands to tags)

Data rates: fast and slow defined: fast ( 12.5 micro sec bit period) and slow (62.5 micro second bit period) --- either 20% or 100% modulation depths

Page 14: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Class 0 Signaling

Page 15: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Default Class 0 Reader Communication Sequence

Tag Singulation ProcessTag power up, reset, and calibration process

Single Binary Transversal

Repeated after each frequency hop

Once tag has been singulated, reader can send commands to it or begin next BT cycle

Reset: 800 micro sec uninterrupted continuous waveOscillator calibration: 8 116 micro sec pulsesData calibration: 3 pulses ( data “0”, data “1”, data “null”)

Reset: 800 micro sec uninterrupted continuous waveOscillator calibration: 8 116 micro sec pulsesData calibration: 3 pulses ( data “0”, data “1”, data “null”)

Readerpower up

Page 16: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Tag Singulation ProcessTag Singulation Processread individual tag from group of all tags in range of reader read individual tag from group of all tags in range of reader

Basic process:Basic process:

1.1. All tags within range of reader backscatter their MSB to the reader.All tags within range of reader backscatter their MSB to the reader.

2.2. Reader responds with either a 1 or a 0.Reader responds with either a 1 or a 0.

3.3. If tag bit equals reader bit, tag backscatters the next bit in it’s code . If If tag bit equals reader bit, tag backscatters the next bit in it’s code . If instead, tag bit does not equal reader bit, tag goes mute for remainder of instead, tag bit does not equal reader bit, tag goes mute for remainder of singulation.singulation.

4.4. Process continues until reader has completely read a single tag.Process continues until reader has completely read a single tag.

5.5. Reader conducts consecutive singulations until all tags in its range are read.Reader conducts consecutive singulations until all tags in its range are read.

6.6. Reader can interrupt the singulation process to send commands to a single Reader can interrupt the singulation process to send commands to a single tag, a subset of all tags in range, or globally to all tags in range.tag, a subset of all tags in range, or globally to all tags in range.

Page 17: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

ReadersReaders

Page 18: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

UHF Reader Standards UHF Reader Standards

GEO / CountryGEO / Country Frequency BandFrequency Band

North AmericaNorth America 900 – 930 MHz900 – 930 MHz

EMEAEMEA 866 – 868 MHz866 – 868 MHz

KoreaKorea 908.5 – 914 MHz908.5 – 914 MHz

AustraliaAustralia 918 – 926 MHz918 – 926 MHz

China (PRC)China (PRC) TBDTBD

JapanJapan TBDTBD

TransmitterTransmitter North AmericaNorth America

Output Freq. BandOutput Freq. Band 902 – 928 Mhz902 – 928 Mhz

Output PowerOutput Power 4 watts EIRP4 watts EIRP

TX Channel stepTX Channel step 500Khz500Khz

Hop frequencyHop frequency 2.5 to 20 times per second2.5 to 20 times per second

TX ChannelsTX Channels 902.75, 903.25, …, 902.75, 903.25, …, 927.25Mhz927.25Mhz

ModulationModulation Typically ASK –- 20% to Typically ASK –- 20% to 100% modulation depth100% modulation depth

Note: EIRP = 1.64X ERP (Effective Radiated Power)

Page 19: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Reader Implementation Reader Implementation ChallengesChallenges• Reader must deliver enough power from RF field to power Reader must deliver enough power from RF field to power

the tagthe tag

• Reader must discriminate backscatter modulation in Reader must discriminate backscatter modulation in presence of carrier at same frequencypresence of carrier at same frequency

• 70db magnitude difference between transmitted and 70db magnitude difference between transmitted and received signalsreceived signals

• Interference between readersInterference between readers

• Hugh volume of tag data – readers need to filter data Hugh volume of tag data – readers need to filter data before releasing to enterprise networkbefore releasing to enterprise network

Page 20: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Possible UHF Reader RF Possible UHF Reader RF ProcessorProcessor

Transmit path Receive Path Frequency Synthesizer Digital

RFID READERRF ModuleDAC

Ho

st

De

vic

e

ADC

Crystal

Micro-Controller

AGC FiltersI/Q

Demod

PLL

VCO

DAC Power Control

PA

Filter Coupler

Coupler

PowerDetect

Coupler

FPGA

Re

gu

latio

n

Baseband&

Protocol

Page 21: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Possible Digital Back End Possible Digital Back End

Ethernet

IXP425Processor

Power Supply

RAM

Flash

RF Board Interface

GPIO

Serial Port

LEDs

RFModule

Page 22: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Possible Reader Software Possible Reader Software StackStack

RFID Reader API Library

CustomApplication/

Protocol

ReaderProtocol

Application

Net

wo

rk m

anag

emen

t

File Systems

NetworkProtocols

High-Level Interfaces

Low-Level Interfaces

O/S

Hardware

Platform API Libraries

CustomApplication/

Protocol

CustomApplication/

Protocol

Network Interface

Page 23: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

The RFID MarketThe RFID Market

Page 24: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Traditional RFID Market Traditional RFID Market SegmentsSegments

Auto ImmobilizersAuto Immobilizers

Access ControlAccess ControlAnimal TrackingAnimal Tracking

Automated Vehicle IdAutomated Vehicle Id

• Isolated systemsIsolated systems• Simple readsSimple reads• Slow growthSlow growth

Page 25: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

The New Mkt SegmentThe New Mkt SegmentConsumer Pkg Goods Supply ChainConsumer Pkg Goods Supply Chain

