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OSCILLATION OF SOLUTIONS OF IMPULSIVE NEUTRAL DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS WITH CONTINUOUS VARIABLE GENGPING WEI AND JIANHUA SHEN Received 21 June 2005; Revised 1 April 2006; Accepted 25 April 2006 We obtain sucient conditions for oscillation of all solutions of the neutral impulsive dif- ference equation with continuous variable Δ τ ( y(t )+ P(t ) y(t )) + Q(t ) y(t ) = 0, t t 0 τ , t = t k , y(t k + τ ) y(t k ) = b k y(t k ), k N(1), where Δ τ denotes the forward dif- ference operator, that is, Δ τ z(t ) = z(t + τ ) z(t ), P(t ) C([t 0 τ , ), R ), Q(t ) C([t 0 τ , ),(0, )), m, l are positive integers, τ> 0 and b k are constants, 0 t 0 <t 1 <t 2 < ··· < t k < ··· with lim k→∞ t k =∞. Copyright © 2006 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Let R denote the set of all real numbers. For any a R, deﬁne N(a) ={a, a + 1, a + 2, ... }. For any t , τ R, r N(1), deﬁne N(t , t τ ) ={t , t (r 1)τ , ... , t τ }. Consider the neutral impulsive dierence equation with continuous variable Δ τ ( y(t )+ P(t ) y(t ) ) + Q(t ) y(t ) = 0, t t 0 τ , t = t k , y ( t k + τ ) y ( t k ) = b k y ( t k ) , k N(1), (1.1) where Δ τ denotes the foreward dierence operator, that is, Δ τ z(t ) = z(t + τ ) z(t ), P(t ) C([t 0 τ , ), R), Q(t ) C([t 0 τ , ),(0, )), m, l are positive integers, τ> 0 and b k are constants, 0 t 0 <t 1 <t 2 < ··· <t k < ··· with lim k→∞ t k =∞. Set l 0 = max{m, l }. For any t 0 0, let φ t0 ={ϕ :[t 0 (l 0 + 1)τ , t 0 τ ] R | ϕ(t ) is piecewise continuous on [t 0 (l 0 + 1)τ , t 0 τ ], ϕ(t ) is ﬁnite for every t [t 0 (l 0 + 1)τ , t 0 τ ], the right and left limits ϕ(t + ) and ϕ(t ) of ϕ(t ) exist for every t (t 0 (l 0 + 1)τ , t 0 τ ), and ϕ((t 0 (l 0 + 1)τ ) + ) and ϕ((t 0 τ ) ) exist}. Deﬁnition 1.1. For given t 0 0 and ϕ φ t0 , a real-valued function x(t ) is said to be a solution of (1.1) satisfying the initial value condition x(t ) = ϕ(t ), t t 0 ( l 0 +1 ) τ , t 0 τ , (1.2) if x(t ) is deﬁned on [t 0 (l 0 + 1)τ , ) and satisﬁes (1.1) and (1.2). Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences Volume 2006, Article ID 34232, Pages 17 DOI 10.1155/IJMMS/2006/34232
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• OSCILLATION OF SOLUTIONS OF IMPULSIVE NEUTRALDIFFERENCE EQUATIONS WITH CONTINUOUS VARIABLE

GENGPING WEI AND JIANHUA SHEN

Received 21 June 2005; Revised 1 April 2006; Accepted 25 April 2006

We obtain sufficient conditions for oscillation of all solutions of the neutral impulsive dif-ference equation with continuous variable Δτ(y(t) +P(t)y(t−mτ)) +Q(t)y(t− lτ)= 0,t ≥ t0− τ, t �= tk, y(tk + τ)− y(tk)= bk y(tk), k ∈N(1), where Δτ denotes the forward dif-ference operator, that is, Δτz(t)= z(t+ τ)− z(t), P(t)∈ C([t0− τ,∞),R ), Q(t)∈ C([t0−τ,∞),(0,∞)), m, l are positive integers, τ > 0 and bk are constants, 0≤ t0 < t1 < t2 < ··· <tk < ··· with limk→∞ tk =∞.

