Prussian Musketeers 2nd Edition

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About Prussian infantry from seven years war period

Transcript of Prussian Musketeers 2nd Edition

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    Contents Preface 3

    Acknowledgement 4Contents 5Maps 6Order of Battles 7Tables 7Introduction 8

    Uniform Sources 8Flags 10Regimental Histories 10

    Chapter 1 Introduction 11Chapter 2 Prussian Guard Infantry 25

    I/IR15 Leib-Garde 27II-III/IR15 Garde 32Corps der Unrangirten 38Garde-Invaliden 38IR6 Grenadiere-Garde 39IR18 Prinz August Wilhelm 45

    Chapter 3 Brandenburg Regiments 51IR1 von Winterfeldt 53IR12 von Hessen-Darmstadt 59IR13 von Itzenplitz 64IR19 Markgraf Carl 70IR23 von Forcade de Biaix 77IR24 von Schwerin 84IR25 von Kalckstein 90IR26 von Meyerinck 96IR27 Alt-Kleist 102IR34 August Ferdinand of Prussia 108

    Chapter 4 East Prussian Regiments 114IR2 von Kanitz 117IR4 von Kalnein/von Thadden 122IR11 von Below 128IR14 von Lehwaldt 133IR16 Graf zu Dohna 138

    Chapter 5 Magdeburg and Halberstadt Regiments 143IR3 Anhalt-Dessau 145IR5 Alt-Braunschweig 151IR20 von Zastrow 157IR21 Hlsen 162

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    Chapter 7 Pomeranian Regiments 167IR7 Alt-Bevern 169IR8 von Amstell 174IR17 von Manteuffel 180IR22 Moritz von Anhalt-Dessau 186IR30 von Pritz 191

    Chapter 8 Westphalian Regiments 196IR9 Jung-Kleist 199IR10 von Knobloch 204

    Chapter 9 Silesian Regiments 209IR28 von Hautcharmoy 211IR29 von Schultze 216IR31 von Lestwitz 221IR32 von Tresckow 225IR50 von Rossiers 229

    Chapter 10 Materials and Manufacture 232Textiles 232Trimming 234Bones 235Metal 235Fastenings 235

    Chapter 11 Musketeer Uniforms 236Musketeer Uniform 237NCO Uniforms 248Musicians 250Officer Uniforms 254

    Chapter 12 Infantry Flags 258M1713 Infantry Flags of Frederick William I 259

    References 267Regimental Index 270

    Maps Map 1: Brandenburg-Prussia in 1740. 11Map 2: Brandenburg-Prussia in 1748. 18Map 3: The Province of Brandenburg (1640-1806). 51Map 4: East Prussia (1618-1806). 114Map 5: Halberstadt, Magdeburg and Mansfeld 143Map 6: Pomerania, 1648-1772. 167Map 7: Prussian Westphalian territories. 197Map 8: Silesia, 1742-1806. 209

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    Order of Battles OOB 1: The Kings Army and Leopolds Observation Corps, 1741. 19OOB 2: The three corps of the Prussian Army in 1743. 19OOB 3: The Kings Army in 1756 at the start of Seven Years War. 21OOB 4: The Kings Army in 1758. 21OOB 5: Saxon Corps in 1758. 22OOB 6: Pomeranian Corps in 1758. 22OOB 7: Garrison of Potsdam (1753), Brandenburg Inspection (1763-71) and Potsdam Inspection (1771-86). 26OOB 8: Garrison of Brandenburg in 1753. 52OOB 9: Brandenburg Inspection in 1763-1771. 52OOB 10: East Prussian Garrison in 1753. 115OOB 11: Prussian Inspection in 1763-1773. 116OOB 12: East Prussian Inspection in 1773-86. 116OOB 13: Garrison of Magdeburg and Halberstadt in 1753. 144OOB 14: Magdeburg Inspection in 1763-86. 144OOB 15: Duchy of Pomerania Garrison in 1753. 168OOB 16: Pomeranian Inspection in 1786. 168OOB 17: Garrison of Cleves, Mark, Revensberg, Minden and Ostfriedland in 1753. 198OOB 18: Westphalian Inspection in 1763-86. 198OOB 19: Garrison of the Province of Silesia in 1753. 210OOB 20: Silesia Inspection in 1763-73. 210

    Tables Table 1: Expansion of Brandenburg-Prussia 1415-1786. 12Table 2: Expansion of the Royal Prussian Army 1656-1786. 13Table 3: Musketeer pom-poms and regimental button colour. 237Table 4: Colour of stock. 238Table 5: Other ranks coats by facing colour. 239Table 6: Other ranks coat facings with/without lace loops. 239Table 7: Other ranks buttonholes by colour facing colour. 240Table 8: Shoulder straps of the Musketeer Regiments. 241Table 9: Braid on pockets. 241Table 10: Colour of waistcoat and breeches. 242Table 11: NCO hat lace. 248Table 12: NCO lace by regimental colour facings. 248Table 13: Sleeve braid for the Musketeer Regiments. 251Table 14: Officer hat lace. 254Table 15: Officer lace by regimental colour facings. 256Table 16: Infantry M1713 Kompaniefahne with gold decoration. 260Table 17: Infantry M1713 Kompaniefahne with silver decoration. 260Table 18: The staffs of the flags and polearms. 265

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    Introduction Prussian regiments were known by the names of their Chef whose rank and seniority determined the ranking of the regiment. It was often confusing that several regiments had Chefs of the same name. There were fourteen different Chefs named von Kleist serving during the reign of Frederick II (1740-86). Often these were at the same time so the senior officer was given the suffix Alt (Old) and the other Jung (Young). The Regimental Index gives a cross reference of their numerical order and according to their Chef or title.

