Nafs September 2010

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ΚΩΔ. Γ.Γ.2229 ISSN 1107 - 3179 NΑΥΣ ΝΑΥΤΙΛΙΑΚΟ & ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΟ ΠΕΡΙΟΔΙΚΟ τεύχος Σεπτέμβριος 2010 76 TED PETROPOULOS QUO VADIS NAVICULARIE S. HIRDARIS THE LLOYD’S REGISTER STRATEGIC RESEARCH INITIATIVES IN GREECE K. VASILEIADIS GL: MODEL CALCULATIONS DRIVE PROFITABILITY N. KAKALIS DNV RESEARCH & INNOVATION - GREECE ΒΒΒΒ ΒΒΒΒΒΒΒ ΠΒΒΒΒΒΒΒINTERNATIONALWISTA The Turbocharger: A 300% Solution ABB Turbocharging Aims to Multiply Power but Decimate Emissions www.nafsgreen.gr Special Edition: Knowledge & Innovation in Shipping
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Transcript of Nafs September 2010

  • 2

    010

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    4 -

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    76

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    ISSN

    110

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    179 N &

    2010

    76

    TED PETROPOULOSQUO VADIS

    NAVICULARIE

    S. HIRDARISTHE LLOYDS REGISTER STRATEGIC RESEARCH INITIATIVES IN GREECE

    K. VASILEIADISGL: MODEL

    CALCULATIONS DRIVE PROFITABILITY

    N. KAKALIS DNV RESEARCH &

    INNOVATION - GREECEMEGATUGS

    S A L V A G E & T O W A G E

    dedicated and committed to our job on a 24-hour stand-by basis we are ready to offer every possible

    professional assistance.

    Megalohari Hellenic Tugboats is

    a Piraeus based maritime company

    established in 1978. It has been

    widely recognized as one of the

    specialized professional towage

    and salvage companies in the marine

    industry. Megalohari operates on a

    24-hour basis, 365 days a year. It

    maintains an Operation Office manned

    round-the-clock and, along with

    routine operational matters, is ready

    to respond to any emergency matter.

    Our fleet consists of various types

    of tugs, fully equipped with modern

    towage, salvage, antipollution and

    fire-fighting equipment so that we

    are capable to meet our customers

    requirements in terms of quality,

    power, reliability safety and

    efficiency.

    est 1978

    PIRAEUS HEAD OFFICE

    113, FILONOS STR.

    18535 PIRAEUS - GREECE

    TEL.: +30 210 4522131 (24 HOURS RESPONSE)

    FAX: +30 210 4180176

    E-mail: [email protected]

    Web site: www.megatugs.gr

    THESSALONIKI OFFICE

    42, 26TH OCTOVRIOY STR.

    54627 THESSALONIKI - GREECE

    TEL.: +30 2310 256380 (24 HOURS

    RESPONSE)

    FAX: +30 2310 256381

    E-mail: [email protected]

    Web site: www.megatugs.gr

    BIMCO MEMBERS R.N.: 129547

    ISM CERTIFIED

    quality

    power

    safety

    reliabilityefficiency

    MEGATUGSS A L V A G E & T O W A G E

    INTERNATIONAL WISTA

    The Turbocharger : A 300% Solut ion ABB Turbocharg ing Aims to Mul t ip ly Power but Dec imate Emiss ions

    www.nafsgreen.gr

    Special Edition: Knowledge & Innovation in Shipping

  • 2010 - 76 - e-mail: [email protected] - WEB: www.nafsgreen.gr

    08. :

    10. : ,

    12. Finacial Focus by Ted Petropoulos:Quo Vadis Navicularie?

    14. Alfa Laval:Ballast water treatment system

    20. Cover story: ABBThe turbocharger A 300% Solution

    24. Knowledge & Innovation:ABB two stage turbocharging now on cutting - edge gas engine

    25. Knowledge & Innovation:ABB: Coated Turbine blades combat circumferential wear

    26. Knowledge & Innovation:ABB turbocharging introduces VCM for 4 stroke diesels

    28. Knowledge & Innovation:Model calculations drive profitability, by Konstantinos

    Vasileiadis, Business development manager, GL Piraeus

    30. Knowledge & Innovation: Franman Ltd - EOS Risk Management Ltd

    32. Knowledge & Innovation:DNV Reasearch & Innovation Greece, by Nikolaos Kakalis, Head

    of DNV Research & Innovation Greece

    34.

    36. Risk ManagementRisk Management Era: Entering at your own risk. Are you

    ready to play the game? By Apostolos Belokas, Principal

    Consultant & CEO, IBS Marine Consulting Group

    38. Knowledge & Innovation:The Lloyds Register strategic research initiatives in

    Greece, By Spyros Hirdakis, Specialist LLoyds Register

    strategic research group.

    40. . :

    .

    42. Knowledge & Innovation:Alfa Laval launches Pure Ballast 2.0 in standard and Ex

    versions.

    44. Knowledge & Innovation:Alfa Laval S- separator/ Oil filter with new protector T350

    and X350

    42. Knowledge & Innovation:Alfa Laval launches Pure Ballast 2.0 in standard and Ex

    versions.

    48. Green pages

    50. Class News

    56. Awards - Events

    59.

    65. Education

    66.

    , & , 2010, , 76

    12, , 17343, : 2104286606, fax: 2104286610, e-mail: [email protected], www.nafsgreen.gr

    : , - : . , : .

    30 . USD 70. NAFS, SSN 1107-3179.

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  • 36

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    mirror mirror 2010 - 76 - e-mail: [email protected] - WEB:www.nafsgreen.gr

