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Radar Signal Processing
Ambiguity Function and Waveform DesignGolay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Golay Pairs for Radar: Zero Doppler
Radar Signal Processing

Radar Problem
Transmit a waveform s(t) andanalyze the radar return r(t):
r(t) = hs(to)ej(to)+n(t)
h: target scattering coefficient; o = 2do/c: roundtrip time; = 2fo 2voc : Doppler frequency; n(t): noise
Target detection: decide between target present (h 6= 0) andtarget absent (h = 0) from the radar measurement r(t).
Estimate target range d0.
Estimate target range rate (velocity) v0.
Radar Signal Processing

Ambiguity Function
Correlate the radar return r(t) with the transmit waveforms(t). The correlator output is given by
m( o, ) =
hs(t o)s(t )ej(to)dt+ noise term
Without loss of generality, assume o = 0. Then, the receiveroutput is
m(, ) = hA(, ) + noise term
where
A(, ) =
s(t)s(t )ejtdt
is called the ambiguity function of the waveform s(t).
Radar Signal Processing

Ambiguity Function
Ambiguity function A(, ) is a twodimensional function ofdelay and Doppler frequency that measures the correlationbetween a waveform and its Doppler distorted version:
A(, ) =
s(t)s(t )ejtdt
The ambiguity function along the zeroDoppler axis ( = 0) isthe autocorrelation function of the waveform:
A(, 0) =
s(t)s(t )dt = Rs()
Radar Signal Processing

Ambiguity Function
Example: Ambiguity function of a square pulse
Picture: Skolnik, ch. 11
Constant velocity (left) and constant range contours (right):
Pictures: Skolnik, ch. 11
Radar Signal Processing

Ambiguity Function: Properties
Symmetry:A(, ) = A(,)
Maximum value:
A(, ) A(0, 0) =
s(t)2dt
Volume property (Moyals Identity):
A(, )2dd = A(0, 0)2
Pushing A(, )2 down in one place makes it pop outsomewhere else.
Radar Signal Processing

Waveform Design
Waveform Design Problem: Design a waveform with a goodambiguity function.
A point target with delay o and Doppler shift o manifests asthe ambiguity function A(, o) centered at o.For multiple point targets we have a superposition ofambiguity functions.
A weak target located near astrong target can be maskedby the sidelobes of theambiguity function centeredaround the strong target.
Picture: Skolnik, ch. 11
Radar Signal Processing

Waveform Design
Phase coded waveform:
s(t) =L1=0
x(`)u(t `T )
The pulse shape u(t) and the chip rate T are dictated bythe radar hardware.
x(`) is a lengthL discrete sequence (or code) that we design.
Control the waveform ambiguity function by controlling theautocorrelation function of x(`).
Waveform design: Design of discrete sequences with goodautocorrelation properties.
Radar Signal Processing

Phase Codes with Good Autocorrelations
Frank Code Barker Code
Golay Complementary Codes
Radar Signal Processing

Waveform Design: Zero Doppler
Suppose we wish to detect stationary targets in range.
The ambiguity function along the zeroDoppler axis is thewaveform autocorrelation function:
Rs() =
s(t)s(t )dt
=
L1`=0
L1m=0
x(`)x(m)
u(t `T )u(t mT )dt
=
L1`=0
L1m=0
x(`)x(m)Ru( + (m `)T )
=
2(L1)k=2(L1)
L1`=0
x(`)x(` k)Ru( kT )
=
2(L1)k=2(L1)
Cx(k)Ru( kT )
Radar Signal Processing

Impulselike Autocorrelation
Ideal waveform for resolving targets in range (no rangesidelobes):
Rs() =2(L1)
k=2(L1)
Cx(k)Ru( kT ) ()
We do not have control over Ru().
Question: Can we find the discrete sequence x(`) so thatCx(k) is a delta function?
Answer: This is not possible with a single sequence, but wecan find a pair of sequences x(`) and y(`) so that
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Complementary Sequences (Golay Pairs)
Definition: Two length L unimodular sequences x(`) and y(`)are Golay complementary if the sum of theirautocorrelation functions satisfies
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
for all (L 1) k L 1.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Pairs: Examplex
x y
y
Time reversal:
x : 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
x : 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
If (x, y) is a Golay pair then (x,y), (x,y), and(x,y) are also Golay pairs.
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Pairs: Construction
Standard construction: Start with(
1 11 1
)and apply the
construction (AB
)
A BA BB AB A
Example:
(1 11 1
)
1 1 1 11 1 1 11 1 1 11 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Other constructions:
WeylHeisenberg Construction: Howard, Calderbank, andMoran, EURASIP J. ASP 2006Davis and Jedwab: IEEE Trans. IT 1999
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Pairs for Radar: Zero Doppler
The waveforms coded by Golay pairs xand y are transmitted over two PulseRepetition Intervals (PRIs) T .
Each return is correlated with its corresponding sequence:
Cx(k) + Cy(k) = 2Lk,0
x
x y
y
Discrete Sequence Coded Waveform
Radar Signal Processing

Golay Pairs for Radar: Advantage
Frank coded waveforms Golay complementary waveforms
Weaker target is masked Weaker target is resolved
Radar Signal Processing

Sensitivity to Doppler
Asx(, ) + ej2TAsy(, )
Although the autocorrelationsidelobe level is zero, theambiguity function exhibitsrelatively high sidelobes fornonzero Doppler. [Levanon,Radar Signals, 2004, p. 264]
Why? Roughly speaking
Cx(k) + Cy(k)ej 6= ()k,0
Radar Signal Processing

Sensitivity to Doppler
Range Sidelobes Problem: A weak target located near a strongtarget can be masked by the range sidelobes of the ambiguityfunction centered around the strong target.
RangeDoppler imageobtained with conventionalpulse trainx y x y
Radar Signal Processing

References
1 M. I. Skolnik, An introduction and overview of radar, in Radar Handbook, M. I. Skolnik, Ed. New York:McGrawHill, 2008.
2 M. R. Ducoff and B.W. Tietjen, Pulse compression radar, in Radar Handbook, M. I. Skolnik, Ed. NewYork: McGrawHill, 2008.
3 S. D. Howard, A. R. Calderbank, and W. Moran, The finite HeisenbergWeyl groups in radar andcommunications, EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, Article ID 85685, 2006.
4 N. Levanon and E. Mozeson, Radar Signals, New York: Wiley, 2004.
5 M. Golay, Complementary series, IRE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 8287, April 1961.
Radar Signal Processing