1. Introduction

Let R denote the set of all real numbers. For any a∈R, defineN(a)= {a,a+ 1,a+ 2, . . .}.For any t,τ ∈R, r ∈N(1), define N(t− rτ, t− τ)= {t− rτ, t− (r− 1)τ, . . . , t− τ}.

Consider the neutral impulsive difference equation with continuous variable

Δτ(y(t) +P(t)y(t−mτ))+Q(t)y(t− lτ)= 0, t ≥ t0− τ, t �= tk,

y(tk + τ

)− y(tk)= bk y

(tk), k ∈N(1), (1.1)

where Δτ denotes the foreward difference operator, that is, Δτz(t)= z(t+ τ)− z(t), P(t)∈C([t0− τ,∞),R), Q(t)∈ C([t0− τ,∞),(0,∞)), m, l are positive integers, τ > 0 and bk areconstants, 0 ≤ t0 < t1 < t2 < ··· < tk < ··· with limk→∞ tk = ∞. Set l0 = max{m, l}. Forany t0 ≥ 0, let φt0 = {ϕ : [t0− (l0 + 1)τ, t0− τ]→R | ϕ(t) is piecewise continuous on [t0−(l0 + 1)τ, t0− τ], ϕ(t) is finite for every t ∈ [t0− (l0 + 1)τ, t0− τ], the right and left limitsϕ(t+) and ϕ(t−) of ϕ(t) exist for every t ∈ (t0− (l0 + 1)τ, t0− τ), and ϕ((t0− (l0 + 1)τ)+)and ϕ((t0− τ)−) exist}.Definition 1.1. For given t0 ≥ 0 and ϕ ∈ φt0 , a real-valued function x(t) is said to be asolution of (1.1) satisfying the initial value condition

x(t)= ϕ(t), t ∈ [t0−(l0 + 1

)τ, t0− τ

], (1.2)

if x(t) is defined on [t0− (l0 + 1)τ,∞) and satisfies (1.1) and (1.2).Hindawi Publishing CorporationInternational Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical SciencesVolume 2006, Article ID 34232, Pages 1–7DOI 10.1155/IJMMS/2006/34232

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/S0161171206342329

• 2 Oscillation of impulsive difference equations

For given t0 ≥ 0 and ϕ ∈ φt0 , by means of the method of steps, the solution of (1.1)exists and is unique.

Definition 1.2. A solution of (1.1) is said to be oscillatory if it is neither eventually positivenor eventually negative. Otherwise, it is called nonoscillatory.

When {tk} = φ, that is, {tk} is an empty set, (1.1) reduces to the neutral differenceequation

Δτ(y(t) +P(t)y(t−mτ))+Q(t)y(t− lτ)= 0, t ≥ t0− τ. (1.3)

The oscillatory behavior of difference equations with continuous variable without im-pulses has been investigated by some authors, see, for example, [1–3, 5, 6]. However, tothe present time, there exists no literature on impulsive delay difference equations withcontinuous variable. The purpose of this note is to study the oscillatory behavior of solu-tions of (1.1). If there is a sequence {mk} of positive integers such that mk →∞ as k→∞and bmk ≤ −1, then it is easily seen that every solution of (1.1) is oscillatory. Therefore,we always assume that bk > −1 for all k ∈ N(1). Throughout this note, we will use theconvention

{tk}∩N(t−rτ, t−τ)=φ

(1 + bk

)−1 ≡ 1,∏

{tk}∩N(t−rτ, t−τ)=φ

(1 + bk

)≡ 1, (1.4)

where φ is an empty set and r ∈N(1).