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  • financialfocus12

    QUO VADIS, NAVICULARIE* ? By Ted Petropoulos, Head, PETROFIN RESEARCH, PSMI

    Greek owners have always had the reputation of being vindicated in their deci-sions. They have also been able to position themselves well ahead of market developments, in term of buying / selling vessels or in chartering. Often, their decisions have been counter-cyclical. The cumulative results of their attitude to risk and abilities in shipping are evident for all to see.It is for the above reasons that the shipping market has been watching the recent rush of orders by Greeks with great interest.According to Clarksons, the current Greek order book stands at approximately 800 vessels, of which 500 are dry bulk vessels. The total capacity of the above orders is 74 million DWT, which, if delivered, would represent approximately 31.6% of the current Greek fleet.Despite a continuing newbuilding delivery slippage of approximately 40%, the rate of deliveries has grown and the newbuilding order book growth continues unabated.This continuous commitment by Greek owners for newbuilding orders (in the light of the bulging worldwide order book and the uncertainties over the global economic prospects and fears of a double dip recession) has been puzzling. Admittedly, China and the Far East region still represent high growth areas. However, even their frenetic growth rates have recently been curbed and more importantly the slowdown in activity in the rest of the world has resulted in an international growth rate not exceeding approximately 3% p.a. Even if this translates itself into a greater demand in international trade of approximately 5%p.a., these rates of international rate growth cannot be compared with fleet growth rates in capacity well in excess of 10% per annum and in the case of drybulk over 16% per annum in accordance with 2010 to date statistics (SSY).Consequently, we have what appears to be a disequilibrium in the demand / supply equation made worse by the very limited scrapping and this imbalance appears to be growing all the time.Many owners and analysts have correctly identified port congestion and longer voyages to justify the relative recovery of the market. However, are these factors going to continue in the years to come? More importantly, are these factors alone able to cover the ever rising demand / supply imbalance?The arguments between the analysts using facts and figures and the owners is raging. Whilst many owners are adopting a cautious approach, many others are placing order after order.The main question is who will be proved right? Will it be the prudent owner, who cannot ignore the worryingly large capacity and overhanging order book or the intuitive owner, who has an unnerving and uncanny ability of reading the market well, despite all the facts pointing to the contrary?The story will, undoubtedly, unfold in your computer screens and will make or break fortunes.Having presented the wider picture, my article, today, shall focus on another issue, one that may have a pronounced bearing on owners performance. The issue I wish to analyse is that of ship finance, or to put it rather crudely, the lack of ship finance.Coming off a global banking and economic crisis, ship finance has also been affected. For many banks elected to downsize their shipping portfolios during the crisis and conditions are not clear yet for a massive return of confidence.Admittedly, shipping has not resulted in numerous defaults and / or losses for banks. However, this may have had more to do with the banks forbearance towards loan defaulters rather than a pronounced recovery to full health by the shipping industry.The jury is still out in terms of the prospects for the three main shipping mar-

    kets, dry, wet and container. As such, banks have yet to be tested decisively by a 2-3 year pronounced bad market. In addition, banks are still trying to recover their liquidity and capital ratios, as well as, meet the more stringent capital adequacy terms imposed by central banks.In this rather uncertain and potentially dangerous climate, it is not surprising that banks are still reluctant to expand their shipping portfolios. More importantly, many banks are using the run off in their loan books via repayments, sales etc. to reduce their shipping exposures, conserve capital and build up liquidity. In order to assist in highlighting the above forces at play, we wish to present to you our latest Petrofin Bank Research analysis of the global and Greek ship finance markets.Last year, we did research, whereby we took the top 42 shipfinancing banks in the global market and their loan portfolios and split them between banks with lending capacity, banks with a reduced capacity and banks with neutral / unclear policy towards shipping.We conducted the same research this year and the results are shown in table 1.As you will see, there are the following main trends:a) The Global shipping portfolios of these 42 banks reduced from $463.75 bn in 2009 to $436.93 bn in 2010, i.e. a 9.4% reduction.b) The number of banks with reduced capacity rose from 4 to 12 banks and these now represent 36.13% of the Global loan portfolio, as opposed to 21.24%, last year. This clearly signifies an international reduction of interest in ship finance, at this point of time.c) The number of banks with neutral / unclear policy fell from 16 banks, representing 31.39% of Global loan totals in 2009, to 12 banks, represent-ing 17.34% of such totals in 2010. This, strongly indicates that a number of banks shifted their policy from neutral to negative.d) It is of comfort to the shipping industry that 18 banks compared with 22 last year, continue to report ship lending capacity and that this repre-sents 46.64% of Global loan totals. These banks represent the best hope for ship finance and hold nearly 50% of the market.We conducted the same analysis, based on our 2009 and 2010 annual Greek ship finance bank research in November 2009, February 2010 and August 2010, in order to identify the attitude to Greek ship finance among banks involved in Greek ship finance and to compare our findings with that of the Global ship finance market.The results are shown in table 2 and are as follows:a) The total Greek ship finance totals fell from $.73.2 bn in 2009 to $.67.02bn in 2010 (see Petrofin Bank Research ), i.e. a fall of 8.4%.b) The gradual recovery in confidence evidenced between November 2009 and February 2010 has evaporated.c) The number of banks with lending capacity fell from 20 in February 2010, representing 39.34% of Greek ship finance totals, to 13 banks, rep-resenting 28.45% of such totals.d) Worryingly, the total number of banks with reduced lending capacity grew from 13 banks in February 2010, representing 47.17% of Greek loan totals, to 19 banks, representing 62.73% of such totals.e) Comparing the Global and Greek ship finance positions, it is clear that conditions in Greek ship finance are much tighter. This is mainly due to the reduction in lending capacity by HSH and RBS (very prominent banks in the Greek sector), as well as, the liquidity problems of Greek banks,

  • 31,19%

    17,34%21,24%

    36,13%

    47,57% 46,64%

    0,00%

    5,00%

    10,00%

    15,00%

    20,00%

    25,00%

    30,00%

    35,00%

    40,00%

    45,00%

    50,00%

    DATA based on 2009 DATA based on 2010 DATA based on 2009 DATA based on 2010 DATA based on 2009 DATA based on 2010

    Banks with lending capacity

    Banks with reduced capacityBanks with neutral/unclear policy/capacity

    16 banks

    12 banks

    4 banks

    12 banks

    22 banks

    18 banks

    Ship finance banks capacity2009 Global portfolio, top 42 banks: $463.75bn2010 Global portfolio, top 42 banks: $436.93bn

    PETROFIN RESEARCHwww.petrofin.gr

    Table 1

    financialfocus 13

    which collectively account for approx. 25% of the loan totals.What the above research has clearly high-lighted is that shipfinance conditions for the Greek shipfinance market are particularly difficult.The question, therefore, is Quo vadis, navicularie? Very few owners can finance newbuilding orders out of their own liquidity and without ship finance. Invariably, the vast majority of orders are therefore speculative i.e. there is neither finance nor a time charter in place.Owners may well argue that ship finance ac-tivities may improve over the next 2-3 years, until their vessels shall be delivered and that they are expecting greater bank competition and an improved ability to raise finance. Are they right, though? Will banks currently re-ducing their exposures do an about change shift? Will there be new and committed large players into Greek ship finance to replace the lost capacity?The more one focuses on the above ques-tions, the more concerned one becomes, for the outlook over the next 1 2 years.My own thoughts are that in addition to the usual risks facing an owner about to place a new order, such as the state of the market at delivery and absence of long-term employment, owners have an added risk of non-available, inadequate or expensive ship finance.Moreover, should the shipping market weak-en, as a result of overcapacity, the attitude of banks is likely to turn even more negative towards ship finance. Consequently, owners may find themselves unable to obtain finance and may be forced to abandon their orders and risk losing their down payments.A lot of positive changes have to take place between today and 2012 2013, when these new orders shall be delivered.Once again, it may well be that everything will slot into place and current vessel newbuilding prices shall turn out to be a bar-gain. Greek owners decisions may well be vindicated once more. However, the obsta-cles have never been higher and the pros-pects are so unclear, so that owners have to realize that, placing orders today, represents gambling bets of the highest order.

