physique cours 8ème année

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,- ,14 (1 G dG : b IMhh jJ: YGQOb uGj: fQ QHdG.G jhe qOGe c -.dG jhe qOGe MCG -.b IMhh qjRdGh FdGh dG OGd G dG jJdG J.e c b IMhh dG eh G e.GG c RGJ hT.Mh L c H dG.N IqOeqdGhKIqOe jG qEG j? qYbOZdG GgjGP() ,(), (CG) SdG G fRdH bCG q c LQ MCG qdG b Mh G b e c M hJ ZQ :(CG) SdGG bqLCGMCG: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC G: A```JC G h ``qeC JC G: ``MC G h q``LC GI``GG``gC G(CG)()jM af d Sf bG b cf d qa bG b cf d qa bG b MN bN bN b()mV =15.c hJ ZQ dG b M hj G b M :() SdG.e c c hJ ZQ G b M e UCG SdG b M :() SdGqjOY jhe qdG c JG IMd jhe e IqOe e qY M j eY -. dfqGIqOdqG d : e h iNCG U Y Gh ,HdG dG jJ -hCGhCG IQGG LQO ) hdG qH jRZ hCG FS hCG U fe qG dG qJ -.dG K h G d f ( dGMCG`dd ,` q budG J HJ g N IOe qdGh K oIsOe jG :e dhGG HdG qE G pG jhe ,e qY Rh LJ JqOe H qdG fQG qE aIQGG LQO fB G aYJOe cGJ KJ d c hCG eMCG fG LCG ihJ b.`qUGJhLJ dG G Gg e IOG c H osJ Fja QG Z Y fe L c j.qGdGqjhG IMhe IQGM LQO Y h (FS hCG U )e IQGM LQO Y G dG dG bfg RZ e Vh M Y G Gg e qd:ddG dG ah Jh: G dG jJm V =mVM`e =mVm =V. V =m: `````````SC G.eMCG hJ ZQ LCG c J : `````````SC G.c hJ ZQ OGG MCG J 16J dG fc GPEa .G dG b IMh USG ddG dG onnr oG dG IMh qEa GHojGh GZdHoJ e e d GZdH J .d qdG IMdG gh :H e h iNCG GMh USG e jOdG hdG jRdGh FdGh dG OGG d G dG dG hG .V h IQGM LQOH OGG g e d G dG LhCG,G Gg e G IMh c g fe G dG. H d ejh: ddG dG f e G dG jdeJ Mh G c EG .M EG: g G d dG dG IMh: G dG b IMh =mV`jR`Z OG`e F`S OG`e `U OG`eG dG IqO``G G dG IqO``G G dGIqO``G0,083 LhQdG 790 dG 240 qdG1,2 AGdG 920 jdG jR 1000 400 G1,82 HdG cCG K 1000 AG 2700 CG13600 FdG 7100 fdG7900 jG8900 SdG(kg. m-3) (kg. m-3) (kg. m-3)kg. m-3(kg) (m) =mV. kg. m-3mV(m3): `J``e `q```bC G(V)kg. m-3(m3)(kg) g. cm-3g. cm-3: ``````````U````GEGe =mV17:YGQOb uGj.FS qd hCG U qd G dG j e qQHdG -.dG LCG c b -.QG QG SGHdG LCGh FGdG MCG b -.Q QJ IAGb c -:hCG dG Z U L e qY NBG ,AG fEd Hb bCG `c Ge SGH.q c P Ge hCG hdEG:dG dGSGH M bCGh dG f NBG `:ddG MGG e qQe Q .Ae dG ie EG qQG QG CeCG G qSCG .Ad .qc J H QG NGO qdG VCG . jG G G qSCGqdG M SCG (2 G d dG jdGI``GG``gC G: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC GG : dG LCd G d-1: ``MC G h q``LC GV1= 50 mLm = 66,28gV1V2V = V2 - V1V2= 58,4 mLm0.0066.2818.e AG , IaG FGdG MCG e qY NBG G jH bCG .QG jQd ITG IAGdG jW Y qdG d.`q`c P Ge hCG hdEG Ge SGH FdG e qdG J c jH bCG: G c , AG g G FdGg dG dG IMH Ad G dG: ``MC G h q``LC G1000 kg. m-3 =mV=100100= 1g. mL-1G : FdG OGd G d-2V__. _.,_., _- ,.. ,. .- ,mV: `````````SC G dG qd G dG =mV =mV2-V1= 7890 kg. m-319 .jdG jR IqG g e HdG dG MGe H bCG : g jdG jd G dG qCG LCG: g dG dG IMH jd G dGFdG d MCG c H bCG : HG hG FdG MCG KqYCGh G Fd G dG OqMCG.hG: ``MC G h q``LC G: `````````SC G: `J``e `q```bC G__. _.,_., _- , . ,. .- ,mV920 kg. m-3 =mV=92100= 0,92g. mL-1= 920g. L-110 30 40 50 608 24 32 ? 48V (mL)m (g)g.mL-1=mV: ``````````U````G.jd G dG Y Ad G dG J ITG IAGdG jW Y dG G hCG FdG d G j j qY.qQe Q jQd.Ge SGH b a G dddG qeCG,Gd G dG Y G jdG HhM .M h G qdG c (V)(V)(m)(m) =mV20adGIY adG IQY JdG b AS h dG c AS : fG GH Me SQO SSCG dG e SOdG qd YLG OGG SGQO N .fS OYh HdGdG e Y dH c GdG g e H d fqdG adG Y d . dG hG ah dG fa He edHc / S)adG2( c) MG2( dGOY1000 dG6162 1559 700 000 fJ 1,3 2 381 000 31 000 000 FGG31 759 5405 200 000 d4732 55029 200 000 bCG G 2,61 025 5202 700 000 fjQe(2001)SSCG dG e SOdG d YLEG OGG c e :f _.- , ,.- .

,.- (S S S V Y): A```JC G h ``qeC JC GIdG CG TCGiNCG dH G f e dG e Ich qj iMEH jjM Ic M GPEGe oSnnJ qTCGh qUGJ cCG jG Ic IOG CG EG dP Ojh .dG e e e KCG jjG: dH Y j e Ggh dG IOe'' qdG e ac YCG dG CG M dG ac e YCG ac jd EG '': S````````````jE G21:dG IMh f OYHh hdG f EG ODJ dG QfG cCG IOd G dH e G dG fQe.adG J Z Y G Gg iNCG UN.FdG OGGh dG LCG ac j AG j.GRdG ac j AGdG jdG ah ,AG EG dH FS hCG fc U fe IOe ac .Ad G dGh IOG d G dGM Rd G dGM dG ah ,AGdG EG dH RdG ac .AGd G dGh ''d = 'd = ' FdG hCG dG OGG EG ``dH `fYG GPEG G GP fe Y c :. hdG f AG e G f c :(V)(V)(m)(m) G GP RdG e Y c :. hdG f AGdGe G f c :(V)(V)(m)(m) `jR`dG OGG EGdH fYG GPEGhhCG h a qdHhIMdG f d d c f g adG.IMh hH GOY q=mV'=mV=mmd = '= V'V qE a50 100 150 200 250m(g) 56 112 169 224 28022: ````f Y YC GV(cm3) O``Y j. hJ dG h IQGd e hX Fd qG dG .FdG e M Y HG K dG dG IMH dG g Y qYO``Y jqG dG a J hX c qjjM b M Y HGhJ jd.O``Y jhX ,J G Gg eCH Y fedCd qG dG Y HGhj AdG e GqM ,qe .O``Y j : dG hG Y f FdG d MCG c f eY.G Fd G dG LhCGO``Y j. c hYJQGhgb qfe fGSG.G Gd G dG LhCG: cJ JQGhdG M: fGSG M O``Y j.chgb fe Ic.qG c LhCGdG M: IdG cJ:1:2:3:4:5:613,6 g. cm-378,0 g120 g86 g7800 kg.m-332 cm33,24 cm13,2 cm6,21 kg2,87 cm 185 gV = .R2.hV =.R343R =R =h =O``Y j. jW qf jPa IqOe e fGS qG dG jd:hCG jdG (CG dG H f JQGh fGSdCG a ha hdEG Ge SGH fGSCG c fG jPdG IOd G dGY HG:G GSG ,fdG jdG (HdG fGSG ee ddG fRdH f hX Ad G dG CH Y GPEG G qjPdG IOd qG dG OqMhJHdG: cJ hjdG f H Qb ( ?dP S g a dG H NG Lh EG23:7d = 21,0 mm h = 39,0 mmm = 106,2 gd hm1= 42,1 gm1m2m3m2= 148,2 gm3= 55,8 gTTT1 000 kg.m31 mL = 1cm1Kg/m = 1 Kg.m = 10 g.mL-13 33-324IQG LCGh adG LCG EG qdG Y GQOb uGj .FdG dd qG dG e qG c fQ e FS .ach G c M OGG AG S Y J qfCG MCG .Ae H VM G e b VCG ?AG J GP U ZQAG S Y J GP .Ae H VM VCGh jG e b NBG?G H fQe M``G``dG: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC GIQG LC Gh a q dG LC G (3 : ``MC G h q``LC G25 NGO OLG AG ZCG K G b OHCG f d q`dG e b NBG.d cJCGh G b Y Vh dG LdG f Y VG ?MCG GPeMCG AG Y H qj QG gAL qd G b e e J qdG b qCG? dP dG a .G b e QG .dGh G b e M UCG SdG e b e HdG YCG?j GPeMCG . VG b qd UJ SdG b qCG.bdG d G JCG K qQe Q NGO AG e H jdG e b GqL eCG?j GPe

