Optical Network Protocols

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University of Macedonia Master Information Systems Networking Technologies Professors: A.A. Economides & A. Pomportsis

THESSALONIKI, FEBRUARY 2005

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& : .. &.

, 2005

3 -TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. 2. . . . 3. SONET . ; . SONET . . . . SONET . Overheads . SONET Alarm Structure . SONET . OAM&P . . 4. Automatic Protection Switching . . Protection Switching Schemes 5. . Packet over SONET/SDH (POS) . Dynamic Packet Transport (DPT) 6. WDM / DWDM . WDM . DWDM . DWDM . T DWDM . DWDM 7. 8. -

Subject Presentation Summary 1. Historical Review 2. Fiber Optics a. Introduction b. Fiber Optics Structure c. Fiber Optics Types 3. SONET a.Why is the synchronization important? b.Synchronized SONET c.Signal Hierarchy d. Architecture Basics e. Services provided in every layer f. The SONET frame g. Overheads h. SONET Alarm Structure i. SONET Advantages j. Improved OAM&P k. Improved Control Execution l. Test 4. Automatic Protection Switching a. Protection Architecture b. Protection Switching Schemes 5. Data Transport Technologies a. Packet over SONET/SDH (POS) b. Dynamic Packet Transport (DPT) 6. WDM / DWDM a. WDM b. DWDM c. DWDM applications in telecommunications networks d. Todays DWDM networks e. DWDM network infrastructure 7. Conclusions Proposals for future research 8. Bibliography - References

4 5-6 7 11 11 11 12 15 17 18 18 19 20 21 22 23 23 25 25 26 28 29 31 37 37 38 40 40 41 43 44 47 48 49

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SUBJECT PRESENTATION The following essay analyzes the Optical Network Protocols. Further more the user has the ability to use and practice in an interactive educational environment, which will analyze all the essays contents and will assist him in a better understanding of the terms referred in the optical networks and with no doubt to their protocols.

5 . , . , , . SONET/SDH, , . , . APS (Automatic Protection Switching), . , Packet over SONET/SDH (POS) Dynamic Packet Transport (DTP) . , WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing ) DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing).

6 SUMMARY In the following essay the basic principles of optical networks are presented and more specific, the protocols that are been used. Firstly, there is a historical review of the networks use and the evermore increasing need for expansion that has affected the network technologies. Thereafter, we provide some technical data for the physical transportation mean that is been used in contemporary optical networks which is the fiber optic and its advantages as well in comparison with other transportation means. SONET/SDH is referenced in the next section which is an optical networks prototype that solves significant communication failure and speed problems. After that we explain the reason of its existence, its advantages and finally we give a chance to the reader to evaluate his knowledge by solving a test. Then follows the APS (Automatic Protection Switching) section which is the basic protection system been used in optical networks. Thereafter Packet over SONET/SDH (POS), Dynamic Packet Transport (DTP) and their protocols are presented. Finally in the last section WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing ) and DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) are described, which are the basic technologies for bandwidth expansion in optical networks.

7 1. (public networks). , , . , . . , . . long distance operators run long-haul networks . . (s Metropolitan Area Networks). (metro core networks) (neighborhood networks) (metro access networks). . .1

1. Peter Tomsu, Christian Schmutzer, Next Generation Optical Networks

8 . Internet. internet (traffic) 80-20 ( 1): 80% 20% .

1 80% ( 2).

2

9 , . 2. (TDM) . , . . 1960 . (PCM Pulse Code Modulation), , , . , () . 1 (DS1- Digital Stream 1) 24 (PCM 24) 64 Kbps 8 Kbps , 1,544 bps. 1. (1968) ( PCM 30) 1 , 2,048 bps. 1 1 , . , . (Pleisiochronous Multiplexing), . (PDH Pleisiochronous Digital Hierarchy) 40 BELL . : . . , , . . ' , . 2.

time division multiplexing

10 (TDM)- SONET/SDH . SONET/SDH, , , . SONET/SDH, , , , . , , . .

11 2. 3 . . , . ( ) . , , . . , . , , . , . . (1) : , . . , , , . . , , () /. .

3. Introduction to DWDM Technology / Data in a Rainbow Stamatios V. Kartalopoulos

12 , . , . (2) ( 3): () (core) , () (cladding) () (jacket) . H (optic fiber)

3 (buffer) . . . . : single-mode ( ) multimode ( ) ( 4). single-mode , , 8 10m

13 125m. multimode 50m, single-mode 125m. single-mode multimode . single-mode . single-mode Gbps 30km. . laser 100km , . .

4 , single-mode multimode . multimode , ( 5) . single-mode , , .

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5 multimode . , multimode . , multimode . multimode graded index fibers. , . , graded index fibers . .

15 3. THE SYNCHRONOUS OPTICAL NETWORK (SONET)4 Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) . , SONET/SDH . SONET , Pleisiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH), , , (1, 3 ). plesiochronous , ( ), . , . SONET . SONET 1 in 10 1 1 . PDH , , , . . , Bellcore, Bell Operating Companies, SONET 1985. CCITT he International Telecommunications Union, (ITU), , , . , , , , .4. Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Tektronix

16 SONET . , synchronous transfer ode (ATM) Internet protocol (IP). switches routers ATM IP (interfaces) SONET, ( 6).

SONET (ANSI) STS-1 STS-3 STS-9 STS-12 STS-18 STS-24 STS-36 STS-48 STS-96 STS-192 6

(OC) OC-1 OC-3 OC-9 OC-12 OC-18 OC-24 OC-36 OC-48 OC-96 OC-192

(Mbps) 51,840 155,520 466,560 622,080 933,120 1244,160 1866,240 2488,320 4976,640 9953,280

SONET . , multiplexing, T- multiple-rate optical signals. SONET . :

. . Clock synchronization. SONET . , . (Quality of the Services).

Information formats. , ,

17 , , .

Network architectures. , . . . , .

Network management. SONET/SDH, Transaction Language 1 (TL1) , Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) , .

. ;5 , . . , , 0 1 . , . , DS-3 44.736 Mps + 20 parts per million (ppm) 1.789 bps DS-3 . . DS-1s bits (bitstuffing) bits (framing bits) DS-2. bitstuffing DS-3. DS-3 . , . SONET, () . (plesiochronous).5. http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/

18 . STS-1 51.84 Mbps, STS-1 bit-stuffing. STS-1 STS-. (Virtual Tributary, VT), . , DS-1 VT-1.5 1.728 Mbps. STS-1 bit-stuffing . pointers phase wander . . SONET SONET building integrated timing supply (BITS), . master SONET, OC-N . SONET slaves OC-N . SONET Stratum 3 . . SONET/ SDH / (multiplex/demultiplex) . . . synchronous transport signal (STS) . , Optical carrier, (OC) . SDH, synchronous transport module (STM) .

19 . SONET. , SONET ( 7).

7 SONET interfaces . , , . OC-x connections SONET. , the section layer . . SONET Figure 1 . , . :

Path terminating equipment (PTE). PTE . T-carrier SONET.

20 . SONET , line interactions with add drop multiplexers, and section level interfaces with regenerators.

Regenerators. ( ) , .

Add/drop m