    0,00%

    10,00%

    20,00%

    30,00%

    40,00%

    50,00%

    60,00%

    70,00%

    33,25%39,34%

    28,45%

    51,49%47,17%

    62,73%

    15,26% 13,55%8,81%

    19banks Autumn

    2010

    Bank capacity in financing Greek shipping

    November 2009: 35 banks February 2010: 40 banks

    Banks with lending capacityBanks with reduced lending

    capacity Banks with neutral/unclear policy/capacity

    14 banks Nov 09

    20banks Feb 10

    14 banks Nov 09

    13 banks Feb 10

    7 banks Nov

    09

    7 banks Feb

    10

    PETROFIN RESEARCHwww.petrofin.grSeptember 2010

    Autumn 2010: 39 banks

    13banks Autumn

    20107 banks Autumn

    2010

    Table 2

    Totals 2009: $73.2bnTotals 2010: $67.02bn

    * Where are you heading shipowner?

  • 14

    Alfa Laval - Pure BallastBallast water treatment system

    ApplicationWhen ships take on ballast, they take on more than water. Microscopic organisms, eggs, cysts and even the planktonic larvae of larger organisms are small enough to pass through the intakes and pumps.If these organisms survive transport to other parts of the globe, their impact can be devastating. In seas that are weakened by overfishing and pollution, non-native species can reproduce quickly and deprive lo-cal species of food and living space. Such invasions can jeopardize local economies and even human health, and their effects are usually irreversible. IMO has identified the introduction of species via ballastwater as one of the four greatest threats to the worlds oceans. In 2004, the organization adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments, which will phase in requirements for ballast water treatment over the coming years.

    PureBallast from Alfa LavalPureBallast is an easy-to-use ballast water treat-ment system that meets the new IMO requirements. Unlike many proposed systems, which rely on chemicals or are too large to implement in real life, PureBallast involves no environmental or operational compromises.Using a unique, chemical-free technology, PureBal-last produces radicals that neutralize organisms in ballast water. The process is effective, automated and self-contained, as well as harmless to the bal-last tanks and crew. PureBallast is the first ballast water treatment system without chemicals tohave received full Ballast Water Type Approval, hav-ing consistently demonstrated the necessary biologi-cal efficiency in land-based and onboard trials.Since PureBallast is also remarkably compact, it can be installed even in cramped engine room conditions or in areas that are otherwise difficult to utilize. By combining spacesaving design, chemical-free tech-nology and full automation, PureBallast is the clear choice for both installation and operation.

    Features an fits IMO compliancePureBallast is an IMO-compliant system, having completed all of the necessary approval stages and received full Ballast Water Type Approval. These stages comprise land-based and onboard tests, as well as the two stages of Active Substance Approval. Green operation

    PureBallast meets the requirements of IMO legisla-tion without the addition or generation of chemicals, and without the creation of residuals. PureBallast was the first system to complete both stages of the Active Substance Approval process, thus proving that PureBallast poses no risk to the environment, the vessel or the crew. Compact installationPureBallast is a modular system that allows compact and flexible installation. By fitting between existing pipes and utilizing the ballast pumps that are already installed, it can be adapted to the conditions that already exist on board. A single system can handle capacities from 250 m3/h to 2500 m3/h, and shipswith larger requirements can be fit with duplicate systems. Full integrationPureBallast is completely integrated with the ships ballast water system and does not interfere with existing ballast operations.No additional time is required for ballasting or debal-lasting, no route changes are needed, and there is no extra holding time in the tanks. Easy, automated operationPureBallast is fully automated and easy to operate. The system starts and stops at the push of a button, continuously monitors the ballast water flow and can be operated via local or remote control. There are no chemicals to be stocked or handled by the crew. Minimal maintenancePureBallast is chemical-free and has no moving parts, which means there are few consumables and no service hazards.Maintenance is minimized by a built-in automatic cleaning system, which ensures maximum perfor-mance at all times. These features also contribute to a low lifecycle cost. Global support from a leading supplierPureBallast comes with the backing of a truly global supplier. Alfa Laval has a century of experience in serving the marine industry, as well as a worldwide network of harbour support. Technical support, onboard service and genuine spare partscan all be obtained at short notice. IMO approvalPureBallast has received full Ballast Water Type Approval in accordance with the procedures es-tablished in IMOs International Convention for the Control and Management ofShips Ballast Water and Sediments. These proce-dures are summarized to the right.

    Active Substance Approval (G9)Active Substance Approval shows that a ballast wa-ter treatment system has no negative impact on the treated water, the vessel itself or the vessels crew. Both a basic and a final approval are given.PureBallast was the first treatment system to receive Active Substance Final Approval. Approval of biological performance (G8)A ballast water treatment systems ability to meet IMOs biological efficiency standards is established in a two-phase testing programme. The first phase is conducted on land, while the second phase is con-ducted at sea under real-life operating conditions. Both of these phases are conducted at full scale. Land-based tests PureBallast successfully completed land-based tests that involved challenging conditions with extreme microorganism levels and water of varying salinity and turbidity.Samples were taken and evaluated directly after treatment, but also after five days of storage in order to ensure that there was no regrowth of microorgan-isms. The system was tested at a scale of 250 m3/h. Onboard testsPureBallast received full Ballast Water Type Ap-proval after completing six months of testing at sea, during which its biological efficiency was demon-strated under actual operating conditions. The tests were conducted aboard an ocean-going car carrier vessel with a ballast water treatment capacity of 1000 m/h. System components FilterA 50 m filter is used during ballasting operations. (During deballasting, the filter is bypassed.) This not only blocks the intake of larger organisms, but also reduces the amount of sediment in the ballast water tanks. The filter is cleaned via automatic backflush-ing, which requires a system pressure of 2 bar between the outlet and the backflush discharge line.Only a small part of the system flow is used for backflushing, whereas the majority of the water continues through the ballast water system. Wallenius AOT unit(s)Depending on the system flow rate, one or more Wallenius AOT units comprise the active stage of PureBallast treatment, in which generated radicals neutralize microorganisms and other organic matter. Flow rates of 250-2500 m3/h can be achieved, with individual AOT units handling a flow of 250 m3/h. The AOT units can be placed in a number of configu-