Wal-Mart•June ’03 announcement•Pallet/Case tagging

Top 100 suppliers Jan ’05Other 30K by end of ’06

•4 Billion tags/year•300k direct readers•18 Million indirect readers

• End to end systemsEnd to end systems• Complex readsComplex reads• Emerging marketEmerging market

++

Page 26: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Usage ModelsUsage Models

HandheldHandheld Smart ShelvesSmart Shelves

Point of SalePoint of Sale

Conveyor BeltConveyor Belt

PrintersPrinters

ForkliftForkliftDock DoorDock Door

Page 27: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

$0

$200

$400

$600

$800

$1,000

$1,200

$1,400

$1,600

$1,800

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

$M

RFID: A Long Simmering Market AcceleratesRFID: A Long Simmering Market Accelerates

2005 VDC RFID Reader Forecast: Before Wal*Mart Announcement

$371M

2005 Baird Equities RFID Reader Fcst

(Just Released) $1.6B

2005 Updated VDC Forecast

(Just Released) $683M

2007 RFID Reader Market Fcst tripled… 2007 RFID Reader Market Fcst tripled… achieving $1.6B in revenuesachieving $1.6B in revenues

Page 28: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Market Drivers: Where is the Market Drivers: Where is the Bang for the BuckBang for the Buck

• Retailers (such as WalMart) operate on very small Retailers (such as WalMart) operate on very small margins (typically less that 5%)margins (typically less that 5%)

• Cost reduction or profitability increase of 1% equates to Cost reduction or profitability increase of 1% equates to huge advantage over competitors:huge advantage over competitors:

– Can be achieved through:Can be achieved through: Reduction of distribution inefficiency:Reduction of distribution inefficiency: less shipping mistakes (are expensive to correct)less shipping mistakes (are expensive to correct)

efficient restocking: keep retail shelves fullefficient restocking: keep retail shelves full Automation: reduction of manpower costsAutomation: reduction of manpower costs Reduction of theft and fraudReduction of theft and fraud

• DoD total Asset Visibility initiative: DoD total Asset Visibility initiative: – Supplying an army is a costly, logistical nightmareSupplying an army is a costly, logistical nightmare

• RFID promises to reduce the chaosRFID promises to reduce the chaos

Page 29: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

RFID Adoption Challenges – Is RFID Adoption Challenges – Is the timing right??the timing right??

• Cost:Cost:– Tags - currently 50 cents – need to be 5 cents or lessTags - currently 50 cents – need to be 5 cents or less– Readers – currently thousands of dollars – need to be hundreds of dollarsReaders – currently thousands of dollars – need to be hundreds of dollars– Implementation – distribution centers relatively low tech – need networking, power, etc.Implementation – distribution centers relatively low tech – need networking, power, etc.

• Cost benefit - must be significant enough to justify RFID cost:Cost benefit - must be significant enough to justify RFID cost:– Retailers operate with small margins ( < 5%). If RFID can increase operational Retailers operate with small margins ( < 5%). If RFID can increase operational

efficiency by 1% = major competitive advantageefficiency by 1% = major competitive advantage

• Read accuracy:Read accuracy:– accuracy not established – needs to approach 100%:accuracy not established – needs to approach 100%:

• Metal containers, liquids, Etc. impact tag readabilityMetal containers, liquids, Etc. impact tag readability• Taq/reader orientation: polarization effectsTaq/reader orientation: polarization effects• Reader configuration: cooperative networks of readers Reader configuration: cooperative networks of readers • Interference from other readers and other radiatorsInterference from other readers and other radiators

• Design Robustness:Design Robustness:– Needs to be robust enough to survive/function in warehouse environmentsNeeds to be robust enough to survive/function in warehouse environments

• Security: Security: – Read security, Data security, etc.

• Privacy: Privacy: – See next slide

Page 30: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Privacy IssuesPrivacy Issues

Page 31: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

The FutureThe Future

•What fundamental changes does RFID herald in?What fundamental changes does RFID herald in?

•What are the probable consequences of these changes?What are the probable consequences of these changes?

Page 32: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

The future:The future:

RFID:Driving intelligence to edge

of Enterprise networks

RFID:Driving intelligence to edge

of Enterprise networks

Enterprise Management Systemsadapted to more effectively react in real-time to data

(middleware vendors: Oat, Connecterra, etc.)

Enterprise Management Systemsadapted to more effectively react in real-time to data

(middleware vendors: Oat, Connecterra, etc.)

Analog sensors replaced with cheap

digital sensors: Motes, etc

Analog sensors replaced with cheap

digital sensors: Motes, etc

Precision Precision AutomationAutomation

Our professional

lives

Our personal

lives

Page 33: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Questions??Questions??

Page 34: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

BackupBackup

Page 35: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

RFID Antennas:RFID Antennas:

• Gate antennas (orthogonal use)• Patch antennas• Circular polarized• Omni directional antennas• Stick antennas (directional)• Di-pole or multi-pole antennas• Linear polarized• Adaptive, beam-forming or phased-array

element antennas

Page 36: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Class 0 Tag Start-up Signals:Reset and Oscillator Calibration

Page 37: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Class 0 Tag Start-up Signals:Data Calibration

Page 38: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Reader Bit Definitions

Page 39: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Tag Backscatter

Page 40: RFID Overview Greg Leeming Intel Corporation 11/8/2004.

Possible Reader/Tag Communication Pairs