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Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos: : :2007-2008

: Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos: :- : Karl Popper - Thomas Kuhn - Imre Lakatos : : 1066449 : , : , : : 2007-2008

. , . . , , ., Robert Heilbroner,

. . : , . : ( ) . . , , . . .. Lakatos Kuhn . . . !

KARL R. POPPERScience is perhaps the only human activity in which errors are systematically criticized and,in time corrected, Karl Popper

: Karl Popper 1902 Raimund Popper. . , , , . , . : , , . Alfred Adler( , ) . , avant-garde Schoenberg( ) Webern. , , . , . . 1937, , Popper Canterbury University College, , . 1946 , London School of Economics. , 1969, LSE

. London School of Economics Popper 1960 . Popper , Imre Lakatos, , J.Agassi J.Watkins. Popper B: , , : , . , , 20 . Popper : The logic of scientific discovery(1934), The open society and its enemies(1945), The poverty of historicism(1957) Unended quest(1976). Conjectures and refutations(1962) Objective knowledge(1972). Popper . ,

: 1965 , .

: , Popper , , ( ) . 1905 1915 .

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: Popper , , The Logic of Scientific Discovery(1934). , ( , , ). , , . To 1945 The Open Society and its Enemies . : . Hegel( !) Marx. , Popper, , .

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( Bryan Magge Popper, The gravedigger of Marxism ). A Popper, ( ) , . Mark Blaug Kuhn versus Lakatos or Paradigms versus research programmes in the history of economics( Method and Appraisal in Economics, S.Latsis) : 1950 1960 Popper. . .Friedman, Popper ( F-twist, Samuelson). . Popper . , ! ( ) ( ). , , , , ! , , : a priori .

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THOMAS S. KUHNscientific revolutions are here taken to be those non-cummulative developmental episodes in which an older paradigm is replaced in whole or in part by an incompatible new one., Thomas Kuhn

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Thomas Kuhn 18 1922 Cincinnati Ohio, Samuel Kuhn Minette Stroock Kuhn. : 1943 Harvard. 1946 1949 . , , . , , Harvard, James Conant, Kuhn . , , , , , . .

50 The Copernican Revolution(1957), . Harvard University of California Berkeley, , , . Berkeley , Stanley Cavell ( Wittgenstein, ) Paul Feyerabend. 1962, , ,

The structure of Scientific Revolutions. magnum opus 20 . (paradigm), (scientific revolution),

(incommensurability) .. , Kuhn. , The structure of Scientific Revolutions. 1964 Berkeley Princeton. , ( , The structure of Scientific Revolutions) Kuhn . , Kuhn, Feyerabend Lakatos. Feyerabend Lakatos , , Kuhn. , Kuhn Popper, Kuhn. To 1970 The structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn . 1978 Black-Body Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity, . 1983 . 80 90 . 1994 , 17 1996. , 20 .

: , Kuhn . The structure of Scientific Revolutions. , , . . Popper : , . , , . , , , . Popper . Kuhn :

. Kuhn, , The structure of Scientific Revolutions, , . Kuhn, , (normal) (revolutionary) . , . . (paradigm). , , ,

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. : Kuhn . . Kuhn : , (incommensurable). H , , , , . Kuhn: , : . : 18 . . , Kuhn : . , , . o Kuhn, The competition between paradigms is not the sort of battle that can be resolved by proof. , , , , , . . , , , , , .

: ; The structure of Scientific Revolutions . 20 . . Kuhn. , , Kuhn . . ( Kuhn ): , . . , , Kuhn. . Kuhn: 1880 1890( 1870) , , 1930. The structure of Scientific Revolutions, , . ( A.Coats B.Ward). , Kuhn( Kuhn

. M.Blaug M.Bronfenbrenner, N.de Marchi). , : Kuhn . 19 ., , . Kuhn , , . ( Michelson-Morley , ). , , : . (Jevons, Walras, Menger) , . , . Keynes (Lukas, Sargent, Kydland) . Keynes 1920 . , Friedman, 1970 . , , . Kuhn. , , . , ( Kuhn , ). ,

, Kuhn: 1970 Keynes Keynes . Kuhn, Popper, , . - . . , , , . Kuhn : .

IMRE LAKATOSThus a statement may be pseudoscientific even if it is eminently plausible and everybody believes in it, and it may be scientifically valuable even if it is unbelievable and nobody believes in it. A theory may even be of supreme scientific value even if no one understands it, let alone believes in it., Imre Lakatos

: Imre(Avrum) Lipschitz Debrecen 1922. : Imre Molnar . 1944 , Debresen. Imre Lakatos, Geza Lakatos. 1948 Debresen Georg Lukacs. , , Moscow State University, Sofya Yanovskaya. . 1950, ( 1953) , ... , . How to Solve it George Polya,