    knowledge&innovation

  • 15

    rations, including the linear configuration shown above. CIP unitPerformance is safeguarded by an automatic Cleaning-in- Place (CIP) system, which circulates a cleaning solution to prevent seawater scaling within the AOT units. This solution is non-toxic and 100% biodegradable, which means it can be discharged overboard without safety or environmental precautions. The cleaning cycle, which takes 15 min-utes per AOT unit, occurs automatically after each ballasting or deballasting operation. Flow meterA flow meter ensures that the PureBallast system does not exceed its certified flow rate. The meter also provides the main control system with valuable data regarding the amount of ballast that has been taken in or discharged. Sampling pointsIn accordance with IMO guidelines, sampling points are installed both before and after the PureBallast system. This allows for the removal of water and the evaluation of its quality. ValvesA PureBallast system incorporates five main valves, which are supplied according to the dimensions of the connected pipework. In addition to one valve at the system inlet and one at the system outlet, there is a valve for bypassing the filter, a valve for bypass-ing the whole system, and a valve for controllingthe system pressure over the filter (a Counter Pressure Valve, or CPV). The CPV automatically safeguards the system pressure between the outlet and the filters backflush discharge line, ensuring a pressure difference of at least 2 bars. Operating principleDesigned for start-and-forget operation, PureBallast is chemical-free, fully automated and possible tostart or stop at the push of a button. A flow meter monitors the process flow to ensure that the certifiedrate is not exceeded.Because PureBallast is fully integrated with the ships ballast water system and does not depend onchemical reactions, it creates no delays during bal-lasting and deballasting. Its operating sequence issummarized below. BallastingIn preparation for ballasting, the lamps of the Wal-lenius AOT units undergo a four-minute initialization process, during which they are cooled by a flow of

    seawater. During actual ballasting, fresh water is used to cool the systems electronic components.When ballasting begins, the incoming ballast water first passes through the filter, which removes organ-isms and particles larger than 50 m. The water then continuous through the Wallenius AOT units, which treat the water to IMO-established limits before it enters the ballast water tanks. Once ballasting is complete, the AOT units are cleaned via an auto-mated Cleaning-in-Place (CIP) cycle, which takesaround 15 minutes per unit. This cycle can be automatically initiated directly after ballasting, or manually initiated from the control system within 30 hours. The AOT units are automatically rinsed with fresh water before the CIP cycle begins and filled with fresh water upon its completion.The filter is also rinsed with fresh water once ballast-ing is completed. DeballastingThe deballasting process is essentially the same as the ballasting process. However, the filter is bypassed during deballasting since the water has already been filtered.After leaving the ballast water tanks, the outgo-ing ballast water passes through the AOT units to eliminate any regrowth of microorganisms that may have occurred in transit. Having thus been treated to the limits set by IMO, it is then discharged into the receiving water at the deballasting site.The same start-up and shut-down sequence is em-ployed during both ballasting and deballasting.

    System layoutPureBallast is remarkable in its compactness and simplicity. The systems modular equipment fits eas-ily into the engine room, thanks to a blockcomponentstructure that allows it to be installed between nor-mal ballast water system components. This notonly facilitates installation, but also simplifies day-to-day operations. Because there are no moving partsand few consumables, the system can be main-tained with minimum effort. PureBallast treatmentThe PureBallast treatment process is a patented form of advanced oxidation technology (AOT). Re-lated technologies can be found in many of todays smart products, such as the self-cleaning windows of skyscrapers and cars, which prevent the growth of organisms through an AOT reaction that occurswhen sunlight strikes titanium dioxide.The PureBallast AOT process occurs within a closed chamber known as a Wallenius AOT unit, in which radicals are generated. These radicals are highly reactive, so they instantaneously neutralize micro-organisms and organic contaminants. However, the short-lived radicals exist for only a few milliseconds,which means they have no possibility of leaving the reaction chamber.No chemical substances are required or generated by the AOT process, and no toxic residuals are created.

    knowledge&innovation

  • 16

    PureBallast treatment

    The PureBallast treatment process is a patented

    form of advanced oxidation technology (AOT). Re-

    lated technologies can be found in many of todays

    smart products, such as the self-cleaning windows

    of skyscrapers and cars, which prevent the growth

    of organisms through an AOT reaction that occurs

    when sunlight strikes titanium dioxide.

    The PureBallast AOT process occurs within a closed

    chamber known as a Wallenius AOT unit, in which

    radicals are generated. These radicals are highly

    reactive, so they instantaneously neutralize micro-

    organisms and organic contaminants. However, the

    short-lived radicals exist for only a few milliseconds,

    which means they have no possibility of leaving the

    reaction chamber.

    No chemical substances are required or generated

    by the AOT process, and no toxic residuals are

    created.

    Operations

    Maintenance intervals:

    - Filter inspection once per year

    - Lamp replacement every 1500 hours

    - Catalyst replacement every 3000 hours

    - CIP fluid replacement when the pH value reaches

    3, or monthly

    The System Manual provides detailed

    information in electronic or printed format:

    - Installation instructions

    - Operating instructions

    - Alarms and fault finding

    - Service and spare parts

    Service spares kits contain all necessary

    spare parts for each service and tips for mainte-

    nance checkpoints:

    - Lamp kit

    - Catalyst kit

    - Filter kit

    Commissioning and technical services

    are available from all Alfa Laval offices to start up

    the system and to provide advice about operation

    and maintenance.

    Onboard training for the crew is available upon

    request.

    Optional equipment

    Remote control panels

    The main PureBallast control panel can be com-

    plemented with a maximum of four remote control

    panels per system. This allows PureBallast

    to be started, stopped and monitored from any loca-

    tion on board.

    Remote interface

    This option allows hard-wired communication

    between the main PureBallast control panel and the

    vessels general control system. If installed, PureBal-

    last is run via a graphical user interface integrated

    into the vessels control system.

    Drain Removal Kit

    The Drain Removal Kit is an option

    for efficiently draining water from the

    Wallenius AOT units. The kits primary

    components are a pump and a

    number of valves.

    Capacity range

    PureBallasts modular design accommodates a wide

    range of ballast water capacities, from 250 m3/h up

    to 2500 m3/h. One Wallenius AOT unit handles a

    system flow rate of 250 m3/h. For larger capacities,

    several AOT units are installed in parallel.