2. Main results

We first introduce two lemmas due to [4]. We give the following hypothesis:(H) r is an integer, p(n) ≥ 0, n = 0,1,2, . . . , bk > −1, k = 1,2,3, . . . ,{nk} is an infinite

subset of N(1) satisfying n1 < n2 < ··· < nk < ··· with limk→∞nk =∞.Lemma 2.1. Let (H) hold. Assume that

(i)

limsupn→∞

n−r≤nk≤n−1

(1 + bk

)−1

(

r

r + 1

)r+1. (2.2)

Then the discrete impulsive difference inequality

y(n+ 1)− y(n) + p(n)y(n− r)≤ 0, n∈N(0), n �= nk,y(nk + 1

)− y(nk)≤ bk y

(nk), k ∈N(1), (2.3)

has no eventually positive solution.

• G. Wei and J. Shen 3

Lemma 2.2. Let (H) hold and r ≥ 2. Assume that(i)

liminfn→∞

n+1≤nk≤n+r−1

(1 + bk

)> 0, (2.4)

(ii)

liminfn→∞

n+1≤nk≤n+r−1

(1 + bk

)

(r− 1r

)r. (2.6)

Then the discrete impulsive difference inequality

y(n+ 1)− y(n)− p(n)y(n+ r)≤ 0, n∈N(0), n �= nk,y(nk + 1

)− y(nk)≤ bk y

(nk), k ∈N(1), (2.7)

has no eventually negative solution.

Theorem 2.3. Let tk+1 − tk =mτ, bk > 0, and (1 + bk)P(tk) = (1 + bk−1)P(tk + τ) for k =1,2,3, . . . ,−1 < P(t) < 0 with inf t∈[t0−τ,∞)P(t) >−1, Q(t)∈ C([t0− τ,∞),(0,∞)). If

liminft→∞

i∈N(t−lτ,t−τ)i �∈{tk}

Q(i)∏

tk∈N(t−lτ,t−τ)

(1 + bk

)−1>(

l

l+ 1

)l+1, (2.8)

then every solution of (1.1) oscillates.

Proof. Suppose, on the contrary, there is a solution y(t) of (1.1) which is eventuallynonoscillatory. If y(t) is a solution of (1.1), then −y(t) is a solution of (1.1). Withoutloss of generality, we assume that y(t) > 0 for t ≥ tN − (l0 + 1)τ ≥ t0− τ, where N is somepositive integer. Let

z(t)= y(t) +P(t)y(t−mτ), t ≥ tN − τ. (2.9)

For any t ≥ tN − τ, by (1.1) and (1 + bk)P(tk) = (1 + bk−1)P(tk + τ) for k = 1,2,3, . . . , wehave

Δτz(t)=−Q(t)y(t− lτ) < 0 for t �∈{tk}

, (2.10)

z(tk + τ

)− z(tk)= bkz

(tk)

for k =N ,N + 1,N + 2, . . . . (2.11)

From (2.10), it follows that z(t) strictly decreases on {tk + τ, tk + 2τ, . . . , tk + (m− 1)τ, tk+1}(k = N ,N + 1,N + 2, . . .), and noting (2.11), the seqence {z(tN + nτ)}∞n=1 has only two

• 4 Oscillation of impulsive difference equations

cases: eventually positive or eventually negative. If {z(tN +nτ)}∞n=1 is eventually negative,noticing

z(tN +nτ

)= y(tN +nτ)

+P(tN +nτ

)y(tN + (n−m)τ

), n= 1,2,3, . . . , (2.12)

then y(tN +nτ) 0 for large n. (2.13)

Let tN+ j = tN + njτ, j = 1,2,3, . . . . By (1.1), (2.9), and (2.11)–(2.13), we conclude that{z(tN + nτ}∞n=1 is an eventually positive solution of the following impulsive differenceinequality:

