New Quantum Origin of the Universe Structure V. Mukhanov 2012. 5. 23.آ  There always exist...

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Transcript of New Quantum Origin of the Universe Structure V. Mukhanov 2012. 5. 23.آ  There always exist...

  • Quantum Origin of the Universe Structure

    V. Mukhanov ASC, LMU, München

    Blaise Pascal Chair, ENS, Paris

  • There exists background radiation with the temper 2.725ature T K= °

    Penzias, Wilson 1965 2.725K Blackbody Spectrum of the CMB

  • 2009

    Planck

    ??? End 2012

  • Hubble law

    rr vr

    comaχ= r&

    Rate of expansion

    vr ( ) comr a t χ= rr

    The Universe expands

    t  r

    v  13,7bil. years

  • Expanding Universe: Facts The Universe is homogeneous and

    isotropic on scales from 300 millions up to 13 billions light

    Today:

    -years There exist structure on small scales: Planets, Stars, Galaxies, Clusters of galaxies Superclusters ....

    There is nd heavy elements in ve

    7 ry

    5% , 25% small amounts

    aH He: :

  • There exist Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    In past the Universe was VERY hot

    5

    When the Universe was about 1000 times smaller, it was extremely homogeneous

    and isotropic in scales l 10a l δε ε

    −:

  • a

    aλ ∝ 1T a

    When the Universe was 1000 times smaller its temperature was about 2725 K°

  • RecombinationNucleosynthesis

  • Neutrinos decoupling, Electron-Positron pairs annihilation ( 1 sek):-4

    Quark-gluon phase transition

    10 sec: 1010

    Electro-weak phase transition

    t −:

    ???

  • Very homogeneous Inhomogeneous

  • ???

  • INFLATION

    310 cmL −:

    3310 cmcl −:

    In 1090 causally disconnected regions δε / ε ≤ 10−5

    . !!!

    Why?

    c

    L l 0

    ia a

    ≈ & &

    Initial speed of expansion

    speed of expansion today

  • Gravitation is attractiveReason fo: rce 0

    1ia a

  • a&

    t0t 0a&

    it

    ict

    decelerated Friedmann Expansion

    ia& INFLATION

  • Prediction of inflation !

    Ω0 ≡

    E0 pot

    E0 kin 1=

    Ekin = 3 E pot = −9

    +1000000000

    −1000000000

    1000000009 1000000003

    =

  • How gravity can become "repulsive"? 4 3 Ga aπ ε= −&& ( )3p aε +

    acceleration energy density pressure

    "antigravity" +3 0 0 Only if p aε < > ≡⇒ &&

  • Scenarios

    Which concrete scenario was realized ???

    ??????????????????????????????????????????? Energy density pressure , pε

    ( ) equation of s e tatp ε − for inflat ionp ε ε+ =

    p ε≈ −

  • Quantum Fluctuations and Galaxies

    Inflation "wash out" all existing classical inhomogeneities and leaves classical desert

    Where the ihhomogeneities come from?

  • There always exist unavoidable Quantum Fluctuations

    Quantum fluctuations in the density distribution are large (10-5 )

    only in extremely small scales (  10-33 cm),

    but very small (  10-58 ) on galactic scales (  1025 cm) Can we transfer the large fluctuations from extremely small scales to large scales???

    p x hΔ Δ ≥

    !!!Yes only if in past the Universe went through the stage of accelerated expansion (inflat but

    ion)

  • ( )Consider plane wave pertur ,bati eon: xp comik xδϕ Φ ∝ r r

    1

    For given and the change of the amplitude with time depends on how big is

    compared to the curvature scale (size of Einstein l

    , ( ) / ( )

    /ift)

    com ph com

    phys

    k cm a k a t

    H a a

    λ

    λ −

    ∝ ∝

    = &

  • 1H −

    1H −

  • 1 1/ 2H ε− −∝ 1 1/ 2H ε− −∝

    Gravity waves

    Scalar perturbations

    ( )1/ 21 / ,p h δϕ ε+ + Φ

    physλ

    2 3

    2 3

    k

    k

    k

    h k

    Φ

    ( )2 3 11 1 /k Pl k Ha

    k O p

    ε ε ε

    ⎛ ⎞ Φ = ⎜ ⎟+ ⎝ ⎠

    1 3 1 3 1 lnS k Ha k Ha

    p d pn dε ε ε≈ ≈

    ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞− = − + + +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠0< 0< 0.95 < nS < 0.97

    ( ) 1/ 2

    1 1 k Ha T pO S ε

    ≈ ⎛ ⎞= +⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

    ln λ / λγ( )∝ λ1−nS or nS = 0.96

  • Power

    -- ΛCDM

  • Small-scale spectrum: summer 2011

  • Ω = 1± 0.02 Dark Matter & Dark Energy

  • •  All predictions so far consistent with CMB. Big goal: is index

  • TE

    E

    CURRENT OBSERVATIONS

    PLANCK FORECAST

  • "In models with the initial superdense de Sitter state ... such a large amount of relic gravitational waves is generated ...that ... the very existence of this state can be experimentally" verified in the near future. (Starobinsky, 1980)