    One CIP unit is all that is needed for a PureBallast

    system up to 2500 m3/h. The size of the filter cor-

    responds to the system flow rate.

    knowledge&innovation

  • 17

    Alfa Laval PureBilgeOily water cleaning systemTowards cleaner oceans

    Bilge water generated onboard ships is a major

    environmental concern for the shipping industry.

    Regardless of its source, bilge water must be treated

    to reduce the oil content to levels that meet interna-

    tional regulations for release into the environment.

    This is critical to keeping the worlds oceans and

    their vast marine ecosystems healthy and produc-

    tive. The impact of ship propulsion on the marine

    environment can be minimized, heavy fines avoided

    and the work load of the crew significantly reduced,

    if efficient bilge water treatment is carried out on-

    board. The need for waste disposal ashore can

    also be reduced. Over the years, the cost for waste

    disposal has increased as local authorities enforce

    stricter laws for land-based companies that process

    this waste. This translates into higher operating

    costs.

    Application

    Cleaning bilge water poses distinct challenges. Not

    only does the composition and flow of bilge water

    change, making continuous and efficient treatment

    difficult, but treatment onboard presents another set

    of constraints.

    Treatment methods must meet individual ship

    requirements and demands for safety, reliability,

    compactness, automation, low maintenance and the

    ability to withstand rough weather conditions. These

    requirements must be met without reducing the

    performance of the treatment system.

    Centrifugal separation has proven to be the most

    reliable, efficient and flexible method for continuous

    removal of oil and other contaminants suspended

    in the bilge water onboard ships and at land-based

    power plants.

    PureBilge: Reliable, efficient, continuous

    The Alfa Laval PureBilge solution is a reliable single-

    stage centrifugal separation system for the highly

    efficient treatment of large bilge water volumes at

    sea as well as ashore. The compact modular system

    reduces the level of contaminants in bilge water to

    Treatment methods must meet individ-

    ual ship requirements and demands for

    safety, reliability, compactness, automa-

    tion, low maintenance and the ability to

    withstand rough weather conditions.

    knowledge&innovation

  • 18

    between 0 and 5 ppm oil in water.

    Based on a standardized concept, PureBilge is a

    complete stand-alone system that is easy to install

    for any new or existing installation. Continuous, fully

    automatic operation even when subjected to oil

    shock and rough weather conditions reduces the

    need for large bilge water holding tanks. This

    increases payload capacity. PureBilge significantly

    reduces operating costs compared to conventional

    bilge water systems thanks to the reduced volumes

    of waste that require disposal.

    PureBilge complies with the Marine Environment

    Protection Committee Resolution, MEPC.107(49),

    of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and

    USCG regulation (46 CFR 106.050).

    Benefits for shipyards

    Compact, modular, easy-to-install system saves

    time, space and money.

    Continuous, single-stage operation requires less

    holding tank volume and provides more space for

    payload.

    Easy integration with existing communications

    systems onboard. Benefits for owners and operators

    Reduced operating costs thanks to low mainte-

    nance, automated control, minimal waste disposal,

    no chemical consumption and an absence of filter

    elements that require replacement as standard.

    Reliable, always-available system. Operates

    continuously with high performance, regardless of

    variations in feed, oil shocks and rough weather

    conditions.

    Easy to operate. Automated control and monitoring

    system integrates with existing Alfa Laval systems,

    providing a single user-friendly interface.

    Safe operation. A password-locked switch can be

    set in manual/locked position to ensure that only the

    individual responsible for environmental compliance

    may authorize overboard discharge.

    Bilge water

    Bilge water can be a mixture of water, fuel oil, lube

    oil, hydraulic oil, detergents, oil additives, chemicals,

    catalytic fines, soot and other substances. This

    mixture is normally collected in a bilge water settling

    tank and maintained at an elevated temperature.

    The marine sector uses large amounts of chemicals

    for cleaning, service and maintenance activities

    in the engine room and many of these products

    are surfactant-based. As such, these chemicals

    contribute to emulsion formation in a ships bilge

    water system.

    An emulsion is a mixture of oil and water, where

    small oil droplets are dispersedin the continuous

    water phase.

    Separation efficiency can be compromised by

    the formation of stable emulsions. This becomes

    challenging when an emulsion is stabilized by sur-

    factants, water-soluble polymers or colloidal

    particles. Centrifugal treat-

    ment of bilge water using the

    PureBilge system effectively

    handles separation. System

    description

    The PureBilge bilge water

    treatment system comprises

    four main functions:

    Forwarding/pumping

    Oily water pre-treatment

    Centrifugal separation

    Process control and

    monitoring

    Oily water is pumped from

    the settling tank to the pre-

    treatment stage by a positive

    displacement pump with

    variable frequency drive. In

    the pre-treatment stage the

    bilge water is fed through a basket strainer that traps

    large particles from the fluid.

    The fluid then passes through a heat exchanger,

    which raises the temperature of the fluid to the re-

    quired level for optimal separation efficiency, gener-

    ally between 60C to 70C. A three-way changeover

    valve is located after the heat exchanger in the

    pre-treatment stage. The purpose of this valve is

    to direct the fluid to the separation stage when all

    process conditions, such as feed temperature, pres-

    sure and separator speed match pre-set values. If

    any condition is not met, the valve will re-circulate

    the fluid to the bilge water settling tank.

    When all process conditions are fulfilled, the fluid is

    directed to the separation stage. Fluid then enters

    a highspeed centrifugal separator that is designed

    for continuous, high-efficiency separation of large

    volumes of bilge water. Oil and emulsions separated

    from the bilge water are continuously discharged

    and directed to a sludge or waste-oil collecting

    tank. Solids are discharged intermittently through the

    self-cleaning mechanism of the centrifuge. Treated

    water is also continuously discharged. An oil-in-wa-

    ter monitor measures the oil content in the treated

    bilge water in full compliance with IMO Resolution

    MEPC.107(49). When the oil content is below a pre-

    set value (15 ppm or lower), the treated water can

    be directed either to a holdingtank for dischargeo-

    verboard at the ship operators convenience, or

    pumped directly overboard. If the oil content is

    above the pre-set value, the water is re-circulated to

    the bilge water settling tank.

    Revolutionary design features

    PureBilge incorporates the Alfa Laval BWPX 307

    high-speed centrifuge and the latest achievements

    in fluid dynamics technology:

    A patented Alfa Laval XLrator inlet device gently

    accelerates the bilge water into the separator bowl

    with minimal shearing and foaming. This greatly

    improves the separation efficiency by preventing

    droplet splitting and further emulsion formation.

    The disc-stack and bowl design provides the maxi-

    mum surface area for separation. Specially designed

    distribution holes and optimized caulk configuration

    further enhance separation efficiency.