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- , ., ._ ..26.dG EG J Ad G dG G c J dG LCG.AG S YJ Ad G dG Y G c J dG LCG Q HdH G h dG e SdG dG Ke Y Z Y.Ie c AG ie JQG Mf Ae a Qe.AG S ie JQG S Y.HGL Y .gCG JQG j dG CG HdG f G dG IqO``G1000 AGAG S Y j 240 qdGAG S Y j 750 GAG S Y j 920 jdG jRdG EG j 7900 jGdG EG j 8900 SdG(kg. m-3): `````````SC G: `J``e `q```bC G: ``````````U````G.Ad G dG e qbCG qM H J AG S Y J dG LCG.Ad G dG e cCG qM H J AG UJ dG LCG d G dG qb qc : MCG jhG dG LCG EG dH.AG e QG AG M f Ad G dG Y dGqG dG e bCG qM H qJ e FS S Y J dG LCG.FdG dd27YqfAGSG?dGLFGdGdGOLheVdGg edHh AGdHdGG`gCfEa,SEGAGYCG efG dG jJ eYJhCG ,JQGYbJd AGSEGdGJJGgh ,LMOGOjMjdHh,ceAGdGOJ,SqdGYfEa,SCGEG.LAYYEGOJ ,`d FGdGdGjdGQhdGYGIdGgEG`YQHPSCGgVYehCGch,YHdGdGfQaOcCG1685 .GWgbqUhIdGgSdGJbh 200 dGHJfCGM , S.OGMdGOHEGdG fHYjh ,SQGcSGdGSCGC ,dGMHbY FGdG`d qCG qThY,fYqdGbJf`ceYh ,IqH`fYRjHEGMdGJ ,FGdG.dGEGJSCGfc ,cG .GAjdG- jHc```df?FGdGdGjdGGQhdGPE Gge Gf ecfeCGYVdG AGdGcfqCG hYIdGcPOQhqbfGh,(dGjdGhGfG ) ehCG FSAGdGaO ``q`qdGf dGM JYGOYGh, YCGdEGQGhCG`G`ch ,`dGCG ,pA`eIQe`fc```G```cHQ``bAGSMSAKCGfCG HJehcP SeHQbqK . AGSYgh. dGhCGG? dGAeMSCGdGAGMSSCGjCGQJCGdg.```dP`qY CG d g fdGIdGYOYH? qhCGGDdGYHLEGcDJGKCGdSGh dqdGIdGLGQ QJGYGhedGbM CjQC`dGYdG`F`G.FjaIgX: S````````````jE G1 2 (1(2(3(428`````````````F```````dG ```````d``G (4 A`````dG `````fG5 ( `````F```````e ``` ```````c``J (6 ``````q```d``````fGh``````````TEG(7 qdfG IqKDGeGdG jqdGh qdGh c OGG H AG e Y MCGGPeY?...edGh dGh ? hGGh jOhCGeYQeCGeGejGP b Y gcGfqec j g? G H h: -, _. -, ... . ,29:YGQOb uGj fGQHdG . , w ,qe ,fG : gGSGhjJ .LeCG J.dG dG fexc bIMhhGhdGjJ.G bhdGb?fGLeC GgH GdC GNG SeAG qdG qOGG fG cdGe eqc eCG mhJ 10 g` q GAGe ce , M V hj 100 mL .* SGMH j (4 A`````dG `````fG: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC G: ``MC G h q``LC GI``GG``gC G: A```JC G h ``qeC JC G.- .. .. * .. .. .. *30: `````````SC G: `````````SC G: `J``e `q```bC G: ``MC G h q``LC GMCGV1V2* SGMH j .de W d fe je Yh AGe e GeGje Y MCGhAH e eG qdG qCG MCa ,qdH G VqYCGfK H .MWdfe:qSCG ,hCG HdG .dG FGG: YoqdGfGjG.t`p`oG:GqfG MAG .o``nr`oG :AGGPbhG.onprfG: fGjG GgYGEGqOCGdG qdG MCa , jGNCG qK q G AGeSCcf qdGe eVCG.YqdGGhGhGOqMCG . feje YFGqdGeM d AG equc eCGhj 30 mL ddG e quce, M hj 10 mL .q`G:SCG ,M cCGgh ,AG q``G: SCG ,M tbCG gh ,dGdGG :YoqdGfGjG `uSCG ..- *.

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. .- _ - =-31qG eqGqeC G hj M d AG equc eCG 10 mL , M ddG e quce hj 50 mL . : `ueC G h HdGUM QbCG,q``GMcCGFqdGG:qSCG,FSLe qe .t```Ga NBGqeCGAGRdGfGMCG RZ he IQhQb tNCG eY? RdG Gg c jCG ,jRZ ba hNV1V2: ``MC G h q``LC G: `````````SC G: A```JC G h ``qeC JC G..- *.

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. .- _ - =-q```G: qj ,dGg McCGgh ,dGq``G: qj ,dGg M UCGgh ,AG.c :qjYoqdGfGjG* SGMH j32: dGG HdH bCG qK ,fqeCG RZ e b VCG ,U QhO .AGdHqjfqeCGRZ . JdGRHfqeCGRZ jJe ,HdGYCG SGMH j: ``MC G h q``LC G.,

_.-_-.= ., _,=.._ _,=_ _,=-. _ ..=_,

= _ .

- ;;_ -...= _,

= _ ,-_.., _.-_-.= ., _,=..33RdG hG qqc qUCG ,U QhO HdH bCG qK ,RZ he e: dGGRdGhG: qNHRdGhGeYGRdGGAeqj.HdGcCGKj.qjNBGdGhAG qJ qjRdGLCGHgqjRdGHh hqfGGHIOLGqjRdGbdG.HdGcCGKV e ,aqe GRZ. qFedjCGdGgqS CG.fG,qd,jG,G:dqdGdGYeSGdHGdGCeCGNCGhqdGeedEGVCGhAedGCeCG,IbaOQCGqc...............Y G H ,AG ........... S qdGqCGdP,b ...........IdG e e edVCG ,dPH.FOg Qf YHbCG , .......... FG.GKdjGGg qMCGh: `````````SC G: `J``e `q```bC G: ``````````U````G qbCG Y qf L e qj ,feFSjeg FGG.AG gMCGj.qG qj a qfG dG Gh qG qj AG.fG :qJ FG G Y G EG qOCG dG qdG- ..

- , _.- .:q``LC G:MC G34:YGQOb uGj,bGMhH cPhFe cJjJ . dG qGdG qJY KEG.h qe , :HueCG.G bh dG b? qj Jfqe f qCG ZQ NBG EG e gdG dG qQJ S g e ? bCG ch J dG jOG g eqGqHcdGbYM SdG jd vFe uMCG hj 100 mL , e fHSdG jc e IU * .`H G Gd eQCG .dG QRCG Y MCG .AG (5 `````F```````e ``` ```````c``JI``GG``gC G: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC G: ``MC G h q``LC G: A```JC G h ``qeC JC GV1(S1)* SGMH j,= . _. . .,, ,_J35SdG jdvFe uMCG *Me JU e fH ,hj mK Y MCG .AG SdG jc.`H G Gd eQCG .dG QRCGG d e bQR qTCGG dUCa, uGcYV . .G cJe cCGG cJ sE GbCGdG FG GWjAGeSCc qdGeIMGhbfGYfG`qdGqqcYJqcIhMdGGgOGOj.GMY.AGe G G Gg cJ OGOj ,AG e se M xe qc fG Y.H cdeQCG .qG c OjORG eGHcdGbYSdG jdvFe uMCG * hjM 200 e fH , dK Y MCG .AG uG Gg e.cJ h G Gd eQCG .dG QRCG GdebQRqbCG Gd . : GPEGGeGcJqbCG GV2(S2)(S2)(S2)(S1)V2.C3 < C1C3C(S1)(S3)(S3)(S3)(S1)(S1)MCG: `````````SC G: ``MC G h q``LC GMCG* SGMH j100 mLmL36 ,M Fe Y dxe e e qcfGY.G OjORHG Gg cJ jb IMh - cdG jJ.GeMGhd qG qdGH ,e qe Fe , cdGqjcHh , GM ee jcOYHFecdG j: d`qdGqdGahqojh GGSj cdG```HdefhdGrGn`r`rdGIMHh ehcdG d iNCGGMh fCGc . : qjFGdGMH cdG Y qdG x% eqcfGY , dP e , gQGedGe 5g gMGf,AGe 5% e cfgh ,.qGGcEG q dGihjGMsCG fedZ,cdGN CG ,cdGV FGdG.qGMeHh fG bqGdGHWh bQhO:GGq ciMEG Y VCG MhCGfRdHbCGHIYCG VCGh SdGjce baUhMh q GAGe qqc:qhCG SqdGdEGQG qdGY GGIHGdhC GfRdG.qNHq dGfYYCG qK ,QhdGAGIQbhSqdGjceCG: `````````SC G: ``MC G h q``LC G(V)V(V)g.L-1g.mL-1mg.L-1CC100gm1Cm C =mV: ``M``````em1.. _.=_. .-

..37 fqdG fRdHbCGh. fqdGfR dGjGhjhCGfR dGjG qdGFGG chLeqGhqGc .jheiNCGLeYY d dG AGeqqHLedG qdGcMG M qSFe V hj cJh C hj: ``````````U````GcdG qj C .Ge MGh d qG qdGH ,e qe Fe ,.G M OjORH bjhqG G c OjORG e OGOj Fja QGecdG.fGqYYqGdG s`J: `J``e `q```bC G: `````````SC G.50g.L-1_. .-

.. m1400 mL 38: ````f YYC G `H L d ef :cJ m ``HL M h , V ,``H e cJh C .O``Y j:dqdGMGeecYCNhCG`H LCGuGG cHj HFecJj m Meeh qdG ``G V .```Hc``def C = m / V. q`GAe GcJecCGdGAeGcJ. dGAe GcJecCGIOOGhAeGcJO``Y jqdGHLEGeCGeYVCG` CG .tGgAGqjdGG` .dGehAGeqjfejegdGFGG` .UqFjadM LehO qGj` O.GG M FeY MCa,qdG jO``Y j,e : JBGdGe SjZGdGcCGh dqdG UGfdGHcYCG.fG ,```G,G ,G ,fGA`G ` q cM AG`S MCG ,YAeHAfEG VCG ,dGeebUEGHNBGJ b Wqd,FGQ X AG CG h ,qqc ````j M qjQJqj G qCG `cqMCG ``d hCGfCGbCa.AGNGOSGbdWAdGf````jPEGG...........UCa........``HYqqdGdGFdGYOCGh.......HgdGYOCGh........c bCG G Yfh .........`H G eG fCH d hj dG h G e c cCG AG qSCGhHGac GPEGh .Gce qj G H dGG .........H AG e . Yj GO``Y j a q dG ecJ RhjqCGj GG jd G AMd .dGec bc ,jdMQb, GAMejdWOQCGGPEG.GjddGjqMaVEGdGidGeGZNaVh qd ,d MQb ,cdG HqdG AG HdG NCG q J.dGee` CG .dPqY ? GjdAG GgSg` ? j CG Y bCG GPe ,GG jd AM Y G NCG e ` o Wh ,Gjd j EG:1(1(1(2(2(3(4:2:3:4C1 = 2 g.L-139:YGQOb uGj,qdfGh TEG jJ,e qdfEGhcdG bY OYEH e EG qdG .bIMhh cdGSCG.- = ..-+;-_

