Power Electronics

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Power Electronicsiin S1 Gate Vin Vd D L iL io VL C Vo R Load

L

iL

io

L

iL

io

VL Vin D

iC C Vo R Load

VL Vin D

iC C Vo R Load

mFlux command Torgue command

)

Field comp. of stator current

Rotating-to-stationary co-ordinate transformation

2 Phase-to-3phase transformation* * i a = i qss~

m

)*

PWM CCI

DC

G2

G1

i i

* ds * qs

= =

* * * ids = i ds cos e t iqs sin e ts

i

*s~ ds

i

*~ a~

i* i qss~

* b

~

* * * iqs = i ds sin e t i qs cos e ts

* ic

~

T *eTe

3 *s 1 * = i ds i qss 2 2 3 *s 1 *s i ds i qs = 2 2

* ib * ic

~

Inverter

~ co s e tTorgue comp. of stator currentUnit vector generator

~ Vectors s i n e t

Unit

Motor

s qm

~

s dm ~

m

)

s s dm + qm2 2

Flux sensors

.

162422 4 Simulation / 162422

2547

1 Power Electronic Devices 1.1) Power Electronic 1.2) 1.3) Power loss 2 Characteristic of magnetic material 2.1) Flux Density B Field 2.2) Self-inductance L 2.3) B-H Curve Transformer 3 AC-DC Converter 3.1) HALF-Bridge Rectifier (HB) 3.2) Full-Bridge Rectifier (FB) 3.3) 3-Phase Rectifier 3.4) SCR Phase Control 4 DC-DC Converter 4.1) Step down (Buck) converter 4.2) Step up (Boost) converter 4.3) Buck boost converter 4.4) AC-DC Low harmonic converter 5 DC-AC Inverter 5.1) Fourier series THD 5.2) Multi-step Inverter 5.3) PWM Inverter 5.4) Current Regulated (Current Control) 5.5) Phase Modulation Inverter (Idea) 1 1 11 14 23 23 28 29 42 42 65 72 80 91 91 101 109 117 126 126 135 140 154 161

6 Motor Drive 6.1) 6.2) Scalar 6.3) Synchronous Motor Drive 6.4) Vector Control

162 164 179 188 197

1 Power Electronic Devices Diode, SCR, Triac, BJT, MOSFET, GTO, IGBT, Power Electronic Power loss Power Electronic Switching 1.1) Power Electronic Diode 1-1 Diode Diode (forward Bias) Voltage (~1[V]) Reverse Bias (~1[A]) 1-1(b) Reverse Voltage Reverse Blacking region Diode 1-1(c) Modeling Diode Simulate forward Bias voltage = 0 Reverse Blacking region

(a) Symbol (b) i-v characteristic c) Idealized 1-1 Diode (a) symbol, (b) i-v characteristic, (c) idealized characteristics

1

Diode 1) Schottky Diode forward bias (0.3[V]) (50 ~100[V]) 2) Fast-Recovery Diode Switching Reverse-recovery time (trr*) ([nS]) 3) Line-frequency diode trr (50[Hz]) rated Voltage Note trr: (Reverse-recovery time) 1-2 trr 1-2 Diode Turn Off 0 Diode Off ( Reverse Current) Reverse current trr Diode Switching trr Switching Power loss

1-2 Reverse-recovery time (trr) Diode Off

2

Thyristor 1-3 Thyristor SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), Thyristor Diode gate (G) (Trig) Diode On Off Reverse Bias Diode SCR Diode

(a) Symbol

(b) i-v characteristic

(c) Idealized 1-3 Thyristor (SCR) (a) symbol, (b) i-v characteristic, (c) idealized characteristics

3

1-4 Thyristor Triac (Triode AC Switch), Triac SCR 2 2 Triac AC Trig Triac On Off Trig Triac Off Reverse bias Diode

1-4 Thyristor (Triac) (a) equivalent of Triac ,(b) symbol, (c) i-v characteristic

4

BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor) 1-5 BJT NPN, BJT iB iC Ic = I B hFE

(1-1)

hFE Power BJT 5-10 hFE Darlington Triple Darlington hFE hFE BJT 1-6 BJT Switch iB (Saturated) load iB On, BJT On-voltage 0.1-0.2[V]

(a) Symbol (b) i-v characteristic c) Idealized 1-5 BJT (a) symbol, (b) i-v characteristic, (c) idealized characteristics

(a) Darlington (b) Triple Darlington 1-6 hFE Power BJT 5

BJT

IB

C EVTVR = I c R = I B h FE R

R

1-7 BJT MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Field Effect Transistor) 1-8 MOSFET MOSFET voltage gate (G) Source (S) D-S ( rDS(ON) = 1-100 [m] ) MOSFET Switching time (trr) 10-100 [nS] Switching G-S Capacitance G-S

(a) Symbol (b) i-v characteristic c) Idealized 1-8 MOSFET (a) symbol, (b) i-v characteristic, (c) idealized characteristics

6

MOSFET Switching time Power Loss MOSFET 1000 [V], 100[A] MOSFET BJT D-S G-S 1-9 MOSFET 1-10 D-S G-S Capacitance G-S (Drive circuit) MOSFET BJT MOSFET BJT MOSFET BJTDi

D

GG

R DSS

S

1-9 D-S MOSFET D

G

S

1-10 MOSFET

7

GTO (Gate-Turn-off-Thyristor) 1-11 GTO, GTO SCR G,K=+,- A-K (Turn On) SCR G,K= -,+ A-K (Turn Off)

(a) Symbol (b) i-v characteristic c) Idealized 1-11 GTO (a) symbol, (b) i-v characteristic, (c) idealized characteristics