    These design features in combination with stable,

    continuous operation ensure proper handling of oil

    shocks that generallybring static cleaning systems

    to a standstill.

    EPC 60 Bilge process controller

    This new generation of the easy-tooperate, com-

    puter-based Alfa Laval process controller facilitates

    advanced fully automated monitoring and control

    of PureBilge functions by displaying in clear text

    process parameters, alarms and other data.

    The EPC 60 Bilge process controller

    displays the status of the process, system valves

    and transmitters, activated or deactivated.

    The process controller is based on the same hard-

    ware used in other Alfa Laval units, making it easy to

    use for operatorswho are already familiar with this

    equipment.

    Capacities

    PureBilge is available in two standard versions:

    PureBilge 2515: 2 500 l/h, 15 ppm

    PureBilge 5015: 5 000 l/h, 15 ppm

    Options

    5 ppm certificate

    Heat recovery

    Safety box

    Flow meter

    Sludge removal kit

    CIP unit

    Chemical dosing unit

    Automatic self-cleaning filter

    Remote control

    knowledge&innovation

  • ANNUAL AND 5-YEAR SERVICES AND TESTS ON LIFEBOATS,RESCUE BOATS, RELEASE GEARS AND LAUNCHING APPLIANCESIN COMPLIANCE WITH MSC/Circ. 1 1206:

    Inspection, maintenance and repair for:

    Lifeboats, davits and winches Rescue boats, davits and winches Free Fall lifeboats and davits

    Service authorization by major international makers Qualified service engineers 30 years of experience Approval by the Greek Authority Worldwide - 24h service Competitive prices

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    Wire ropes, chains, webbing slings, ropes and fittings supplyUnrigging and rigging services - Testing, inspection and certification servicesfor every kind of pulling, lifting and holding applications

    VLAHAKOU 10 STR. PIRAEUS 185 45 GREECE TEL: +30 210 41 70 709 - +30 210 41 75 729 FAX : +30 210 41 77 722

    email: [email protected]

    CRGO GEAR S.R.T. L.t.d. Supply ~ Rigging ~ Testing

  • 20knowledge&innovation

    ABB Turbocharging Aims to Multiply Power but Decimate Emissions

    The Turbocharger A 300% Solution

    Leaving aside the question of exhaust emissions reduction, it should not be forgotten that the exhaust gases of an en-gine are a useful resource. That they contain energy is obvious from their temperature the noise an engine makes when its silencer is missing or defective. At the turn of the 20th century, Swiss engineer and inventor Alfred Buechi came up with the ingenious idea of using this energy to drive a compressor via a turbine in the exhaust gas stream of a diesel engine. The compressor would force more air into the engines cylinders than possible using only the suction of the engines induction stroke at atmospheric pressure, and with more air present, more fuel could be injected into the combustion chamber and more power pro-duced. Buechi filed his application to patent a highly supercharged compound engine in 1905 and very soon, Brown Boveri (BBC), one of the founding companies of ABB, recognized the tremendous potential of exhaust gas turbocharging and entered into a partnership for its development and application.The first turbocharger for a large diesel engine was delivered by ABB predecessor BBC in 1924. This marked the begin-ning of a phase of intensive research and development. At that time BBC engineers in Baden, Switzerland, began to devise new and improved turbochargers of ever greater efficiency. It was the beginning of a success story that contin-ues to this day.A good deal of this success stems from the fact that it was soon recognized that, as well as raising the power output of an engine, the extra air turbocharging provides results in a general improvement in the combustion of the fuel in the air. Thus, as well extracting more power from the engine, turbocharging extracts more power from the fuel itself, due to more complete combustion. This means reduced fuel consumption and since more complete combustion is generally also cleaner combustion, lower levels of harmful emissions in the exhaust gases result. co

    vers

    tory

    photo 3

  • 21knowledge&innovation

    photo 4 photo 5

    Today Modern state-of-the art turbocharging systems are capable of increasing an engines power output by over 300% compared to the same engine without turbocharging - hence the 300% solution. However, such were the beneficial effects of turbocharg-ing even in the pioneering days that very soon it became unthinkable that a large engine of the type used to propel ships or produce electrical power would be built without turbocharging. Then, slowly but surely the technology cascaded down through the various sizes of engine and in the late 1980s finally conquered the market for car engines. Hence today all but the very smallest diesel engines are tur-bocharged. And as we are now seeing, automotive petrol engines increasingly use the technology. The modern company ABB Turbocharging is still based in Baden and still very much at the forefront of turbocharger technology for large engines with outputs over 500 kilowatts (KW). This is demonstrat-ed by recent announcements and product launches. Emissions FocusIn the current phase of engine development this means developing and introducing turbochargers capable of forcing air into the engine combustion chamber at even higher pressures. This enables so called Miller Cycles of various strengths, an ad-vanced method of cooling the air entering the engine to counter the combustion temperature peaks which are responsible for 90% of the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) formed during diesel combustion. Single Stage As a first step ABB has introduced the A100 genera-tion of high efficiency, high pressure ratio single stage turbochargers i.e. turbochargers with only one turbine and compressor. Targeting new standards in turbocharger performance for diesel and gas engines with outputs above 500 kW, the A100 series offers market leading efficiencies combined with pressure ratios up to 5.8 for high and medium speed four strokes and 4.7 for low speed two stroke engines. With these pressure ratio levels, the A100 genera-tion is capable of minimizing fuel consumption on the latest marine diesel engines designed to comply with IMO Tier II, the second stage of emissions leg-islation from the International Maritime Organisation.

    IMO Tier II will be implemented in 2011, and speci-fies a 20% reduction in NOx emissions compared to IMO Tier I, introduced in 2000. However, in 2016 the third stage of emissions legislation form the IMO specifies an 80% reduction in NOx emissions when ships are in Emissions Control Areas i.e. waters near centres of population and environmentally sensitive areas. To address IMO Tier III ABB Turbochargings is developing higher pressure two-stage turbocharging systems as an enabling technology of very strong Miller Cycles to enable engine builders to get as close to the 80% reduction in NOx as possible without using catalytic converters or other aftertreatment methods.

