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Transcript of Nanotechnology, what is it? - World Health Organization · PDF file 16-9-2008  ·...

  • Royal DSM

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    Nanotechnology, what is it? What are the potential applications and what is their social and environmental utility?

    Dr.ir. Germ W. Visser / 2008-09-16 Sixth Session Forum VI, Plenary Session Nanotechnology and manufactured nanomaterials: opportunities and challenges Le Meridien President, Dakar, Senegal

    υαυος = dwarf

    The Voice of OECD Business

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    OutlineOutline

    • Royal DSM N.V. • figures • DSM and nanotechnologies at DSM • bio- and nanotechnologies

    • Nanotechnologies • nano? • value chain and revenues • humanity’s top ten problems • nanotechnologies’ enabling solutions

    • Risk and risk management • risk versus hazard • risk assessment • occupational health

    • Closing remarks

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    Royal DSM N.V. in 2006 / 2007Royal DSM N.V. in 2006 / 2007

    • ..PerformanceMaterials Sales € 2.8 bn EBITDA € 429 m

    Performance Materials Sales € 2.8 bn EBITDA € 429 m

    NutritionPerformance Materials

    Industrial Chemicals

    PharmaOther

    Other Sales € 0.4 bn

    Other Sales € 0.4 bn

    Nutrition

    Sales € 2.4 bn EBITDA € 464 m

    Nutrition

    Sales € 2.4 bn EBITDA € 464 m

    Industrial Chemicals Sales € 1.9 bn EBITDA € 269 m

    Industrial Chemicals Sales € 1.9 bn EBITDA € 269 m

    Pharma

    Sales € 0.9 bn EBITDA € 146 m

    Pharma

    Sales € 0.9 bn EBITDA € 146 m

    Operating profit (EBIT) EUR 835 million, 6% higher than in 2005

    Workforce: 22,156Net sales 8.352 bn Net sales 8.757 bn Workforce: 23,254

    Operating profit (EBIT) EUR 823 million, 1% lower than in 2006

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    Engaged and committed business is fundamental to societal progress

    DSM and ResponsibilityDSM and Responsibility Community Programs designed to helpCommunity Programs designed to help

    DSM Global partner of UN WFP (World Food Program) Nutritional Improvement Program (NIP) Sight and Life: DSM humanitarian project: Micronutrient distribution

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    • DSM world market leader in Dow Jones Sustainability World Index for the years 2004, 2005, 2006

    • ACC Responsible Care Leadership Award 2007 • Developing/introducing a number of nano-applications • Actively participating in

    • fact finding: international working groups, conferences, literature • policy making: EC task forces, Dutch politics, ISO/CEN/NEN • education: Hogeschool Zuyd curriculum (prof. P. Borm) • information: interviews with local press, lectures (worldwide),

    nanoHouse

    • Public acceptance is crucial for market successes • perception is key • trust

    • DSM Position Paper on nanotechnologies

    DSM and nanotechnologiesDSM and nanotechnologies

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    Nanotechnologies Nanotechnologies –– convergence of 3 wavesconvergence of 3 waves

    A. ten Wolde: “Nanotechnology; towards a molecular construction kit”, Netherlands Study Centre for Technology Trends (STT), 1988

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    Interaction between bioInteraction between bio-- and nanotechnologyand nanotechnology

    Adapted from J. M. Lehn, Supramolecular Chemistry , Wiley-VCH (1995)

    Expansion via Biotechnology

    Expansion via Nanotechnology

    “Bioterials”

    diversity

    controlled complexity

    Chemistry

    B i o l o g y

    • Combining DSM’s competences

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    Performance Materials: ample opportunitiesPerformance Materials: ample opportunities

    Performance Materials

    Nano technology

    E&E

    Transportation

    Building & Construction

    Safety & Protection

    Packaging

    Global networking

    Growing middle classIndividualization Safety

    Environment

    Societal & technology trends create opportunities in many markets

    Paint & Coatings

    Bio-based

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    Logitech VX Nano

    NanoNano -- but how about Nanotechnologies?but how about Nanotechnologies?