=

,,?GqSjc?AdG eSCG qdG Gg jGP (6 ``````q```d``````fGh``````````TEGI``GG``gC G: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC G: A```JC G h ``qeC JC GCs40: hCG dGM G q e Ae jQhO Vhj mL 100 ,cdGeeqqcVCG ,. jGNCGqK.feje Y MCGhAGe Gqj : gYqGFGGGg cJ: dG dG `cGeiNCGucqhCG`dVCGihJ aaGqGGc a.bdG d GqMCG.feje YMhAGe GqfG: YqGFG GcJ UCGddG dG hJ Gec NCGFG dVCG 2g ,aGqGGca m hJ .jb dGJeWCGIq GqMCG.qdGjG G eUSGhQaJjGjdHe cLCGqSG G hjGTJ HMAG eqqc eqG ,dG qGdG ,`HIQqe qjOY IQGM LQO hJ: ``MC G h q``LC GMCGMCGMCGm1= 20gm2= 15gmt= 35gV = 100 mLms= 36 g 25 Cmr= 1gm3C2= ((m1+ m2) / V) = 350 g.L-1C1== 200 g.L-137gsGFG Gm1V.IOhAG e eM G dGe c .qe qj YG dGFGG:geqGFG GGg cJhJ IQGM LQO 41hJ ,`HIQqeqjOYIQGMLQO) dGeqdfGhJdGeqdfG qCGh Y ,GGhG CG: `````````SC G: `J``e `q```bC G: ``````````U````G jHbZ ,eq Feqc ,qeIQGMLQOqdfGjOY hj cJqeg GGgfG . CG cdGbIMhfg qdfG b IMh. ZYq qdfG dqe qca GPEG ,qG e jG f Hb jGsEafc GPEG.eZCs= 360 g.L-1s = 360 g.L-1s = 360 g.L-1g.L-125 C(25 CHd efhqdfG qjTEGMYGcJ .. eFeg cJdFeqc: qdfG jJCsCsC < s ssC = s s : ```M``ebdG Gc(qSG): qe CG fcdGbVCG dG dG e c HAG (g)FG GM G H (mL)76 20080 20080 40042`H Ld ef :cJ m ``H L Mh , V , ``He cJh C`H qdfGh s .O``Y j,e ,qdfG , FqdG : SG GdG ,dqdG dG V SG dG VCG s`YOCG G `H ......c GPEGh .Gs ce qSCG G H Z G ````c GPEG....dOG M......... b hJcdGbJ Me = C .O``Y j:dqdGMGeecYCNhCG``H LCG.`qeFeg ,qdfGhcdG e qcaihjFeqc.cdGbIMhfg qdfG b IMhdG Ae GPEG,OhM qSGHCGdGAe G cJ .eFe g qSGHCGg qdfG b IMhO``Y j . hJ IQGMLQO YhJ AGjOqdGGf qdfG hJ jOtdGGf e cYG OQCGGPEG g 1 qG GM g e ,? JjdGIqOG geM qfGGXeIQH LJ qd , AdKGLCG e GdG. gcJRhj YMCGqMJ dG G AGMge? HqdG GdGcO``Y j: AG SGYKDj AGeCGcJ? Qj a G cJ c GPEG qdG TG SG qCG : ````f Y YC G:1(1(2(1(2(3(4:2:3:439 000 mg.L-1880 g.L-14,5 g.L-10,03 g.L-1.g.L-110 C..-, _, .. +.5 ^ 1 SGqc H 5 ^ 1 h 0 ^ 3 dGAe ecCG 3 e qbCGh 5dc- SGdGHQ.g.L-143 MGdG dG GuG H fuG H cJ MG KdGS TCGNSH b YSGSfY IOOGh Ae e 1999 : qFGTCGhSGQ``d qedG IQGOEG MdG IQGRh [ DGETH ] . HLEG`uY? dGTCGWHKqe uccJ j g ? IO e fqe cJYIQGG LQOJQGKCJg e.HGL`uY ? HhYcCGIOAe jTuCGeCGcCGAGdGIQGMLQOAGIQGMLQOT1853 9 ^ 7 7 ^ 10 4 ^ 10 12029 4 ^ 10 8 ^ 14 1 ^ 14 21922 6 ^ 9 3 ^ 18 5 ^ 15 32262 8 ^ 9 8 ^ 17 6 ^ 16 41423 4 ^ 6 4 ^ 21 5 ^ 20 51136 3 ^ 8 9 ^ 28 7 ^ 23 61259 1 ^ 9 8 ^ 29 8 ^ 27 71383 9 ^ 6 7 ^ 27 2 ^ 25 81947 9 ^ 8 7 ^ 32 2 ^ 27 91487 7 ^ 6 4 ^ 24 8 ^ 18 101476 5 ^ 9 3 ^ 18 9 ^ 14 1118472 ^ 10 2 ^ 13 3 ^ 10 121668 7 ^ 8 6 ^ 20 9 ^ 17 e(C)(C)(mg.L-1)(1(2(3: ```````aG````````eJee EG VC G44 (7 qdfG IqKD GeGdG: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC G: `````````SC G``G``dG.AG qdfGYIqKDGeGdGEG q`qdG YGQOb uGj.Fe qdfG e cdG qdfG sJ s `tH .qG fSJdG Gf e e qqc VCG * c (2,5 g) q e Ae M V hj 10 mLhJ IQGMLQOY, .Fe YjG N H MCGcJ SJdGGd Gfeb dVCG. GqL NCGh SJdG. dM Y H VCG dG SJdG Gf ccJh qe Fe g HdG e hCG MG UMC hj: ``MC G h q``LC G25C.C = 250 g.L-1.C = s = 250 g.L-1: sMCGe ,.,., ;-.2,5 gm* SGMH jhJ AG dGeqdfG ,IQGG LQO f qdfG sJGPEG s .tG f`tHAG.360 g.L-1 45YGGq cGdFedqdfGhjGGhGOhMIQGMLQO`qdfE G b Y IQGGLQO KC J. AGSJdG Gf efG UGJ ,IQGGLQOJQG Y..-.,

,+-

-,-316 SdGjc360 jOqdG jQc767 dHdGjQc4 9 SJdGehc Kg.L-1 : ``MC G h q``LC G.IQdG Y gTCG e ah HdG CG - =-.- _ - _.,- .,- ,., .,, .

, .

,.,- ;- .., -.MCG.25C_. - ., _-, _- -_. ..-46:AG IQGMLQO qJ eH LCGH qdfG qJ u dGhG.IQGGLQOJQHJJ ,AGSJdGGf qdfG: `````````SC G485 215 125 jOqdGfHc773 656 562 458 357 333 jQdG jQc388 384 373 366 360 358 jOqdGjQc0,77 0,94 1,16 1,41 1,65 1,76 dGchQg2080 1960 1760 1600 1440 1360 SJdG QhOj754 550 400 265 207 174 SdG jc9520 6690 5250 3760 2200 1700 qdG Gf1,6 2 1,9 dG jc2040 qdG0,002 FdGjQc0,001 UUqdGfHcIQGG LQOIOG: MC G h qeC JC G.GIQGM LQOJQGqcAGLCGH qdfG OGOJIQGM LQOfGqcAG iNCGLCGH qdfG bJ.G IOhqL qdfG dNCGh AGIcqdfG dLCG H..AGfdHdGZLCH J J hCG qG Gg W J c AG e qdfG J.IQGG LQO: ``````````U````G10C 20C 40C 60C 80C 100Cg.L-147O``Y j: eqe fejeYGY G qSCGqK qnG hoG e qcOqMCGCG ( .dG e h q G AG e ( . q G AGe hdG eO``Y jPq f qdG ,q`jqdGHhG qd qJ ,qFdG SG c ,GaCG : qdG...q`edGhehR``dGheecfh.gYiThW IhHH.GhGOuMudGNe? dhJbqdGhGAGebehOfGPYO``Y j.qj ,RdG ,qdfG ,FsdG,gcJ : jeV e SGdHGdGCeCGCG EGa qJ ...........oJ eYdGLCG e dG qCGHdGJ.GcqjeehqH AG ...... eqdG LCGeh .........qM .......jO``Y j.AGQOe HeCGcJuGGhG.Me cCGEGqbCG eqjYJfBGIQcGQOGU: ````f Y YC G50 mL50 mL30 mL30 mL:1(1(2:2:3:4``HcdG AGQe39SGHCGdG42 (SBG)jhbH270 GdG2 IO OGh 3 ( IOaGhQ e )SJ OGhe G2,8 OhQROGhE Gg.L-1333748O``Y j QJMe,IOaGhQeaGQSJOGh eCGcJqCGh YgJfGGiMEGqG Gge V cJ ihj dSJAeejdEGaVEGdG q G Ad.? GAGeCGcJeO``Y j Y d .qjOdG IQGG LQO Me cJ d ,uSG HCGdGLhdGuSGHCGdGAeMgc,dGGeMGhGZc? `JO``Y jqdfGb qCGYGPEGMd,ee,feFe:gAG dGeG dfGbhdGGcbc ? fGFGGe AGIQbMc Vd aVEG sYLhdG YMCGM?cJddeNBGjGG Mc ? YMdG.C1= 3.g.L-1.C2= 0,3 g.L-1.C3= 39 g.L-1.V1= 400 mLC2= 120 g.L-1V1V1V2.s = 360 g.L-1:5:6:7(1(2(349: MCGaj dG dG,GqLedGGge qEG . . GdGSGYjha dGGgjQeCGgaQjdGGeh .ajCGxMFcuCHeCGJ h ,AGq`jdGgh.IH dGSeq`JYYj.cCGh fEGJM,GMe ejJh ,dG.ge```sGeCGeqJq`GdGjHQecCGqEaGgh,S YfEGLjHMGIjqdGGg e dGj.dGAGJnqfCGMdGAGLLdGHJc jH cd fY - SOhGO LJ - qhCGAG - SOqdG dG -U 108QcGdGeCGcJ sCGeq cCJdGudGOQhfSHgJbhd 100g ? YqfdGGcgauGdGAe e.fqdGIdGOQhdPQbdGbOGOJ,dGAe GcdGfOGRcGP`qa G .FCsel.C = 270 g.L-1: ````Kh ````SC G(1(2(327%50e eFeeh IqYFShOYGjdGjdHjdGQK dIqYHh,jdGQKafK,SLRWHaSJqCGYdG.FdGedGSdUjdGjHSCG: ``````jbCG ,cPSKFGcdGbYH .LRW Hh ,GeWQfh ,qGAeedf NBG.aheJcGeGUeNBG YJ de YMCjGtNCGh ,bHGVCG.dGS.YdGdGAG cJ MCGqK,qGGcMCG ddGAGejddjRhe eejeMCG ,GNCG.jqdGQKhttp://www.khayma.com/skl/ http://www.emailfaile.com: S````````````jE GH qLC G. _.. ,= _ffG Ie jhY51IqO`````````G `````````````HIqOdqjGcdGIAdG(8(9: ..-_ ..,. ._._ , .=. =-. _.,.,;-,, :