    Pressure ratios around 8 ABB Turbocharging has named its two stage turbocharging technology Power2 and the target is turbocharger pressure ratios high enough to achieve very strong Miller Cycles on 4-stroke engines. The systems under development consist of two turbochargers of different, tuned frame sizes with the larger turbocharger upstream of the smaller unit. They are connected in tandem on the compressor side via an intermediate air cooler cooling the compressed air issuing from the first turbocharger means the second turbocharger needs to do less work and can be more compact. This arrangement readily produces pressure ratios in the range around 8 which promise to achieve high, double digit NOx reductions on 4-stroke medium-speed diesel engines. In fact, latest com-putations for Power2s potential made by ABB Tur-bochargings development engineers, using highly sophisticated simulation software which, over the years, has gained an excellent reputation for its ac-curate predictions, indicate that the 80 % reduction in NOx values via--vis IMO Tier I required under IMO Tier III in ECAs is a realistic prospect. In fact, the concepts under development promise to not only make a very significant contribution to reducing NOx emissions, but also to engine builders other traditional preoccupations: fuel consumption and power density.

    Taming the trade-off The strong Miller Cycles are needed to alleviate one

    of the most intractable constraints on diesel engine builders seeking lower NOx emissions: the trade-off between NOx and specific fuel consumption (SFC)The NOx-SFC Trade-off reflects the fact that NOx formation reduces with lower combustion tempera-tures while engine fuel efficiency increases with higher combustion temperatures. Hence, in the early days of emissions reduction on diesel engines com-bustion temperatures were lowered by retarding fuel injection to reduce the rate of heat released from the fuel. Thus a fuel consumption penalty was incurred in the interests of lower NOx emissions.However, while the trade-off will always be a fact of every engine developers life, the findings of ABB and its development partners, such as major en-gines builder Wrtsil show that using a combination of much higher turbocharging pressures, variable valve timing and advanced fuel injection technology (e.g. common rail), all under electronic control, the Miller Cycle is capable of shifting this compromise between NOx emissions and fuel consumption val-ues into a new, far lower range. Moreover, as stated, a further effect, of the higher turbocharging pres-sures produced by ABB Turbochargings Power2 two stage turbocharging system is a useful increase in engine power density.

    Miller CycleThese assertions are explained by looking at the Miller Cycle. The term denotes an ingenious method of cooling an engines combustion air to eliminate the high temperature peaks in the engines combus-tion chamber responsible for over 90 % of NOx formation. On 4-stroke engines, the cooling effect is achieved by shortening the opening period of the inlet valve and so reducing the time during which air can enter the cylinder on the engines induction stroke. The earlier end of induction promotes expansion, and hence cooling as the air continues to expand. On 2-stroke engines, where the timing of air induction is the function of the piston passing fixed inlet ports, a similar effect can be achieved by varying the closure of the exhaust valve. In both cases, however, with-out turbocharging countermeasures, a shorter period for air induction would mean only a reduced mass of air could enter the combustion chamber and engine

  • 22knowledge&innovation

    power output and response to load changes would suffer. Hence, higher turbocharging pressures are used to compensate the shorter time for induction, allowing an equal or even greater mass of combustion air to be forced into the cylinder in the briefer period available. In this way engine power characteristics can be maintained and bettered while still achieving very significant reductions in NOx formation due to lower combustion chamber temperatures. Significantly, this does not affect the quality of combustion and thus fuel consumption.VCM for variable MillerThe strong Miller Cycles described above are matched to the engine operating at its rated output or MCR (maximum continuous rating). However, engines have to be started and in many applications follow the load, i.e. their output is expected to vary as the work to be done by the engine varies as is the case in marine propulsion and onboard power generation. At low loads, the short inlet valve timings needed for very strong Miller Cycles on 4-stroke diesels lead to increased smoke emissions due to low combustion temperatures as well as poor response to load changes. Hence a method is needed to vary the length of inlet valve opening and so allow the time available for combustion air induction can be varied and the strength of the Miller Cycle adapted to engine load and speed. This is the function of the VCM Valve Control Management system ABB Turbocharging is currently devel-oping in cooperation with engine component specialist INA Schaeffler KG. VCM is based on INAs UniAir system for automotive engines and allows variation of both valve timing and lift on 4-stroke diesel and gas engines in the power range above 400 kW. A prototype of the new VCM system is currently undergoing an extensive test program. First results confirm the systems potential for highly flexible valve timings on 4-stroke engines.

    photo 1

    Captions of pictures:1. With pressure ratios up to 4.7 for 2-strokes and 5.8 for 4-strokes, ABB Turbochargings latest A100 generation of turbochargers can assist engine builders to optimise fuel consumption on IMO Tier II compliant diesels. 2. Schematic of ABB Turbochargings Power2 two stage turbocharger system.3. A Wrtsil 4-stroke diesel engine with two stage turbocharging technol-ogy on the test stand.4. IMO, NOx curves.5. The fuel saving and NOx reduction potential of ABB turbochargings Power2 two stage turbocharging and VCM valve control management for diesel engines.6. The VCM system for large engines uses a high pressure oil chamber between the inlet valve and its rocker to vary valve timing and lift. A solenoid valve controls the filling of the chamber with engine lube oil from a camshaft actuated pump. The pump also pressurizes a brake unit above the inlet valve to limit forces when the valve contacts its seat. Legends of picture 6: 1. Pressure accumulator2. Middle pressure chamber3. Oil supply4. Engine valves5. Pump unit6. High pressure chamber7. Solenoid valve8. Actuator/brake9. Camshaft

    photo 6

    photo 2

  • Our reputation is founded on the skills and the experience of the people who make up our team around the world. Every piece of advice we give is underpinned by a global research and development network that is continually helping us find new and better ways to improve safety and quality in the marine industry. We are committed to being at the forefront of technological innovation in our industry and to sharing that knowledge to help make the world a safer place.

    Learn more about our global network go to www.lr.org/marine

    Leading expertise for a saferworld.

    Services are provided by members of the Lloyds Register Group.

    COL4642_LR_Marine Ad_Leading_A4.indd 1 30/9/09 11:00:47

  • 24knowledge&innovation

    ABB two stage turbocharging now on cutting-edge gas engine

    New gas engine signals ABB Turbochargings second 2-stage success.