    The listing of the regiments by age first appeared in the Stammliste of 1729 (List of Regiments) of Leopold von Anhalt-Dessau (the old Dessauer).7 The use of the regimental number did not become universal until after the Seven Years War and even so it was still unofficial until the AKO of 1 October 1806.8

    Uniform Sources We are fortunate that there are a large number of contemporary sources available to us, both Prussian and foreign. The main reason for the abundance of illustrations was that in 1724, the first Oekonomie-Reglement was produced by Oberst Georg Detlev von Massow (1696-1761), who was responsible for all matters concerning uniforms until his death. It recorded the uniform made for each infantry regiment. One copy was retained by the regiment and the other kept by the General-Kliderkasse in Berlin.

    The first complete illustrated overview of Prussian army uniforms was 17299 showing the flag and other ranks uniform when FM Prinz Leopold I von Anhalt-Dessau (the Old Dessauer) presented a manuscript to King Frederick William I. These were regularly updated throughout his reign in 1733, 1737 and 1739. It was not until the 1737 edition10 that the musketeer, grenadier, NCO, drummer and officer were shown. The 1739 edition showed only small differences from the previous edition.

    7 See Jany (1905) Die Dessauer Stammliste von 1729 in Bleckwenn (1970) Vol III, Book 1. 8 Allerhchste Kabinetts Order [Supreme cabinet order]. Hohrath (2011) I: 19. 9 Bleckwenn, H. (1970) Dessauer Spezifikation von 1729, Vol III, Book 1, Osnabrck. 10 Melzner, F.G. (1974) Die Dessauer Spezifikation von 1737, Vol III, Book 2, Osnabrck.

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    During the Seven Years War, Prussia was unable to finance the military spending from current income supplemented by their reserves as had been done during the Silesian Wars. Increasingly, Prussia became dependent upon British subsidies, debased currency plus forced contributions from the new and acquired territories.50

    During the Seven Years War, Prussia lost 180,000 dead, 63,000 prisoners, and 60,000 horses. The Austrians captured 204 infantry flags, 52 cavalry standards, 430 cannon plus numerous mortars, howitzers and other material. One regiment lost 4,474 men, over three times its strength.51 One noble family lost 20 out of 23 males of military age.52 In addition the civilians and economy of Kingdom of Prussia suffered almost as severely as in the Thirty Years War with 11%53 drop in population. The Provinces

    50 Showalter (1996) 96. 51 Mollo (1977) 9 and Showalter (2004) 130. 52 Duffy (1974) 199. 53 0.5 million of the pre-war 4.5 million

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    Chapter 3 Brandenburg Regiments

    Brandenburg lay between the Elbe and Oder Rivers which were the major north-south commercial arteries into central Germany.

    Map 3: The Province of Brandenburg (1640-1806).

    Frederick II rated his Brandenburg Regiments very highly. He commented after Zorndorf, I owe my salvation to these regiments (IR18 and IR23) and General Seydlitz. I could do anything with commanders and troops like these.111 Brandenburg comprised Altmark, Kurmark and Neumark.

    111 Duffy (1974) 240

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    IR19 Markgraf Carl The regiment was formed on 14 February 1702 from two companies each from IR4, IR6, IR7 and IR12, drafts from the garrisons of Kustrin, Driesen, Spandau, Peitz and Frankfurt plus Marwitz, Brtel and La Cave Frei-kompagnies for Albrecht Friedrich Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt139, who was the half brother of King Friedrich I. In 1703 it gave two companies to IR10. In 1757, it absorbed a large number of Irish soldiers who had served in the Saxon Army.140 Lehdorff stated in 1757, To begin with they were most unwilling to serve among the Prussians, but now the decent treatment they receive from the Margrave has won them over completely that they would despair if they were ordered to be sent to any other regiment.141 Despite its high esteem in the army, Frederick II criticised the regiment in 1774 for its actions at Kunersdorf stating, Except for Langes Battalion, (I had) no reason for satisfaction with the regiment, which did not want to behave properly in the field.142 The regiment was surrendered on 22 November 1806 near Hameln and the III Bn at Kstrin. Chef 1702: Albrecht Friedrich Markgraf von

    Brandenburg-Schwedt (Markgraf Alrecht).

    1731: Carl Friedrich Albrecht Margraf of Brandenburg-Schwedt (Markgraf Carl).143

    1763: Hans von Tettenborn.144 1763: Friedrich August Prinz von

    Braunschweig.145 1794: Karl Ludwig Bogislav von Gotze. 1806: Prince Wilhelm Friedrich of

    Orange-Fulda.146

    139 Albrecht Friedrich Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt was the commander of the Prussian Supply Corps (1702-03), Lord Master of the Knight of St John (1696-1731). For this reason, the "Knights of St John Cross" was used on the flags, grenadier caps, ring collars, pocket panels, drummer uniform cords and drums of the regiment. [Dorn & Engelmann (1989) 54] 140 Haythornthwaite (1991) II: 45. 141 Duffy (1974: 240) quoting E. Lehndorff who was a member of the queens household. 1