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,53* SGMH jMCG: `````````SC GbOjL edCJ IqOe,G hCGqG : FdHbIqOG.OdGIchGqLSqdGjc eda ,AG d qJ * ? QRCGdG Gec YJCG-UdheALuc - GYJCGGeIUqudeCGc?IsOGs cJq ? dIsGFGdGhCGdGqUN: jdIGqUGJhGecYqRJIUAGLCGEG j GqE G. dG ...Iq FGQ ,Me,IhM? GP ,fqejGUCGGWeGdqJ: ``MC G h q``LC GAJCG +, - .-

..

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-.-; ,= . ..,.dG he55: `````````SC G. KejL EG IqOG CGJ .fG FG G ecY qdG iqTqRjKe FL EGqJ HJM cCG F -IqOeqc- SdGjch qdG dchqdG. IOh Fa GAdGqc. IAdG :qjFNYaj IqOGeALUCG.(1 / 1026) kgqaCG fGIgXALc.GqLIU jL E G qJ qG qqdGsEav`oeIqOe fGY.IqOGFN adeM J M ,IAg qjG`ecYqR`JMG`MWFGGY`qdGGAg``J.fejc G`sL NHSSCGhjeucCdGGch.N HeMWFGGYuGGAgJ.c h feY`Jh `H `e `KJ `e AG GA`g :eKe GAg e dCjqdG G...dG GRZh qdGdch gGSqYCG IAdG.JUadeM j h IqOGF YjCGL UCGgIAdGqUN dch ,iNCGIO FjdG UG Y JeIO FjdG UG.iNCG IOe IAg UN Y J e IOe IAgOHCG IAdGALGMj gbqE a qjhcTqCG fYGGPEa ,q GLIU OHCGIMGdGIAdee Fee h ,dG QJcd.Fgj GqLIUIqOeqMGAdGOYqCGdPYj: eGMJ IUqSqMGAdG OY 80 .IAg Qe56: `J``e `q```bC G,IqOG,IAdG,AL: j eV SGdHGdGCeCG............gh ,FN Yaj ,e ........UCHOh............. FFN Y a IU jL EG IqOG qJ,fGY.IqOG g.OdG Ich IU AGLCG e qOe L qc qj`eM `jhIA`gq`oj,e AL UCH IOh IqOG F.F.IqOGjJNjLg IAdG: ``````````U````G57O``Y j: dqdGMGeeqcYCNhCG HLCGCG ( .IAdG gh ,FN Yaj ,eAL UCHOh ,FhCG IqOGqJ ( .eqc GAgOGYCGKJ , AGqefGY ( .qFjdGdMqH, eIqOeIAgqJO ( .OdGIcjL e ,qOeLqcqjO``Y jdGHLEGQNCG: eqdFGGqjCG ( .FSdMqdGqdG ( .AeGAghqSGAg ( .cgOYd IAdG f fO ( .OdG jhejLO``Y jqJ ,qdfGeqbCGcdGbJeY,AGqGcqCGYCG.AGaVEH? AGaVEGHqG GAg OYqjgcJqdFe gqdG GAg OY , MGhdM h , .bfcGPEG qdFGG edfIOLGqdGGAgOYgcbHQcJ ?O``Y j.Dhq ,IqOG ,UGe : V eSG dGVCGSGGdG.dGegjc VQCGcc LH.... YejdHfqfCGqjCHFjdj ,AdGbQRdGqE G{cGPEa ()AGG YTEGeGQfGqTCGAbQdGYTEaAdITdG ....gGj c.QdGVGhdGjDhQ eqhAGOSAdGfc .... ShqG .zVQCHGqGQNeAdGLQ.AjdHfIFLYqGScjdCG Y: ````f Y YC G:1:2:3(1(2:4C1C1N158``G``dG qe qfCG Y FdG qdG G jJ Y GQOb qG j.He GAg e: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC G.IOG J jOh.IAdG jJ ? AG aVEG Y JfqeY FGG ajg? JqUNga ,IqOdqe UCaqJc?H Y OGG jL H J a ,gZ Y gHK qUNd qfIqOeqc.,..,,,_ - ...

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: A```JC G h ``qeC JC G (9 `F````dG q````dG ``Gh IAdG59.qoG qedG hCG RdGhCGdG GT hCG e dFe EGAG e b VCGqdGcqCGZQJhM LQO bJ G d aG AG c OGRqc ?AG aVEG HhbhGcJ bqJg.qJa. dGFe eAG aVEGHYCG.dG dH SMEG bJ qc cdG b dAJ qc qfEa ,d otG dG ASH.OQdGFGQYSdGFGQJh ,G W Yj qdG WFdGtdGG:e.cHGGAdG e cOYesjwfLg qFdGtdGG...hRhCG ,cCG ,dGG,jdG ,AG ,qdGIqO``dqFjdGtdGGge h H -gGMEGVCG,`ZQa GhCG KMoCGu`cfqdGVCGh,dGe`bcCG K e ucdsdG VCGh ,AG e.L ZCGsK; hRCG: ``MC G h q``LC G: `````````SC GhCG dc ,qdG LCG e Z Y q FN qf L qd....FGqdG.qdGLCG e Z GAgYqfLIAgNG q`j e GghqLCGqLC GMCGMC G 1 .,. ,- .,. 60: `````````SC GRGgG dM h UehqJe IOdfG GAdG J : dGdGbedchedGQheeHKtJiNCGhIAgHaGqCG Y ,FGO.ecHYfGcM d Ue GAdGJ : FqdGdGcGea,ehUShsc FGYcM hdG.FGY. FGYdMEGfGdM efGfIOeQfGFGYcM hHYIYeGAdGJ : qjRdGdGCGGAdGRJ .edGeJiNCGhIAgHaG.QGSH.dos ajeuMeM.hCG e FGYcCG dMEGFGYdM efG sfIqOe J 2 ..,. ,-

