PART IV Additional Information

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    Additional Information

    Page 251

  • Symbols

    Conjugate operator

    , Constants

    (x, y) Beta function

    () Dirac delta function

    Ab Entropy of A with respect to B

    2() Frequency dependent coherence or magnitude-squaredcoherence

    X An information source, including variants (e.g. Y,A), in the

    calculation of entropy

    Extensivity or tuning parameter for the Bi-Kappa


    Angular frequency in rad/s

    (X, Y) Product of the means of X and Y less their covariance; the

    hash function

    Standard deviation

    2 Variance

    Euclidean distance operator

    A + b Concatenation of digital sequence, A, and digital sequence,


    B(t) Signal envelope

    C, K Constants

    Page 253

  • Symbols

    E{} Expectation operator

    f Frequency in Hertz

    F() Cumulative distribution function

    G(p1, p2, p3, . . . , pn) Channel transfer function of n parameters

    Ga Gain

    H(X) Theoretical entropy of X

    p(), P() Probability

    Pa() Power

    Pab() Frequency dependent auto- and/or cross- power spectraldensity

    Q Number of symbols in an alphabet

    Rab Time dependent auto- and/or cross- correlation

    ST Entropic distance

    SAB Relative entropy of A to B

    T Time period

    t Time

    X Ideal or reference signal (synthetic or real)

    Y Noisy signal (synthetic or real) affected by the propagation


    Za Impedance

    u() Unit step function

    Page 254

  • Glossary

    4G Fourth Generation

    ACA Australian Communications Authority (now ACMA)

    ACMA Australian Communications and Media Authority

    AD6645 The partnumber of an ADC made by Analog Devices

    ADC Analog-to-Digital Converter

    ADF Adaptive De-correlation Filtering

    AGC Automatic Gain Control

    AM Amplitude Modulation

    ANN Artificial Neural Network

    APRS Amateur Packet Radio Service

    AR Auto-Regressive

    ARM-9401 An HF modem built by BAE Systems

    ASK Amplitude Shift-Keying

    AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise

    bearing An azimuthal direction

    BER Bit Error Rate

    bi-kappa A type of probability distribution

    BPSK Binary PSK or Bipolar PSK

    BW Bandwidth

    Page 255

  • Glossary

    Capon A direction finding algorithm

    CCIR the Comite Consultatif International des


    CDF Cumulative Distribution Function

    CMD Coherence Median Difference

    CMHD Cross Margenau-Hill Distribution

    CNR Carrier-to-Noise Ratio

    coherence A measure of the similarities of two signals across a


    CPM Continuous Phase Modulation

    CPU Central Processing Unit

    CTBT Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    CTD Capability Technology Demonstrator

