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### Transcript of Optimal importance sampling using stochastic control › ... › lms2018 ›...

• Optimal importance sampling using

stochastic control Lorenz Richter, Carsten Hartmann

Freie Universität Berlin

The setting

Goal: Compute Eπ [f(X)], f : Rd → R. Model π as stationary distribution of a stochastic process Xt ∈ Rd associated with path measure P and described by

dXt = ∇ log π(Xt)dt+ √ 2dWt

and compute EP[f(XT )].

Objective: Deal with variance and convergence speed.

Idea: Consider the controlled process associated with path measure Qu

dXut = ( ∇ log π(Xut ) +

√ 2u(Xut , t)

) dt+

√ 2dWt

and do importance sampling in path space: EQu [ f(XuT )

dP dQu

] .

Outlook: Exploit ergodicity to find a good control for infinite times:

lim T→∞

1

T

∫ T 0

f(Xt)dt = Eπ [f(X)].

Optimal change of measure

Donsker-Varadhan: Consider W (X0:T ) = ∫ T 0 g(Xt, t)dt+h(XT ).The duality

between sampling and an optimal change of measure

γ(x, t) := − logEP[exp(−W )|Xt = x] = infQu≪P {EQu [W ] + KL(Qu∥P)}

brings a zero-variance estimator, i.e. VarQ∗ ( exp (−W ) dP

dQ∗ ) = 0.

→ γ(x, t) is the value function of a control problem and fulfills the HJB equation

→ the control costs are J(u) = E [∫ T

0

( g(Xut , t) +

1 2 |u(Xut , t)|2

) dt+ h(XuT )

] → the optimal change of measure reads dQ∗ = e

−W

E[e−W ]dP

→ the optimal control is u∗(x, t) = − √ 2∇xγ(x, t)

→ dP dQu is computed via Girsanov’s theorem

Computing the optimal change of measure

Gradient descent Parametrize the control (i.e. the change of measure) in ansatz functions φi:

u(x, t) = − √ 2

m∑ i=1

αi(t)φi(x).

Compute the minimization of the costs J(u) with a gradient descent in α, i.e.

αk+1 = αk − ηk∇αĴ(u(αk))

Different estimators of the gradient scale differently with the time horizon T : – Gfinite differences ∝ T – Gcentered likelihood ratio ∝ T 2

– Glikelihood ratio ∝ T 3

Cross-entropy method It holds J(u) = J(u∗) + KL(Qu∥Q∗), however we minimize KL(Q∗∥Qu) since this is feasible. Again parametrize u(α) in ansatz functions. We then need to minimize the cross-entropy functional for which we get a necessary optimality condition in form of the linear equation Sα = b, which we solve iteratively.

Approximate policy iteration Successive linearization of HJB equation: the cost functional J(u) solves a PDE of the form

A(u)J(u) = l(x, u),

where γ(x, t) = minu J(u;x, t). Start with an initial guess of the control policy and iterate

uk+1(x, t) = − √ 2∇xJ(uk;x, t),

yielding a fixed point iteration in the non-optimal control u.

Numerical simulations

• Sample E[exp(−αXT )] with π = N (0, 1) and u∗(x, t) = − √ 2αet−T ,

û determined by gradient decent

0 1 2 3 4 5 t

0

5

10

15

e X t

0 1 2 3 4 5 t

0

2

4

6

8

10

e X

u t d d

x

2 1 0 1 2

t

0 1

2 3

4 5

u * (

x, t)

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

x

2 1 0 1 2

t

0 1

2 3

4 5

u( x,

t)

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

• normalized variances with α = 1, T = 5,E[exp(−αXT )] = 1.649:

∆t vanilla with u∗ with û 10−2 4.64 1.70× 10−4 5.69× 10−2 10−3 4.02 1.69× 10−7 3.21× 10−2 10−4 4.55 1.73× 10−8 6.45× 10−2

• Sample E[XT ] with π = N (b, 1), i.e. consider h(x) = − log x, w.r.t.

dXs = (−Xs + b)ds+ √ 2dWs, Xt = x

– then XT ∼ N (b+ (x− b)et−T , 1− e2(t−T ))

u∗(x, t) =

√ 2et−T

b+ (x− b)et−T

• Molecular dynamics: compute transition probabilities, i.e. first hitting times

– consider g = 1, h = 0, i.e. we sample hitting times E[e−τ ]

– optimal change of measure can be inter- preted as a tilting of the potential guiding the dynamics

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 x

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

G (x

)

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 optimal

References

[1] Hartmann, C., Richter, L., Schütte, C., & Zhang, W. (2017). Variational characterization of free energy: theory and algorithms. Entropy, 19(11), 626. [2] Richter, L. (2016). Efficient statistical estimation using stochastic control and optimization. Master’s thesis, Freie Universität Berlin. [3] Fleming, W.H., Soner, H.M. (2006). Controlled Markov processes and viscosity solutions. Springer, New York, NY, USA. [4] Dai Pra, P., Meneghini, L., Runggaldier, W.J. (1996) Connections between stochastic control and dynamic games. Math. Control Signals Syst, 9, 303-326.