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SCGhI1(mA) I2(mA) I3(mA)I (mA)I1+I2+I3(mA)I1+I2+I3: `````````SC G IdG e LQG qFHdG GQqdGIqT P hj ,. dG OQGdG FHdG QqdG IqT: `J``e `q```bC GqJG jH GG SqdG CGZ H ,a qc q dG FHdG QqdGQqdG IqT H bdG LhCG qK IQGqdG.IY qceGhIOQGdG qFHdG.dG AHdG cGJ ,QGAdG Y AG cGj c.Yqe IQGO qJM e cCG qFHc IQGO c IQGO ,cCG hCG bCG FK KH dUef qc.IY qJ ,FHc qFHdG GQqdGIqT jIY qc qFHdG GQqdG IqT hj e LQG.d OQGdG(dG fb YNBG J): ``````````U````G```M``e I1+I2+I3 = I4+I5I1I2I5I3I4P92FHdG JdG e eSG FHdG IQGdG CG dG S SGH UCG K HG qdG YM NH Y dG UCGh Gd B.H K S SGH.YCG EG TdG Sh e aCG FdG G j dG H UdG VqYCG K HdG HdG f YCG M NGh Y dG H UdH NNGh Y .:Y GQOb G j.FHdG JdG jJ.FHc IQGO eGfG hCG FHc JJ OLh EG qdGIYCG Y IOLG fdG J GPe?HG FHdG fdG J GPe?FHc Sfa Y IOLGI``GG``gC G(15FHdG JdG e: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC G.FHdG IQGdG.FHdG qGh qdG: A```JC G h ``qeC JC G: ``MC G h q``LC GqLCGMCGqLCG(40 mA , 4,5 V)MN93FHdG JdG OLheSG FHdG IQGdG CG.HG dG Y dG S SGH UCG P NH dGh N dGh GG H M NH:Me IQGqdG,gYCG EG TdG Sh e Nd NCG qG j.TqdG Sh be NBG qG j M : IQGqdG Z Y j c jJ fe Nd NCG qG j.UCG QG dh YCG EG Nd NCG qG.fe HK j Gd aCG FdG G: ``MC G h q``LC G: `````````SC G dG Mh dG H (Ke Z) FHdG dMh N .FHdG dG f Y a (Ke) dG H FHdG JdH j e f g KdG Gg Mh .FHc IQGOMCGMC GY2Y1Y1Y2Y2: `````````SC G dG H qEG qJJ Lj ,Me IQGqdG fc GPG P h N .qdddG H FHc qJJ jh ,a FHc QqJ j ,IQGqdG Z YM h N . qdGhdBBB94: `````````SC G.d Hb QGe FHdG qJdGG: `H d ejh ddG g qJqdG b IMh V . : ddG Yeda dG (kV) M ,qYqdG AHdG e V = 1000V 1 kdGddG AGLCG e(mV) M 1V = 1000 mV Y qS q e q aL GOY NBG V 4,5 b RL H b UCGh dH fQbCGhTT Y qJ dG dG CGbCG .(bQ da e) FHdGqJqdG V4,5 .d Hb QGe g FHdG JdG: ``MC G h q``LC GSGH UCG MhCG HdG CG dGbf S A FHdG IQGdG e NH Y dG UCGh Gd B.H K S SGH.gYCG EG TdG Sh e aCG FdG G j: ``MC G h q``LC GqLCG : fdG eJ GPe G V 4 ,5 ,` q G qG OdG Y Y?FHc q Md Y hCG eSH qMU e qdH AHdG qaj ,qjQH T Y? RG j GPe ,b j Oq GY?bqdG RG fH hCG RG IHEG GfG j GPe: A```JC G h ``qeC JC GL QGe qJdGMC G12V95dG -S SGH - UCG MfdG HdG CG B NH FHdG IQGdG e Y dG UCGh Gd A .HHdG QGG H TdG Sh e aCG FdG G j.SCG f dMCGqLC G: `````````SC GG fG qj eY Le jL b FHdGJd J efh Le JdG CH a hCG HdG Me Ggh YCG f FdG`H dGd FdG G fG qj eY dS jL b Jd J JdG CH a fdG HdG M e Ggh SCG fdS j Hh jQGd G dG ihJedG UAB> 0 UBA< 0 UABUBAUABUBA = -: `J``e `q```bC GdP qYCG ,fdG FHdG IQGdG HHdG Ge TT Y FdG G SQCGe d FHdG KdG Y qj FjaQGe g FHdG JdG `H d ef h ddG g b IMh .FHc IQGO V . f H Jd ej A h B .L QGe gh `H FHc IQGO e.GU hj FHc IQGO Ke f H JdG: ``````````U````GUAB 96:Y GQOb G jddG :FHdG JdG b RL EG qdGddG SGH FHc IQGO f H FHdG qJdG b. H JdG FHdG JdG b ILCG G qdG hMCG.Y eSG RedG a hMCGh a GqL qCGG ej GPe EG V ? 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JdG d IQGdG g ddG RL Uf c?dS qJJ d dd LG dG Uf f qjCH aW H JdG j ,FHc QJ a ,Ue S b K YY .QdG IT fc e ee (QqdG IqT b RL) e eCG b H GqL V FGO JdG j.FHc QJa JdG c GPEG ,Le dG e ,qdG QN FHdG QdG Ea A dG G B .dH dGhddG SGH f H FHdG JdG Sj: `H fdG SdG dd ejFHdG JdG d H ddG Uj ,FHc IQGO e f dG HH RGdH FGO A (+) ed eG hCG MCH qG dHdGh dd B .(-) ed eG hCG OSH qG H: ``````````U````G```M``eUAB UAB V (1(2VN PBA100 ?dH FHc IQGO NGO hdH FHdG qJdG Rj g? Ye FHc IQGO NGO FHdG QdG Rj c? FHdG bdH f GPedH FHc IQGO dH IQGO HdG JdG jRJ101:Y GQOb G j.dH FHc IQGO FHdG qJdG jRJ fb J``G``dG(17 FHdG JdG jRJdH FHc IQGO : ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC G.ddG SH f H FHdG JdG b.H JdG fb qJdG jRJFHdG Qd Gqde GdG Y UhCG.IQGdG ZCG K ILCG KKh Qd WbhGJdG ddG SGH bCGh hJdG FGR G b H JdG hj ehGh G FdG b H JdG.ehG b H AG b H JdG AD AGLCG b H GJdG g AB h BC h CD: ``MC G h q``LC GMC GUCDUBC UABUAB UBCUCDUAC UAD B CMDKAehGjQH eFHc102: `````````SC G H GJdG hj FHc IQGO e AL f H JdG.dG Jg H GdG Y cG ILCG bG fb : qUG Y OYHbdG qCG qHCG: dqdG qdGG qODJ:dG qdG Y jh G fb bdG g GU hj e IQGO NGO GJdG .: `J``e `q```bC G IQGO NGO GJdG MCGqde e feh e ,dH FHc.FHc h FHc eh FHcb H GJdG hj FHc IQGO e AL f H JdG.IQGqdG g GdG Y cG ILCG e RL c.GU hj e IQGO NGO GJdG : ``````````U````GUAD = UAB + UBC + UCDUAD = UAB + UBC + UCDUAB + UBC + UCD + UDA = 0UAD = - UDABCMA103b FK e qde b FK eAe e q dG Y GQOb uGj.IQGqdG Z b ,qeG dG(18 qe b FKh qde b FK H eAG: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC G qG qe bFKh qde bFd qFHdG FGIAGb. e qc bH .qde b FKh qe b FK H dG?iNCG hO IYCH qFHdGILCG H J GP: A```JC G h ``qeC JC G.fqdG b M FHdG QqdG IqT JH dqGdGR qMCG ,WdG Z bG dqG dGR cqM qc OGOjh G e j aN GQf MCa WdG ZCG.Fe IQGO EG qW H G j : SG .J OhM Rh Y GJEG QMCGqJqdG b e qc bCG UFHdG QqdG IqT h AG G bH I a j dG? 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MCG GPe : Y q IQcG G QbCG .qG Y G G : `````````SC GqJqJ eqeqFHc hX EG G h qG j U H FHdG QqdG IqTh e qc b I eY e qc j dG. e MGh qc H j dGhj: `J``e `q```bC G: dqdGG CGb,AHdH G BG iMEG Md Y? qe FHc RL d qjQH qCG SG g? jH qjQH AGT Y QYEG H PqJG qY j ee qdG dG FK eAe e q dG j FHdG IQGqdG Z bqJqdG e qc b eAe e q dG : qG dG FK U qG b H , FHdG QqdG IqTh I .a j dG: ``````````U````GMC GRating : DC 3V - 250 mAUse battery 1,5V*2AIKRh4,5 VM105O``Y jJJ b Y U Y j -da IHEG SG 100 jQdG Y - jQJ 42 JdG b LhCG QdG SG Y U .SGO``Y jY j - HEG da SGH f 100 GJJ-jQJ U GQY SH:GG hG Ae CG .O``Y jG e FHc IQGO JBG dG ? dS CG Le -SG JdG eY g e. b bh dGJdGq S SQCG jFdGGbehgGdSCGdGSG CG Y GPEG.G b H JdG b MCG,IQGqdG Z b Y c qY YCG fO``Y j :HG dG n qG FHdG IQGdG f:ddG GJd qjG dG g eCG Y GPEG G dGJd hJ V 4,5 .: ````f Y YC G:1:2:3:4(1(2(3.30V QdG 5 15 30jQdG OY 90 30 15U (V) (C) 2,5cm5 V .cm-1(n) UDC , UCD , UBC , UBAUABBCADNG Y106O``Y j.SCG hG Ae CG .HG dG G FHdGIQGdG fO``Y j .a ,QqdG,qjQGM ,IQGM ,qFHdG : dqdG dG iMEH Ga qc CeCGYe fGSG Y e hqdG IqOe e e jW S Y ........ICaG LQO EG .........hqdG S FHdG........ q.Qfd Hb Z dRY IqOe e.........bW EG qFHdG b q dG qJ:...........jh QGMGO``Y j dGG qFHdG IQGqdG j dG G OqMCG.dP qYCGhO``Y jOqMCGhdGGqFHdGIQGqdGSHbCG.FHdG QqdG G.IQGqdG g qFHdG b q dG q OqMCG:5:6:7:8(1(23 -5 8-4 7 85 6 -3-18 20 -17UAC (V)UDC (V)UBD (V)UAB (V)1234107O``Y j: dqdGfdG Y MCG ,IQGqdGZ Y?dqG b H qJdG b g eY c qK FHc jJ g ,IQGqdG g FHdG G J Y ? : dqdG fdGqFHdG b q d qTG Sd qdG aCG Y ffCG HCG ?Ghh eCGh da : Ad qdG KBG Y HG:9I = 0,2 A, UPB = 1V , UBO = 1,6V , UON = 1V1,8V , 0,20 Ahttp://www.edunet.tn/physique/savant. htmlhttp://www.infoscience.fr/biograph-som..html(1(2Jee EG VC GffG Ie jhYAMIKO B P NRh4,5 VR1108 Hc " XG " dH dG HG VJgcP dG, dG e jDhdG fG jdMO j M e c ah ,aSCG jDhdG Y EG : jDhdG fG jddh QHG Y e J TH Je G Td dG SH J jDhdG...QHG Y NJh LQG ATCGAdGjD h`````dG ```````eShC d qjdG UGAd G QfG Y IdG dh : dG HG G 965 eh Y IgdG 1040 SH HhQhCG jh " RdG " . A````````dG e) 8 EG 10 (YSSdG efdG e e``gGh i`G fCGh GOGb:Iq`G GgCG:Y GQOb qG j e jD hdGAdG QOeG LCG - IG LCG -Ad Tc dGAd iNCG TeqdG jQc -FV he -iNCGh Ie LCG Ige N e: noj eqoJ dG LCG qEG iJ dG qCG -.kAV: Yf AdG QOe qCG -G LCG0IG LCG 0- .FV Qe EG qdG- Lh Ae L H dG.e- Te H EG dG.AqdG- .jDhdG hT JShCd qjdG UGqdG SdGqdG SdGdG SdG: Y FV Qe IgeOY LR b -ise Qh hCG N b -sje Qh hCG TMCG LR b -GNG M ShCG GfCG Jd AdG- M ShCG J.qjdG JUN- Sh ,qT Sh H dG.Y Shh qTAd G QfGqSG FdG QGFdG QGhqnudGG QfG: AdFdG dG PqFdG eMCGQfG J: Ad GdBGh G adG -jdGrdGh qdG -dG QGWCG -G -dGhAdG h Ae Sfa IgeQGh nudG QG e SGhqSG Ad G QfEG J H REGqFdG eMCG RGHE Q REGYddSGheaZREGTT Y Ae VGh IQUY qG IQqdG fG JhRGHEG b jJ dB NGdG AGLCG je G adG e HdG LhCGLCG qd J OjEGAeL qXYdHREGqdGeeRGHEGhsSeFVQrdGhd (HdG) InG HdG SGdGh G JgXdG QGWCG M qe OGYEG-qnpfFVQeHdG.sSe Qeh- G QfG CGe cP.Ad- eMCG H dG.qFdG- FV T SQ- .qFdG eMCG SQ- adGIQdGfGJ.jdG dBGh G- Qe Ae L qX SQ.f- .Ae pd rdGh qdG SQ- G JgX JqGSqdGREGhdGh.d- .dG QGWCG J109110jD hdG e?G ceCG jDhdG J GP? AdG Y G c? ShCG N e VdG H ATCG if g? QHEG j cSQO OGYG e q SfdG AV d (19 AdG QOe(20jDhdG hT - QHEG : AdG Te(21ShCd jdG UG111(19 A```````dG QO````````e: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC G IQGG LQO JQG H LCG qgJ IAVE G -dG GMG Y dG. dG Z GMG Y JAVEGh.WCG K ,LQG AdG ae c qS H ,aZ NGO T hCG FHc Sfa TCG .dG Y a CfG GPEG eCG ,e c GPEG SfdG jDhQ e CG .Y f e GAL a ,SfdG e OQGdG AdG AVCG GPEG qEG adG KCG jDhQ e CG: ``MC G h q``LC GMCG ,e f hCG c NGO e GPEG EG H j e Y dG,T hCG Sfa TCG CG O .qdHATCG jDhQ e CGh G AdG j.IAG:Y GQOb G j,FV Qe EG qdG,e Lh Ae L H dG.qSe FV Qeh f FV Qe H dGI``GG``gC G: MC G h qeC JC GqLC G112.Fe Z IAe fc dG LCG J Y OQGdG AdG Z YSG QGh dG QG: `````````SC GJ e Y Oj AV OLH EG ATCG e dM e iJ CG d .IAe LCG hCG Ad YH LCG g qFG LCG qc .ATCGAdG QOe GfCG: AdG Qe jJ. Ad Qe g AdG e j L c: AdG QOe H cPCG,jdG ,QTCG ,qdG ,dG ,FHc Sfa ,T d ,dG... dG b,KCGAJCG?J dG Ad I`ude FG LCG c g: Yf AdG QOeqdGh qdG e Ae La ,dM qj h AdG dj JGH e Qe. Gh.dG e oe La ,NBG Qe e j dG AdG e A Kf Qe .e Aa Y d aGdG Z MCGh YdG AGVCG CWCG f CG hdG b:hCG f LhCG H Y IKe K MCG ,SHO SGH.iG QdG e Y.LQNe J CG ,FHc Me dG NGO VCG.VH dG S Y dG iQCG : FHdG G J b.G dG e Y dG S Y gTCa dG e AdG Rj: G J Y.Ad f GQe K c qj: ``MC G h q``LC GMCG```M``e113: K fe ,HdG YCG. TCG GPh qSe ajL e G d IQGdG ZCGqe dG Y dG e AdGj.Ad qSe GQe J e Me Lh qc YMC G: `````````SC GSdG Se e H UCG JSe fc GPG f AdG Qe j.iNCGG qc qSe QG jh .H G: `J``e `q```bC G:qK IQdG qeCJCG.qSCGhAdG QOe qJCG.qSG QOG e dG QOG qeCG seEG dP Ojh ,f FV a ,f g FdG QG j CG .dG e gG Y dG d hCG dG IQGT e d.Ie LCGh e LCG Yf AdG QOe. fQe GU c GPEG qf AdG Qe j.Ic qf Me fc GPEG qSe AdG Qe j: ``````````U````G```M``e 114(20 A```````dG ``````Te: ``q``dG J```e qcJC G AdG QOe - .jDhqdG - IG LCGh G LCG: Y GQOb G j.jDhdG hT qJ.AdG Te H EG dGI``GG``gC G: A```JC G h ``qeC JC G? jDhqdG IgX dG QhO g e? Aqd VqH - ...dGh FGdGh dc - LCG H qUN qJ GP? J ch iNCG AqdG Te g e? JJ IgX qCHh qjdG G e qJh AdG Y GH Ic OGe ? GP ,Y jQGb iNCG qOGeAd e - dGQHE G Y dG-I-1fCG qK ,Y bM dG eCGh Iqe IBGe fCG ,Yb NGO IQfEG IOh jhGR ? MCG GPe ,qdG YCGh IAVEG cCG cQ EG: ``MC G h q``LC G: hC G H115.AqdG jGH qJh M IQfEG bJ Y dG bM qJ -.dG OGORG qc cCG Y gJ -,Y bM dG eCGh Iqe IBGe fCG,Yb NGO IQfEG IOh jhGR ,dG AKCG ? MCG GPe ,AqdG WCG qK.jDhQ J h fGdCG J h gTCG c dG G e OQGdG AqdG j ,dG .GdCG h dG e IQqdGJfGjddHdGHGVJzXG{Hc j M e qc qah ,aSCG gcP dG dG e jDhdGSH J jDhdG Y qEG : jDhdG fG jd MO.G e G TCd dG: fK H: `````````SC G.M qa AqdG qH dG bM qKCJ.G dP e JCe ac IAVEG dG EG OJ eY e L jDhQ qJ.IAVEG jGH jDhqdG J: WHjDhqdG q J FG G e AqdG fG -.GAqd dG qJ-: qjdG G M FKh -2qhCG G -CG: MC G h qeC JC G? jRGe ()h (CG) G g.IG SH dP e q cCJCG(CG)()116dG G -? jhe ()h (CG) G b g.IG SH dP e q cCJCGddG G -? Ke dG gHGdG G - ? Ke jcG JFGqdG gIQTEGHM,SHhS-jQhOhdeFVGQTEGSjSfa `H QJ Ib Ie iNCGh . ? IG b bJ e FdG GQTEG JGJ MCG g IG b J eY - e FdG GQTG JGJ VH qeCG fdG N OhM e.SfdG IG b bJ eY- Jh GQTG JGJ eCG fdG Y f OhM EG.fG hH UGe IQfG hJPG SfdG e FdG IG qb GPG QdG JGJ fEd a ,dG fb Y IQdG ehG IgdG g qJ.Y iNCGh IQdG H: ``MC G h q``LC G(stroboscope)120(T = s)TTTTT120s(CG)()(CG)()117: `````````SC GG-TCHeEG,fMCGdGqSMqKCJ qhCG GdCHhCG-dGhFV JQTEG H UdG edG H hCG - HGdGh ddG G - ZdG.dG GHGg jh bGdG Y edG IQqdG a ,deTAd iNCG TeFc - FV Tc : qdG jQc-II-1qdG jQc SGQ d.qjOeQ UCGjQc SGQ dfCG ,qdGdG G.dM Y H ,dGFe jOdG jQde fCG Y Z qdG Gd Fe .qdG jQc : dG HCG SGQ Hj Fe Y MCGjOdG Gf + qdG jQcj `qdG Gf + jOdG jQc : Y MCGgH HhqdG AV EG HfCG V`qYCG: ``MC G h q``LC GjOqdG jQd Fe Aqd e118``MC G.OeqdG EG ,G fCG qdG jQd ,HCG dG qj.dM Y q G fCG qdG jQd HCG dG jjQd HCG dG QhH qj AqdG E G VqJ qK qdG fCG Y dG dGREG H .OeqdG EG qdG: `````````SC GHCG e fd qa Y qG qdG AV qdG jQc qKCj. Aqd Tc qdG jQc : OeQ EGWTCG qY qJh qdG eCG H qJ qUG g (qdG eCG H e qj bQ AZ ) FdG h qaGZJdGGOGSOGOJhAqdVqJqcqdGeCGHefqGZCG qOrJ.Y qG AqdG IqT M.Fc -FV Tc g AqdG Jfqe qJ L qcIqedWqccCGJ(IS)HqaqdGAHfE GIHqKCJj ,qdG SqM IH d jd dH ,Yh .