    Fatos Nano (1952), Albania

    Nano Cafe, Kurfürstenstrasse, Berlin

    iPod nano

    TATA Nano

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    Nanotechnologies Nanotechnologies -- invented by natureinvented by nature

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    Movement of bacterial flagellar

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    Gecko Gecko

    Morpho sulkowskyi Saito et al.: J.Vac.Sci.Techn. B 24(6) Nov/Dec 2006, 3248

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    Nanotechnologies Nanotechnologies -- lotus effectlotus effect

    © Pieter v.d. Wal, Groningen University, 2005

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Tai Fu Shan, Panyu, Guangdong, China April 2006 (SK Ng)

    © William Thielicke, Darmstadt, Germany, May 19, 2006

    Prof. Dr. W. Barthlott

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    NanotechnologiesNanotechnologies

    • Nanotechnologies nanoparticles • have been around for ever • different origins (biological, organic, inorganic) • essential to life as well as life-threatening

    HIV virus, Ø ~100 nm 10 nm

    Annimation: Bohne’s PDB2multiGIF (http://www.glycosciences.de/modeling/pdb2mgif/)

    Ferritin, Ø ~12 nm

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    • Natural sources

    NanoparticlesNanoparticles

    Sea spraying Volcano (Etna) Sand storm, Al Asad, Iraq, 2005-04-26

    Bitterroot National Forest, Montana, 2000-08-06 John McColgan

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    Lustre on Majolica dish, ± 1525 Museo Civico – Palazzo dei Consoli, Gubbio, It.

    Nanotechnologies Nanotechnologies -- ancient artancient art

    “Labors of the Months” Norwich, England, ca. 1480

    The Lycurgus Cup 4th century AD

    Maya Warrior, The Cleveland Museum of Art (250-900)

    Maya pottery

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    • …

    Nanotechnologies Nanotechnologies -- applications treeapplications tree

    New Dimensions for Manufacturing; A UK Strategy for Nanotechnology, June 2002

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    Nanotechnologies Nanotechnologies -- scale of thingsscale of things

    http://w w

    w .sc.doe.gov/bes/scale_of_things.htm

    l, M ay 26, 2006, Version

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    Nanotechnologies Nanotechnologies -- definitiondefinition

    N. Taniguchi, "On the Basic Concept of 'NanoTechnology'," Proc. Intl. Conf. Prod. Eng. Tokyo, Part II, Japan Society of Precision Engineering, 1974, pp 18-23

    • First definition of ‘Nano-Technology’, Norio Taniguchi, 1974:

    'Nano-technology' is the production technology to get the extra high accuracy and ultra fine dimensions, i.e. the preciseness and fineness on the order of 1 nm (nanometer), 10-9m in length. The name of 'Nano-technology' originates from this nanometer. In the processing of materials, the smallest bit size of stock removal, accretion or flow of materials is probably of one atom or one molecule namely 0.1~0.2 nm in length. Therefore, the expected limit size of fineness would be of the order of 1 nm. Accordingly, 'Nano-technology' mainly consists of the processing of separation, consolidation and deformation of materials by one atom or one molecule. Needless to say, the measurement and controll techniques to measure the preciseness and fineness of 1 nm play a very important role in this technology.

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    Nanotechnologies Nanotechnologies -- definitionsdefinitions

    www.iso.org

    First edition 2008-08-15

    • nanoscale: size range from appr. 1 nm to 100 nm • nano-object: material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale • particle: minute piece of matter with defined physical boundaries • nanoparticle: nano-object with all three external dimensions in the nanoscale • nanoplate, -fiber, -tube, -rod, -wire, quantum dot

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    Visser 2008-09-16 Nanotechnology what is it

    NanoparticlesNanoparticles -- what makes the differencewhat makes the difference

    Trudy E. Bell: “Understanding Risk Assessment of Nanotechnology”, 2007