non-equilibrium sta0scal · PDF filenon-equilibrium sta0scal physics ... Classical stas$cal...

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Transcript of non-equilibrium sta0scal · PDF filenon-equilibrium sta0scal physics ... Classical stas$cal...

  • Abriefintroduc.ontothedelightsofnon-equilibriumsta0s0calphysics

    ChrisJarzynskiIns$tuteforPhysicalScienceandTechnologyDepartmentofChemistry&BiochemistryDepartmentofPhysicsUniversityofMaryland,CollegePark

  • Inthebeginning

    Theenergyoftheuniverseisconstant. Theentropyoftheuniversetendstowardamaximum.

    RudolfClausius,1865

    Thermodynamicsisorganizedlogicallyaroundequilibriumstates, inwhichnothinghappens.

    Statefunc.on:anobservablethathasawell-definedvalueinany

    equilibriumstate.E.g.U=U(state)=internalenergy, S=S(state)=entropy.

    Thermodynamicprocess:asequenceofeventsduringwhichasystem

    evolvesfromoneequilibriumstate(A)toanother(B).Duringareversibleprocess,thesystemanditssurroundingsremain

    inequilibriumatall$mes.

  • FirstLawofThermodynamics: U=W+Q

    U=UBUA=netchangeinsystemsinternalenergyW=workperformedonthesystem

    (displacementsdXagainstforceF)Q=heatabsorbedbythesystem

    (spontaneousflowofenergyviathermalcontact)

    rubberband+air(T)

    L

    W = F dLA

    B

    tension

    Ifwestretchtherubberbandslowly:W>0,Q