8

IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors) 1-12 IGBT, IGBT MOSFET BJT gate (G) MOSFET Gate Impedance (10M) MOSFET BJT D-S BJT vCE(On) (0.2[V]) BJT, IGBT Switching MOSFET BJT

(a) Symbol

(b) i-v characteristic

c) Idealized 1-12 IGBT (a) symbol, (b) i-v characteristic, (c) idealized characteristics

9

Power Electronic 1-13 1 Voltage, Current, Frequency Power switching devices Thyristor Thyristor GTO 50Hz Phase Control BJT, IGBT, MOSFET (Response time) High Frequency Switching

5kV

4kV 3kV

2kV

1kV

1-13 Maximum Voltage, Current, Frequency Power switching devices 1 Maximum Voltage, Current, Frequency rated Device Voltage rated Current rated Frequency rated Thyristor 5 [KV] 3000 [A] 500 [Hz] GTO 3 [KV] 2000 [A] 1 [KHz] BJT 1.5 [KV] 700 [A] 10 [KHz] IGBT 2 [KV] 500 [A] 80 [KHz] MOSFET 1 [KV] 150 [A] 1 [MHz] 10

1.2) Diode 1) Half Bridge

AC

a

?

b

R

2) Full Bridge

AC

a

?

b

R

3) Full Bridge AC 110V Vo Vp = 220 2V

CAC 220V

R C

11

BJT i-v Characteristics BJTC iB B VBE E iC VCE

4) {Vo ,VCE} Vdc = 10,100,1000 [V] , hFE=10Vo=?

1k VCE 5.7[ V ] 1k Vdc 10,100,1000[ V ]

5) Wave form Vo , VCE , hFE=10Vo=?

1k VCE 5.7[ V ] 1k V(AC-p) 10,100,1000[ V ]

6) Wave form Vo , hFE=

10.7[ V ]

50k 1k Vo

Vdc

12

Drive BJT CE i C B Drive E iC R i

7) BJTi i

AC

?

R

8) (BJT) Diodei i

AC

?

R

13

1.3) Power loss 1-14 Wave form Voltage Switching Current Switching, Voltage Current Ripple On Off wave form Voltage Current Without snubber With snubber

(a) Turn On 200[V]/div, 20[A]/div, 500[ns]/div

(b) Turn Off 200[V]/div, 10[A]/div, 500[ns]/div

(c) Diode recovery 200[V]/div, 20[A]/div, 500[ns]/div 1-14 Switching wave form of voltage and current

14

1-14 wave form Voltage Current Parameter Power Loss wave form Voltage Current (P=VI) Power loss Power loss switching wave form Voltage Current Power loss, Power loss switching 1-15

1-15 Power loss switching 15

1-15 switching 1. Off to On tc ( ON ) = tri + tfv

(1-2)

()Wc ( ON ) =1 Vd Io tc ( ON ) 2

(1-3)

2. On W ON = VON Io t ON

(1-4)

3. On to Off tc ( OFF ) = trv + tfi

(1-5) (1-6)

Wc ( OFF ) = 1 Vd Io tc ( OFF ) 2

fs Off to On On to Off 1 Power Off to On On to Off Ps =1 Vd Io fs ( tc ( ON ) + tc ( OFF ) ) [W] 2

(1-7)

Power ON PON = VON Io t ON Ts

[W]

(1-8)

Power Pall =Ps + Pon [W] 16

(1-9)

Diode 1) Half Bridge

AC

a

?

b

R

AC

a

b

R

2) Full Bridge

AC

a

?

b

R

AC

a

b

R

17

3) Full Bridge AC 110V Vo Vp = 220 2VCAC 220V

R C

CAC 220V

R C

AC 110V

Vp = 220 2V

18

BJT 4) {Vo ,VCE} Vdc = 10,100,1000 [V] , hFE=10Vo=?

1k VCE 5.7[ V ] 1k Vdc 10,100,1000[ V ]

IB = 5 mA IC = IB h FE = 105 mA = 50 [mA] VR=50 mA1k = 50 [V] Vdc Vo VCE 10 100 0 100 50 50 1000 50 950

5) Wave form Vo, VCE , hFE=10Vo=?

1k VCE 5.7[ V ] 1k V(AC-p) 10,100,1000[ V ]

19

6) Wave form Vo, hFE=

10.7[ V ]

50k 1k Vo

Vdc

Idea *Emitter Follower *Linear Regulator IC

20

Drive 7) BJT

i

AC Drive

R

Note BJT 2 , Drive 2

21

8) (BJT) Diodei i

AC

?

R

i

i

AC

Drive

R

Note BJT 1, Drive 1, Diode 4 (Low cost technology)

22

2 Characteristic of magnetic material SCR 2.1) Flux Density B Field F (Magnetic force: mmf) Ampere Turn F= ni (AT) n () i (Ampere) H (Field Intensity) H=F/m (AT/m) m (m) (2-2) (2-1)

2-1 H 23

B (Flux Density) H B = H ( Wb/m 2 :T )

(2-3)

(Permeability) ( H / m)

= o rr

(2-4)

(Relative Permeability)

o = 4 107 ( H / m ) ,

(2-3) (2-4) B 2-1 r r r

2-1 6000 250 250000 25000 600 70 7000 500 300000 100000 (Supermalloy:79% Ni, Rest Mn) 7000 40 (1% C) 7300 4 (Alnico:12% Al, 20% Ni, 5% Co, 63% Fe)r r r

24

(2-3) B = H H B B H () 2-2 =B H

(2-5)

2-2 (2-5) Non-linear region linear region linear region

2-2 Non-linear

25

2-3 B-H Curve 2-3 E H B-H 2-2

2-3 B-H Curve 2