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PHY 102: Quantum Physics Topic 4 Introduction to Quantum Theory. Wave functions Significance of wave function Normalisation The time-independent Schrodinger Equation. Solutions of the T.I.S.E. The de Broglie Hypothesis. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

### Transcript of PHY 102: Quantum Physics Topic 4 Introduction to Quantum Theory PHY 102: Quantum Physics

Topic 4Introduction to Quantum Theory •Wave functions

•Significance of wave function

•Normalisation

•The time-independent Schrodinger Equation.

•Solutions of the T.I.S.E The de Broglie Hypothesis

In 1924, de Broglie suggested that if waves of wavelength λ were associated with particles of momentum p=h/λ, then it should also work the other way round…….

A particle of mass m, moving with velocity v has momentum p given by:

h

mvp Kinetic Energy of particle

m

k

m

h

m

pKE

222

22

2

22

If the de Broglie hypothesis is correct, then a stream of classical particles should show evidence of wave-like characteristics…………………………………………… Standing de Broglie waves

Eg electron in a “box” (infinite potential well)

V=0

V= V=

Electron “rattles” to and fro

V=0

V= V=

Standing wave formed Wavelengths of confined states

LkL

; 2

LkL

2 ;

Lk

L 3 ;

3

2

In general, k =nπ/L, n= number of antinodes in standing wave Energies of confined states

2

22222

22 mL

n

m

kE

12EnEn

2

22

1 2mLE Energies of confined states

12EnEn

2

22

1 2mLE )sin()sin(),( tkxAtxy

Particle in a box: wave functions

From Lecture 4, standing wave on a string has form:

Our particle in a box wave functions represent STATIONARY (time independent) states, so we write:

kxAx sin)(

A is a constant, to be determined…………… Interpretation of the wave function

The wave function of a particle is related to the probability density for finding the particle in a given region of space:

Probability of finding particle between x and x + dx:

dxx2

)(

Probability of finding particle somewhere = 1, so we have the NORMALISATION CONDITION for the wave function:

1)(2

dxx Interpretation of the wave function Interpretation of the wave function

Normalisation condition allows unknown constants in the wave function to be determined. For our particle in a box we have WF:

L

xnAkxAx

sinsin)(

Since, in this case the particle is confined by INFINITE potential barriers, we know particle must be located between x=0 and x=L →Normalisation condition reduces to :

1)(0

2 L

dxx Particle in a box: normalisation of wave functions

1)(0

2 L

dxx 1sin0

22

L

dxL

xnA

L

xn

Lx

sin2

)( Some points to note…………..

So far we have only treated a very simple one-dimensional case of a particle in a completely confining potential.

In general, we should be able to determine wave functions for a particle in all three dimensions and for potential energies of any value

Requires the development of a more sophisticated “QUANTUM MECHANICS” based on the SCHRÖDINGER EQUATION………………… The Schrödinger Equation in 1-dimension(time-independent)

)()()()(

2 2

22

xExxVdx

xd

m

KE TermPE Term Solving the Schrodinger equation allows us to calculate particle wave functions for a wide range of situations (See Y2 QM course)…….

Finite potential well

WF “leakage”, particle has finite probability of being found in barrier: CLASSICALLY FORBIDDEN Solving the Schrodinger equation allows us to calculate particle wave functions for a wide range of situations (See Y2 QM course)…….

Barrier Penetration (Tunnelling)

Quantum mechanics allows particles to travel through “brick walls”!!!! Solving the SE for particle in an infinite potential well

Lx0 0)( xV

So, for 0<x<L, the time independent SE reduces to:

)()(

2 2

22

xEdx

xd

m

0)(2)(

22

2

xmE

dx

xd

General Solution:

xmE

BxmE

Ax2/1

2

2/1

2

2cos

2sin)( xmE

BxmE

Ax2/1

2

2/1

2

2cos

2sin)(

Boundary condition: ψ(x) = 0 when x=0:→B=0

xmE

Ax2/1

2

2sin)(

Boundary condition: ψ(x) = 0 when x=L:

02

sin)0(2/1

2

LmE

A

2

222

2mL

nE L

xnAx

sin)(

In agreement with the “fitting waves in boxes” treatment earlier……………….. Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Man-made potential wells for Quantum mechanical engineering Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Man-made potential wells for Quantum mechanical engineering Quantum Cascade Laser: Engineering with electron wavefunctions Scanning Tunnelling Microscope: Imaging atoms