(SSCG qdG a ) qTCd VqdG .HdEG e J gGe SHe e coJ qc AGG JdG GQhCG qJ.JqdG I AqdG IQhV ,AqdG Qe f qdG OqY IgR GQhO q cDjfE G IH : ```M``eiNCG Te -2119qfhdE G qYUE G TG - OGG Y AdG KC JFqdG hG-III-1: ``MC G h q``LC G,dH fqG IQGqdG CGqdeh FV heh he e.e eCGh.GU hJ FHdG QqdG IqT J dG .IQfEG jGH b J M ,FHdG QqdG IqT qJ FdG hG Y AV onSoj MqFqdG jG jY ebdG qjqJ .G d IQU dEG e q ja jT Y fK Me .qbqdG hCG qjOdG edG: `````````SC G.Aqd eFdG hGd e IAVEG jdGZJdG jdG jCG FdG hG j.fhdEG SdG j c jJ jf dG bdG : iNC G qYUEG Te -2CCDCCD: `J``e `q```bC GGGqGqSCG,Fc-FVTcYGeqHUCG.HqdG fh.Aqd TdG Gg J J cPCG-1-2FqdG hGhe120e GOQGhGAV dG GPEG qEG L jDhQ e qJ a QHEG Y g dG.Ad qdG TG e gh.Fc -FV Tc g AqdG KCH Jfqe qJ L qc.Ad YUG TG e g FqdG hGhbdG: ``````````U````G CCDO``Y j:dGHLEGQNCG1 - .e GOQGh GAV dG GPEG qEG L jDhQ e qJ a QHEG Y g dG2 .G c cGPEGL CG jDhQ e qJ QHEG Y g dG -3 .Fc -FV Tc g AqdG Jfqe qJ L qc-O``Y j.Aqd Tc ,qdG jQc ,AV : V eSG dGVCGSGGdG:OeQ EG HCG e fd qa Y qG qdG .......................... qKCj............qdG jQcO``Y j H QU JGJFdG VdG RL QGe 24 d gf fY GPe .fdG IQU.HGL Y ? fdG QU N H QdG g JGJO``Y j dG OqY IgR GQhO IgX Y .AdG Qe f: ````f Y YC G:1:2:3:4121(21 ShC d jdG qUG: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC G AdG QOe - .IG LCGh G LCG.HG IQqdG Y G cqdG CG .AG G Hh H Md VCG GdCG qUCG qK ,dG f Iqe qc qZCG.AGd jD hQVh M: ``MC G h q``LC G: ddG fdH qG UdG de fq e dZ ,AdG a SGh QG qNJ GQqdG FS Y ; VGh Z jDhdGh c dG GZ.IQhdG Y AGVCG eY qe qc Ia`qdG AGVCG FqdG j.hGU V hCG NO H? ATCG jDhQ e QdGh NdGh dG qj GP? fMCG QqdG AGVCG S Cf GPj q dG UGe g ,IQqdG AGVCG q J d? HGfCG qjdG ShCG:Y GQOb G j;jdG JqUN M ShCG J.Y Shh qT Sh ,q``T Sh H dGI``GG``gC G: MC G h qeC JC G122qjdG ShCG jDhQ e q ShCG qc ... V Y dG Ae dch LdG ,qdG AG ,AGdG.aq T ShCG a ; AdG Qh J dHh ATCd VGhG dch Y cJ OjG dGh ,iqG QdG ,G Y AGhOGh GQJe .Y ShCG a ,dN e ATCG jDhH J h AdG Qh fe LGM qJ ...AL Qh EG J ShCG... dH hCG jdH qG QdGh ,hG QdG ,qG LdG.aT ShCG aVGh Z dN e ATCG jDhQh AdG e V: `````````SC G:dN e LCG jD hQ ie MShCG qJ,e H jDhQ: G dG h G,VGh Z hqHV jDhQ :jdH G QdG h hG LdG. VGh jDhQ : QqdG(ee CG qHVCG VGh)AG G jDhqQ Vhie dG IqOe fLdGhG QdGNqjdH e Qhiqe Qhee G dGLdG IOee G dGG IOee G dGhG QdG IOe123Y Sh G qK qT Sh G jQJ qj q dG Aa ,f AT Y hCG Sh aT.e G h QdG YCG j e Ggh .Ad AG UeG f S OjORH.q T Sh g VH dN e LCG jDhH j Sh qc.Y Shg ee dN e LCGjDhQ J Sh qc.qT Sh g HV dN e LCGjDhQ J Sh qc: ``````````U````G: ```M``e: `J``e `q```bC G: ShCG N e dG d EG fCG( ee ,VGh Z , VGh )jDhqdG f fCG ,HqdG gG e e qd N d : SdGLdG e d: SdGQqdG e U : SdG124Ad C G QfG? Ae Lh Qe H AdG qj Qe CG? GZJdG jdG AdG j QhO CG? KhM dG eh dG QGWCG g e? Gh dG JgX qaCG cQXdG AV (22 Ad G QfG CGe(23FdG eMCG(24 Ad CG QfG J125(22 Ad G QfEG C Ge: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC G d eM iqe Qh VH Ad f GQe CG - S .FV Qe eCG,QG G fCG - SK N e O .K iqe QH K H dK bQh VCG- T H AdGQe Y O h S .- N e AqdG jDhd FG VdG Y HCG O .- qCG KCG ,IHG hCG Ohe N SGH S , T h O .IMGheSG Y: ``MC G h q``LC G AdG QOe qUG - .ShCd jdGIgedM e Qf j Sfa TCG CG Oq .jDhdG Jh dG qj IAe Z aZ NGO.(dGg SfdG) ,Qe e bfG j AdG qE G bCG .adG ALQCG jh(Y LCG) KCG OLh .AG dG Gh G hCG G H VGdG dG MCGhCG dhdG fCG) X We a ceCG H SfdG AV j ,IAG adH.(fGG NAd G QfG:Y GQOb G j,Ad CG QfpG CGe cP.FV T SQI``GG``gC G aZ e e aZ126 126Ad G QfG CGeAG G G (AdG Qe) AG G e ,fG q dG SdG AdG j.e W q N qe.NBG G q T Sh e AdG QfG YS qJhJ GdG AdG YS b:eaG j jGH VQCGh dG cc H UdG aG QqJdqe YH AdG j AdG qCH Y edG IqG g e ,?VQCG G d dG AV j dG YdG qe = YG aG :IYdG YCG GG Y d X edGaG YdG qe =edG CG qLe G AdG Qe FV YT qSCG IAG dG f (AdG Qe)G dG e: e SqHdG SCGQ Ige Y A G AdG ,dGQe ah j e Y bM f gG .: `````````SC G G b f qH AdGq ,gG Y G Qe e dfG Y SO . ```M``e150 000 000kmST OST O300 000 km.s-1500s = 300 000 / 150 000 000c = 300 000 km.s-1AOOFdG dGA o=edG8min 20sAqdG QfG qJG qdG q127SQd Y J Y HC G:NGdG f f jOY SqHO qKCG A h. N Md S eG qJG fCG AB . hMCGh f dK SqHO J C H A h B.HeHHdG c hJ Hc Gqe Gqe IqY dG YCGdG Ve Iqe C . qCG Ie SGH KCG A , B dG ch C .IMGh eSG Y LJ.edG IG dG d dG H cPCG:dG UGdG dG G fCG AB c Id e Z IG J .eSG e q CG qd j dG f MCG qCG qJ GPG AB .: `J``e `q```bC G AdG qTCG H dGG IQdG q ) A , B h (...C fQe e G S ,iNCGqTCG Hh ) a , b h (...c NBG Qe e G ' S , e qc Ve IQdG Y OqMCG S h ' S .: fH SQCG YT d d jRGe , A e e ' SYT D d jRGe , c e e S .e WN qe gG qc ,Qe e bfG AdG j.QfG AKCG G AqdG Qe Y FV T SG j.IAG dG f QG dG e qLe FdG def.HK YH fG aq dG ShCG AdG jb gJ YH AdG AdG j: ``````````U````G300 000 km.s-1B (1(2ABCa bcAOCBAB128(23 FdG eMCG: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC G.HG IQqdG Y G cqdG CGe jJ hCG OHEH qG be qZCG FqdG QG S .Me gTCG qG SG hH. IYeh e H IOq IAe: ``MC G h q``LC GFdGQOGAd G QfG CGeFdG dG .GfCG qFqdG eMCG:Y GQOb G j; FdG eMCG H dG.FdG eMCG SQI``GG``gC GMC GqeSfaUb129: AqdG Qe Y qjQJ G HCG eYe H IOq IAe Me gTCG. jRGeh: AqdG Qe Y cCG G HCG eYH IOq IAe Me gTCG. HQe he: `````````SC G.e qTCG Y T Y ,Qe e bfG ,AqdG j.qFV eM e Y qc qSCG,Ad GQfG AKCG qTCG YJ GPEG.IYe eM Y MCG eM IYe MGh e Y eG qTCG fc E G.jRGe eM qSCG (IMGh eSG)eM jRGe130qFqdG eG qJ qTCG WJ Y.IYe qFV eM G qG ,Ad GQfG AKCGqTCG HQJ GPEG.(HQehCG) qe eM Y MCGeM qe.FdG QG f e e FV qTCG Y e FdG eG qJ.QfG Y AdG qTCG YJ e GPG IYe FdG eG J.G f Y ,QfG AKCG ,AdG qTCG aM e GPG jRGe FdG eG J.QfG Y AdG qTCG HQJ e GPG (HQehCG) qe FdG eG J: ``````````U````G: `J``e `q```bC G: M ah AdG a j Vh e eCG cPCG,IYe,jRGe.(HQe hCG) qe.qFqVM bdG qFdG eGJM SH qj f CG fCG EG qFqV eM e MGh T Y `j.GL bO fGSG```M``e```M``e131O``Y j.QfG -G -IAG -e -dG :ddG GOG SH ZGdG CeG............ dG e OQGdG FdG............SQCG S .............. dGf O .AdG............... j d eM............qHO``Y jHG IQdG Y eSG FdG qTCG. f FV QOe KK e J.q T Qh Y SdG fCG - : AdGQOe bGe OqMh SdG qCG -h hO``Y j.YdG d f H qK dG eh f FZ j ? MG g q cDJ Y M qCG ,AdG j Adc dG qCG Y GPEG? dP qY ? dG CG AdG SCG qjCGO``Y j. dG aG d eAe cCG IMdG g FdG dGYH ec S W AdG j dG aG q FdG dG qCH Y qJ dG qCGh 365 ?edH FdG dG He g e ,ejO``Y j: ddG GOG SH ZGdG CeG.QG- qG - Y- qTCG -G.FdG.............f e IOQGh qTCG.............e FdG............qdCJ.IYe qFV eM G.......... qFqdG eG qJ ......... WJ Y: ````f Y YC G:1:2:3:4:5300 000 km.s-1- 1- 21S1S2S32132O``Y j.IYe - qe - jRGe : ddG dG e Sj eGa qc cCGM T AG IQe AV j ----bO.............MT Qd qTCG J........FV eM fqe adG H a e dG qTCG J:6 O``Y j YdG j eG d h.FdG1 ; YdG WJ f SQCG-2 ; FdG eG f qYCG -3 dG eq dG dG SQCG -.eG f G j idGh:7AababA133(24 Ad G QfG J: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SC G aZ CG eSGH : SdH e ddG dH bCG ,iqG QdG e G jRGe YjdG dBGh G adG.dG LhCG MCG pbCG.qdH e qT QH G LdG VqYCG -LhSh,QeSGH,KMCG-.qqdG Qd HG dG: ``MC G h q``LC G.FdG G -FdG dG -CG QfG CGe -AdGQOeG adG: Y GQOb G j.jdG dBGh G adGY IQdG fG d Ad G QfG CGe XJqG dGI134.TCG K T MCGdG a j Vh dG VCG.jJ Ge h dG d dbS GfCG qK YdG AGVCG CWCG: TdG e j dG qdG QdG.e Vh dG d IQU gTCGOHG hO NBG G e e dG fCG: dG Y Gc.dH dGh ,QdG G dG IQU de ,dG G dG fG GPG