Δz(tN +nτ

)+Q

(tN +nτ

)z(tN + (n− l)τ

)< 0, n≥ 1, n �= nj ,

z(tN +

(nj + 1

)τ)− z(tN +njτ

)= bN+ j z(tN +njτ

), j = 1,2,3, . . . , (2.14)

where Δ is the forward difference operator with respect to n. On the other hand, by con-dition (2.8), we have

liminfn→∞

n−1∑

i=n−li �∈{nj}

Q(tN + iτ

) ∏

n−l≤nj≤n−1

(1 + bj

)−1>(

l

l+ 1

)l+1. (2.15)

Employing Lemma 2.1, we conclude that (2.14) has no eventually positive solution. Thisis a contradiction. Thus, the proof is complete. �

Theorem 2.4. Let tk+1 − tk ≡mτ, bk > 0, (1 + bk)P(tk) = (1 + bk−1)P(tk + τ) for k = 1,2,3, . . . , m> l+ 1, P(t)≤−1, Q(t)∈ C([t0− τ,∞),(0,∞)). If

liminft→∞

i∈N(t−lτ,t−τ)i �∈{tk}

Q(i)∏

tk∈N(t−lτ,t−τ)(1 + bk)−1 >

(l

l+ 1

)l+1, (2.16)

liminft→∞

i∈N(t+τ,t+(m−l−1)τ)i �∈{tk}

Q(i)−P(i+ (m− l)τ)

tk∈N(t+τ,t+(m−l−1)τ)

(1 + bk

)>(m− l− 1m− l

)m−l,

(2.17)

then every solution of (1.1) oscillates.

Proof. Suppose, on the contrary, there is a solution y(t) of (1.1) which is eventuallynonoscillatory. If y(t) is a solution of (1.1), then −y(t) is a solution of (1.1). Without

• G. Wei and J. Shen 5

loss of generality, we assume that y(t) > 0 for t ≥ tN − (l0 + 1)τ ≥ t0− τ, where N is somepositive integer. Set

z(t)= y(t) +P(t)y(t−mτ), t ≥ tN − τ. (2.18)

For any t ≥ tN − τ, by (1.1), we get

Δτz(t)=−Q(t)y(t− lτ) < 0 for t �∈ {tk}, (2.19)

z(tk + τ

)− z(tk)= bkz

(tk), k =N ,N + 1, . . . . (2.20)

From (2.19), it follows that z(t) strictly decreases on {tk + τ, tk + 2τ, . . . , tk + (m− 1)τ, tk+1}(k = N ,N + 1,N + 2, . . .), and noting (2.20), the sequence {z(tN + nτ)}∞n=1 has only twocases: eventually positive or eventually negative. If {z(tN +nτ)}∞n=1 is eventually positive,noticing

z(tN +nτ

)= y(tN +nτ)

+P(t)y(tN + (n−m)τ

), n= 1,2,3, . . . , (2.21)

then

y(tN +nτ

)> z(tN +nτ

), z

(tN +nτ

)> 0 for large n. (2.22)

Let tN+ j = tN + njτ, j = 1,2,3, . . . . By (1.1), (2.18), and (2.20)–(2.22), we conclude that{z(tN + nτ)}∞n=1 is an eventually positive solution of the following impulsive differenceinequality:

Δz(tN +nτ

)+Q

(tN +nτ

)z(tN + (n− l)τ

)< 0, n≥ 1, n �= nj ,

z(tN +

(nj + 1

)τ)− z(tN +njτ

)= bN+ j z(tN +njτ

), j = 1,2,3, . . . ,

(2.23)

where Δ is the forward difference operator with respect to n. On the other hand, by con-dition (2.16), we have

liminfn→∞

n−1∑

i=n−li �∈{nj}

Q(tN + iτ

) ∏

n−l≤nj≤n−1

(1 + bj

)−1>(

l

l+ 1

)l+1. (2.24)

Employing Lemma 2.1, we conclude that (2.23) has no eventually positive solution. Thisis a contradiction. If {z(tN +nτ)}∞n=1 is eventually negative, by simple calculation, we findthat z(t) satisfies

Δτz(t) +P(t− lτ) Q(t)Q(t−mτ)Δτz(t−mτ) +Q(t)z(t− lτ)= 0, t ≥mτ, t �= tk,

z(tk + τ

)− z(tk)= bN+ j z

(tk), k = 2,3, . . . .