    CW Continuous Wave

    D, E, or F Layers of the ionosphere

    DAC Digital-to-Analog Converter

    DC Direct Current, typically representing a frequency of 0 Hz

    DDC Digital Downconverter

    DF Direction Finding or Find

    D-region The lowest ionospheric region, known for its RF energy

    absorbing properties

    DSSS Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

    entropic Adjective describing a distance metric based on a measure

    of entropy

    Page 256

  • Glossary

    entropy The information content inherent in a signal

    E-region An ionospheric region above the D-region that refracts RF


    FAX Facsimile

    FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing

    feature A unique aspect of a signal

    FFT Fast Fourier Transform

    FHSS Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum

    FM Frequency Modulation

    FPGA Field-Programmable Gate Array

    F-region An ionospheric region above the E-region that refracts RF


    FSK Frequency Shift-Keying

    GC4016 A digital-downconvert chip produced by Graychip

    GMSK Gaussian Minimum Shift-Keying

    groundwave An electromagnetic wavefront propagating over the ground

    Hamming Distance A metric that indicates the number of bits different between

    two binary sequences

    hash function A convenient name for the PEP power estimator function

    HD Hamming Distance

    HE011 An active whip antenna made by Rohde & Schwarz

    HF High Frequency

    ICA Independent Component Analysis

    Page 257

  • Glossary

    ICS554 A digital receiver PCI card made by Integrated Circuit


    IEEE Institution of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

    IF Intermediate Frequency

    ionosonde A system for measuring ionospheric propagation


    I-Q In-phase and Quadrature-phase

    ISI Inter-symbol Interference

    ITU International Telecommunications Union

    LMR400 A coaxial cable produced by Times Microwave

    LNA Low Noise Amplifier

    LT Local Time

    LZ77 Lempel-Ziv 1977 compression

    LZW Lempel-Ziv-Welch compression

    M(3000)F2 The ratio of the MUF over a distance of 3000 km and the

    vertical critical frequency for the F2 layer

    m-ary m as prefix: bin, terti, quartern, etc

    MAW Mountain Associated Waves

    MIL-STD Military Standard

    MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output

    Modulation Recognition The process of recognizing the modulation of an unknown


    MSD Mean Separation Distance

    Page 258

  • Glossary

    MUF Maximum Useable Frequency

    multipath Term for describing the effects of multiple paths of


    MUSIC Multiple Signal Classification

    NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

    NCO Numerically Controlled Oscillator

    NS Null Steering or Steer

    OFDM Offset Frequency Division Multiplexing

    OOK Offset Orthogonal Keying

    PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect

    PDF Probability Density Function

    PEP Peak Envelope Power

    PM Phase Modulation

    PMC PCI Mezzanine Card

    PSD Power Spectral Density

    PSK Phase Shift-Keying

    QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

    QPSK Quadrature PSK

    RF Radio Frequency

    RG58 A 50 coaxial cable commonly used in RF receiving


    RM411 A rack-mountable chassis built by Chenbro

    RMS Root Mean Square

    Page 259

  • Glossary

    S-curve An S-shaped curve representing the relationship between

    coherence and SNR

    SIR Signal-to-Interference Ratio

    skywave An electromagnetic wavefront propagating via refractive

    regions of the ionosphere

    SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio

    Software Radio The concept that implements in software most modules, if

    not all, of a radio-communications system

    SOI Signal-of-Interest

    SSB Single Side-Band

    SSL Single Site Location or Single Station Location

    STANAG NATO Standardization Agreement

    TDM Time Division Multiplexing

    TID Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance

    UTC Universal Time Coordinates

    V.29, V.32 CCITT V series standards for 9600bps modems

    VHF Very High Frequency

    VLF Very Low Frequency

    WOSA Weighted Overlapped Segment Averaging

    Zip 2.3 A compression algorithm

    Page 260

  • Bibliography

    Aisbett, J. (1986), Automatic modulation recognition using time domain parameters, Technical Re-

    port ERL-0367-TR, Electronic Research Laboratory DSTO, Department of Defence, Commonwealth

    Government of Australia.

    Aiya, S. V. C. (1962), Structure of atmospheric radio noise, Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research

    (India) 2ID, 203220.

    Akmouche, W. (1999), Detection of multicarrier modulations using 4th-order cumulants, Proc. of IEEE

    MILCOM 1999 Military Communications Conference 1, 432436. Atlantic City NJ, U.S.A.

    BAE Systems (2002), BAE Systems Adaptive Radio Modem ARM-9401 Series 200 and 210: Installation and

    Operation Manual, ard/d/m/001.06 edn, 40-52 Talavera Road, North Ryde NSW 2113, Australia.

    Baker, P. W., Clarke, R. H., Massie, A. D. & Taylor, D. (1997), Techniques for the measurement and

    decomposition of the time varying narrow bandwidth transfer function of an HF sky wave trans-

    mission, Radio Science 32(5), 1813 1820.

    Benedetto, D., Caglioti, E. & Loreto, V. (2002), Language trees and zipping, Physical Review Letters 88(4).

    Art. No. 048702.

    Bradley, P. A., Damboldt, T. & Suessmann, P. (2000), Propagation models for HF radio service planning,

    474, 175 179.

    Brine, N. L., Lim, C. C., Massie, A. D. & Marwood, W. (2002), A pre-emptive null-steering ionosonde,

    Proc. of the Fourth Symposium of Radiolocations and Direction Finding . San Antonio TX, U.S.A.

    Budden, K. G. (1988), The Propagation of Radio Waves : The Theory of Radio Waves of Low Power in the

    Ionosphere and Magnetosphere, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

    Cao, L. J., Chua, K. S., Chong, W. K., Lee, H. P. & Gu, Q. M. (2003), A comparison of PCA, KPCA and

    ICA for dimensionality reduction in support vector machine, Neurocomputing 55, 321336.

    Carter, G. C. (1993), Coherence and Time Delay Estimation: An Applied Tutorial for Research, Development,

    Test, and Evaluation Engineers, IEEE Press, Piscataway NJ, U.S.A.

    CCIR (1986), Characteristics and applications of atmospheric radio noise data, Technical Report 322-3,

    International Telecommunication Union, Geneva.

    Chan, D. C. B., Rayner, P. J. W. & Godsill, S. J. (1996), Multi-channel signal separation, Proceedings of

    the IEEE 1996 International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 2, 649 652. Atlanta

    GA, U.S.A.

    Choi, E. & Lee, C. (2003), Feature extraction based on the Bhattacharyya distance, Pattern Recognition

    36, 17031709.

    Page 261

  • Bibliography