qbCG gOhM UCGh dG IQU c ,G adG K e dG HbG GPG.MVh.VhCG gOhMh UCG IQdG QU dG Y dG HG GPG Se IQU TdG Y gTCG ,FHc dG dSG GPEG.G d: `````````SC G Y G SGH ,RL g G adG.IAehCG e LC Se QU.AdG Qe Ve H JSeh IQdG Vh qjAdG Qe SQCG.gG qc FV qTCG H Y GQOb ,f GQe dG d e f qc JdG qb e OQGdG qdG SQCGS dG c GQhe T . qdG j ST TdG YdG ' S dG q . ' S IQU dG QG S .QdG Y qCG, jdG H iNCG d... 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=---Universel '= lame faces parallles -+= --~ =---seuil --= duret - `-opacit ~-= rigidit -`-insoluble '- ~- ~= solide --compteur ~= solide ~~ '=--Nombre d'Avogadro '= ~= rigide~-nombre ngatif-'~ ~= soupape '~-mtal nombre positif -=~ ~=fluorescine -~ lentille ~~=lige ,--- Wagon -=effervescence isoler =phosphate '-~ dsordonn -~=ultraviolet =~--- organique -=acier ` inertie'==Voltamtre -'~- aromatique ==Voltmtre -~- culot --=En dfaut -- nud ~-=phnol phtaline -'---- rciproque ~= relation `=combustible(adj) -=`.- ' capsule ~- -=soluble `=-` .- ' altitude =interrupteur _= ' opration -~=BASE -- '- opration de recharge _--- -~=compressible =-.-' pile -=~=Expansible '~-- ` .-' perpendiculaire ~=miscible ~ .-' normal~=Expansibilit - ~~-- ~~- --' normalement '-~=miscibilit ~ --' lment --=bouteil ' facteurs .~=mesurer ' macroscopique - '-=rgle ~=' Tare= .-~- '-=loi -' loi de Pouillet '- --' gaz '=loi de Coulomb _ -' gazeux '=loi d'Ohm -' collodal _-=Evaluer ~ membrane '~=pouvoir ~ galvanomtre -~-'-=puissance mcanique -' ~ bullition '-=disque plan -~~ douille vis _- ~~=indice-- immerger ~=indice de rfraction '~-` -- htrogne - '=-~-=myopie =-- dformer .~ -=Tige --- ininflammable + -=barreau aimant =-~~--- baguette de verre - --- dnivellation '--` 'compte gouttes ' = disjoncteur .-'distillat '= vrole --=--ple -= fente =-ple ngatif -'~ -= orifice =-ple positif -=~ -= ouverture =-segment ~---~~ = carboniser =retrecir carbonate '~=alcalin cramique '=basique hypothse --basicit - dcharger satellite ~ dphasage =Entonnoir _~ diffrence de potentiel ~+= ~ canal '- sparation .-flacon --- espace -='-flacon combustion -= --- efficace'flacon laveur .~= --- action .intensifier bulle ='-attraction(forces) ~= dissocier =155chimie '-~- force force d'attraction ~= anhydre -'~ ` arc en ciel astigmatisme _=-- ` arc lectrique _-'-+ soudure '= acidimtrie -~='-difice ~= mesure -viscosit = Valeurabsolue -=~ ~-luminescence '~ flamme -+ dtecteur -~ 'inflammable + indicateur color ~ -~ 'matriel caustique 'plaque =--- = refringent ~'ressort - ractif (agent) -~'spires jointives --~ '- camphre 'spire - becher '--= ' agrandir -indicateur ~~ sulfate '---temporaire -~ sulfate de cuivre '= - '---oxydant ~~~ sulfate anhydre --'~ ` '---fluide _- '~ sulfure ~----aqueux - '~ Masse -substance '~ masse volumique -~== -endothermique = '~ masse marque ~~ -exothermique = _- '~ MASSE molaire --- -eau de chaux -= '~ masse molculaire -- '- -saumatre (eau) '= '~ densit '`eau douce = '~ alcool absolu =~ =matire '~ alcoolate `=pince en bois _-~= =~'~ halocarbure _--=' -absorbant '~ carboxyle .-~-pipette -'~ chromate '~rfrigrant - -~ --~ clipse solaire ~fluorescent- -~ - '-~ adiabatique --mutuelle '--~ plateau -divergente (faisceau) (^-,=) --'--- transvasement '----homogne - '=-~ Kelvin --convergente ^ -+-- chlorate Vecteur =-~ chlorure -isochrone ~-~ pince crocodyle '~~- =-~~ -~' ~croissant ~= '-- - ~--~ dose '- -~identique - '=-~ photo-lectrique -- +volatil- '=-~ lectrochimique -'-~- +neutre =~) '-~ lectro-aimant -=-~ +orthogonal~~'-~ lectricit statique ~ '-+polychromatique ` ~-~ lectricit ngative-'~ '-+polyatomatique ~ ~-~ lectricit positive -=~ '-+variable--~ lectrolyte _-'-+.=-~ --+ractif(raction) .= '--~ cosmique - rcepteur .---~ verre pied '--= homologue .` '~-~ verre ' cohrent =~'~-~ Equerre alternatif '--~ plantaire -proportionnel -~'--~ coulomb incandescent _ -~ qualitatif --parallle -~ kilogramme = -paralllogramme `-` -~ CHIMIQUE - '-~-156quartz ~ paralllpipde `-=-~~ -~lasticit -~ progressif -~adsorber -~ - ~ progression --~double -'-` - ~ idal '`~couple ~ parfait _'`~contact '~--~ intervalle'=~Trajectoire =~ '~~ domaine d'incertitude -- '=~distance ~- '~~ oprateur =~poreux ~'~~ parcours =~porosit -~'~~ ensemble =~=~lectrode -~~ groupe =~=~mulsion -=-~~ microscopique,|+-stable --~~ convexe ~=~droite d'action -` '----~~ Thermomtre =~continu ~-~~ agitateur =~plan -~~ comburant =~niveau -~ - ~~ - -~~ moteur =~poudre =~~ moteur thermique ==~acclrateur~~ moteur raction '--=~plan (adj) _=~~ moteur explosion '=-- =~calorimtre '~~ moteur lectrique -'-+ =~projection =-~~ solvant .=~niveau bulle d'air'~ -~- ='--- ~~ lectrolyseur -'-+ `=~sature (solution) (;-=-) -~- solution dilue ~ =~oscilloscope cathodique'-~-~ ~~ solution =~absorbeur ' -~ axe de rvolution ~=~lampe '--~ axe optique -- =~lampe diode '~- '--~ Transformateur =~lampe incandescence _-~ '--~ prouvette '-=~source lumineuse -- ~-~ laboratoire -=~source _--~ -~-~ rducteur -=~source sonore --~-~ conique = =~anode ~-~ orbite ~~pompe =-~ orbite plantaire - ~~amplificateur =-~ dure ~~manomtre '-~ mortier ~~comprim -~ filtre _ ~ ~lumineux _-~ central ~absolu =~ miroir '~spectromtre '-=~ chaudire .=~aspect +=~ rendement ~quation '~ compos (nom) - ~coefficient .~ '~ compos driv -~~ - ~dosage - '~ composante -~titration - '~ composante fondamentale -~'~ -~Etalonnage d'un ressort - -'~ centre ~opaque -~ concentr ~minral -~~ centre de symtrie ='-- ~expos l'air + ~ centre de gravit .-` ~complexe ~-~ centre de pousse _~ ~Etalon '-~ centre de pression =- ~aimant =-~ centre optique -- ~aimanter =-~ centripte - '=-~interaction = '-~ centrifuge ~- '- -~dtonnant _-~ accumulateur~Tournevis =-~ lastique ~157 concept +-~conducteur . '- rsistance ~'-~Jet d'eau '~ '- rhostat ~~ - --~~'-~pulsation --- rsistivit-~'-~flocon --~- grandeur ~-~dchloruration - distill =-~rapport de-~- alambic --~ - =-~relatif -~- section _=-~texture _-~- concave -~activit '~- normalis --~actif =~- redresseur -~activer = ~- jauge '--~fiche --~- alcalimtrie -- '--~hmisphre --- Equivalent _'~dcolorer.-- agrandi -~isotopes - '=- loupe -~systme '=- presse -~ - -~systme isol -~ '=- densimtre '`~thorie-thorme -=- condensateur -`~isotope -=- condens - `~permabilit -'-- condenseur - `~Expirer ~-- thermoscope = '~~puret '-- lectroscope -'-+ '~~point de solidification~~=- =-- composants '- ~soudure (point de) '= =-- constituant ~conduire .-- observations courantes ~'= '==`~Transfert .-- terrain de golf '=- -~Transmission .-- caractristique -~~transmettre intgrallement '- .-- alternateur '-~renverser - plat =~--~mode (le) =~- Uniforme =--~modle ;-- solut .=-~Final -'+- direction _=-~noyau - bas -=-~pendule- floculant ~-~pendule lectrique -'-+ - prise (courant) (' --) -~-~Espce d'lectricit '-+ - prise de courant ' -- -~-~nitrate --- ballon dirigeable '=-~neutron --- lunette astronomique '=-~nitrite ----- manganate ---~ brleur gaz '=---~halogne -= ' retroprojecteur '- ;--molcule '- cathode =-+~hydrognation = ~ cation (-= ~ '~) -=-+~cible ~ prisme ~ ~fragile onde =~fragilit ~ '~ prise de terre -.-~air bec bensen -- ~~hydrate ~- gnrateur~~hydrognocarbonate '~=-~- gnrateur lectrique -'-+ ~~hydrognosulfate '---~- balance -~hydroxyde ~-~~- balance automatique ' -~hydronium ;---- chronomtre ---~masse ( appareil) ('+=) .- inclinaison .-~fluidit = -~158incident ='~ - wattmtre ,--=Fait exprimental --=-_pivot ~-corde vibrante -+~ -Unit ~=papier filtre _-~ - incidence poids milieu isolant '= =~catalyseur =~-~ =-~solnode -~bobine-~conduite -empirique -rcipient '=Abondance Temporaire -carburant combustible(nom) illusoir ~directement proportionnel '-=-~'---inversement proportionnel '-~= -~'---absorber -~-dissoudre (se) .=--iodure -159