(2.25)

• 6 Oscillation of impulsive difference equations

Let tN+ j = tN +njτ for j = 1,2,3, . . . , then {z(tN +nτ)}∞n=1 satisfies

Δz(tN +nτ

)+P(tN +nτ − lτ

) Q(tN +nτ

)

Q(tN + (n−m)τ

)Δz(tN + (n−m)τ

)

+Q(tN +nτ

)z(tN + (n− l)τ

)= 0, n≥m, n �= nj ,z(tN +

(nj + 1

)τ)− z(tN +njτ

)= bN+ j z(tN +njτ

), j = 2,3, . . . ,

(2.26)

where Δ is the forward difference operator with respect to n. Noticing Δz(tN +nτ) < 0 forn �= nj , {z(tN +nτ)}∞n=1 eventually satisfies the inequality

P(tN + (n− l)τ

) Q(tN +nτ

)

Q(tN + (n−m)τ

)Δz(tN + (n−m)τ

)

+Q(tN +nτ

)z(tN + (n− l)τ

)> 0, n≥m, n �= nj ,

z(tN +

(nj + 1

)τ)− z(tN +njτ

)= bN+ j z(tN +njτ

), j = 2,3, . . . .

(2.27)

And (2.27) is equivalent to the inequality

Δz(tN +nτ

)+

Q(tN +nτ

)

P(tN + (n+m− l)τ

)z(tN + (n+m− l)τ

)< 0, n≥m, n �= nj ,

z(tN +

(nj + 1

)τ)− z(tN +njτ

)= bN+ j z(tN +njτ

), j = 2,3, . . . .

(2.28)

So {z(tN +nτ)}∞n=1 is an eventually negative solution of (2.28). On the other hand, notic-ing the condition (2.17), we have

liminft→∞

n+m−l−1∑

i=n+1i �∈{nj}

Q(tN + iτ

)

−P(tN + (i+m− l)τ)

n+1≤nj≤n+m−l−1

(1 + bj

)>(m− l− 1m− l

)m−l.

(2.29)

By Lemma 2.2, (2.28) has no eventually negative solution. This is a contradiction. Thus,the poof is complete. �

Acknowledgment

This work is supported by the NNSF of China (Grant no. 10571050) and the ScienceFoundation of the Education Committee of Hunan Province (Grant no. 04C457).

References

[1] G. Ladas, L. Pakula, and Z. Wang, Necessary and sufficient conditions for the oscillation of differ-ence equations, Panamerican Mathematical Journal 2 (1992), no. 1, 17–26.

[2] J. Shen, Comparison theorems for oscillations of difference equations with continuous variables,Chinese Science Bulletin 41 (1996), no. 18, 1506–1510 (Chinese).

[3] J. Shen and I. P. Stavroulakis, Sharp conditions for nonoscillation of functional equations, IndianJournal of Pure and Applied Mathematics 33 (2002), no. 4, 543–554.

• G. Wei and J. Shen 7

[4] G. Wei, Oscillation of solutions of impulsive neutral delay difference equations, Mathematical The-ory and Applications 19 (1999), no. 2, 119–121 (Chinese).

[5] Y. Zhang and J. Yan, Oscillation criteria for difference equations with continuous arguments, ActaMathematica Sinica 38 (1995), no. 3, 406–411 (Chinese).

[6] B. G. Zhang, J. Yan, and S. K. Choi, Oscillation for difference equations with continuous variable,Computers & Mathematics with Applications 36 (1998), no. 9, 11–18.

Gengping Wei: Department of Mathematics, Huaihua College, Huaihua, Hunan 418008, ChinaE-mail address: [email protected]

Jianhua Shen: Department of Mathematics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha,Hunan 410081, ChinaE-mail address: [email protected]

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