    Following a recent announcement centering on die-sel engines, a leading gas engine builder has now reported the results of its joint development program with ABB Turbocharging for the application of two stage turbocharging on 4-stroke engines. Within weeks of news that the turbocharger special-ist headquartered in Baden, Switzerland and engine builder Wrtsil are co-operating in the development of two stage turbocharging for large diesel engines, gas engine specialist GE has announced the Worlds first spark ignited gas engine featuring a two stage turbocharging system jointly developed with ABB since 2008. In detail, the 24 cylinder GE Jenbacher J624 with two stage turbocharging achieves a rated output of 4.4 MW compared to the 4 MW of its predecessor version with conventional turbocharging and offers an electrical efficiency of 46.5%, an increase of

    about 2%. The higher efficiency translates into more competitive electrical power generation and a reduc-tion in CO2 emissions as well as making new engine especially attractive in combined heat and power (CHP) applications.While the trade-off between fuel consumption and NOx emissions is the focus of two stage turbocharg-ing on diesel engines i.e. enabling strong Miller Cycles to achieve very strict emissions limits like IMO Tier III and EPA Tier 4 at optimized fuel con-sumption on the new gas engine with two stage turbocharging major priorities were increases in efficiency and power density while also decreasing sensitivity to ambient conditions and gas quality. These priorities are explained on the one hand by the fact that the lean burn technology used by gas engines already represents a robust, economic route to low NOx emissions, on the other hand by

    the need to maintain performance in unfavorable ambient conditions and when operating on gases with variable calorific values. Accordingly, the level of charge air pressure achieved by the J624s two stage turbocharging system helps the engine maintain rated outputs in climates with high ambient temperatures and humidity and on gases of variable calorific value. While the new J624 is the first in the GE portfolio to use two stage turbocharging, the company has con-firmed its intention to offer the technology on further engines in its range in the future.

    Caption of photos: GEs new 4.4 MW rated Jenbacher J624 gas en-gine features a two stage turbocharging system jointly developed with ABB Turbocharging.

  • 25knowledge&innovation

    Coated Turbine Blades Combat Circumferential Wear

    New turbocharger option increases blade exchange times on engines burning low grade HFO

    For engines burning lower qualities of heavy fuel oil (HFO) and with especially heavy duty operating profiles, ABB Turbocharging has introduced axial turbine blades having hardfaced tips to counter ac-celerated circumferential wear.In such applications turbocharger performance and service costs can suffer due to build-up of hard, abrasive combustion residues on and around the turbine diffuser. Wear due to contact between the deposits and the rotating turbine blades causes a loss in turbine diameter and hence an increase in exhaust gases bypassing the turbine. This both reduces turbocharger and engine efficiency and results in more frequent replacement of complete sets of turbine blades.Economic solutionUsing a special, ABB developed coating process, a hard wear resistant layer is applied to the extremities of removable turbine blades. Nicknamed dragons

    teeth, only 6 of the hard tipped blades need to be fitted in pairs at 120 intervals around the turbine wheel. At this even spacing they are able to scrape away the hard HFO fouling to clear a path for the standard blades, thus minimizing contact with the abrasive residues. The 120 spacing of the coated blades also assists rotor balancing as well as ensur-ing a well distributed scraping effect. Reduction in wearThe kit of six turbine blades was fitted to a turbo-charger operating on a medium speed generator set as part of a package of measures designed to prolong turbine blade and diffuser lifespan. The measures also included a modified diffuser to minimize distortion during cleaning operations and improvements to the turbine washing nozzlesIn this early application the dragons teeth reduced wear on the standard blades to a level where only the hard tipped blades needed to be replaced during

    scheduled turbocharger overhaul. Diffuser mainte-nance was likewise considerably reduced Original equipment or retrofitAs well as being an option on new turbochargers, the new hard tip solution is also offered as part of AABs Hot Part Package which also includes modified washing nozzles for ABB Turbochargings TPL . . -A and TPL. . -C turbochargers on engines operating on HFO.Captions of photos: 1. ABB Turbochargings turbine blades with hard wear resistant tips are designed to scrape away hard HFO fouling on turbocharger turbine diffus-ers to minimize contact of the standard blades with the abrasive deposits. 2. Only 6 of ABB Turbochargings hard tipped turbine blades need to be fitted in pairs at 120 intervals around the turbine wheel to counter circumferential wear.

    photo 1

    photo 2

  • 26knowledge&innovation

    ABB Turbocharging Introduces VCM for 4-stroke DieselsValve Control Management allows variation of timing and lift for variable Miller Cycles

    Under the designation VCM Valve Control Management, ABB Turbocharging and engine component specialist INA Schaeffler KG are developing an advanced variable valve train system. VCM offers en-gine builders a vital technology for attaining low NOx emissions combined with optimized fuel efficiency and increased power density on the 4-stroke diesel and gas engines of the future. VCM VCM is based on INAs UniAir system for automotive engines. It allows variation of both valve timing and lift on 4-stroke diesel and gas engines in the power range above 400 kW. A prototype of the new VCM system is currently undergoing an extensive test program. First results confirm the systems potential for highly flexible valve timings on 4-stroke engines. Miller EnablerVCM complements ABB Turbochargings Power2 two stage turbocharging system as enabling technolo-gies of Miller Cycles on 4-stroke diesel and gas engines. On diesel engines, strong, variable Miller Cy-cles hold the prospect of attaining the 80% reductions in NOx emissions specified by IMO Tier III limits for Emission Control Areas using only primary, on-engine measures. VCM allows inlet valve timings to be varied at lower engine loads to avoid increased emissions of smoke and particulates and higher thermal loading, as well as improving engine response, idling and starting.Performance adapterVCM is also a versatile and valuable tool for closely adapting engine performance to the operating profile of a given engine application.VCM operating principleVariation in valve timing and lift is achieved by interposing a high pressure oil chamber into the engine valve train between the valve and its mechanical actuation system.A solenoid valve varies the filling of the chamber with engine lube oil pressurized by a camshaft actu-ated pump. This enables both the timing of the opening and closing of the valve to be varied as well as the distance the valve opens (valve lift). The pump also feeds a brake unit above the valve to limit forces when the valve contacts its seat.

    Captions of photos: 1. The VCM system varies valve timing and lift by interposing a high pressure oil cham-ber into the engine valve train.Legend: 1. Pressure accumulator2. Middle pressure chamber3. Oil supply4. Engine valves5. Pump unit6. High pressure chamber7. Solenoid valve8. Actuator/brake9. Camshaft

    2. Prototypes of ABB Turbochargings VCM Valve Control Management system are currently undergoing rigorous testing. First results confirm its potential for highly flex-ible valve timing on 4-stroke engines.

    photo 2

    photo 1

  • knowledge&innovation

    28

    Model Calculations Drive ProfitabilityKonstantinos Vasileiadis, Business Development Manager, GL Piraeus

    Operating ships in a manner that is both profitable and friendly to the environment is not self-contra-dictory, as FutureShips ECO-Patterns tool shows. ECO-Patterns exposes weaknesses in energy management and helps reduce both CO2 emissions and fuel consumption.

    Volker Hppner, Managing Director FutureShip, takes a pragmatic approach: Wed rather develop solutions of our own. He is talking about reducing CO2 emissions from commercial shipping. It is a safe bet that ships will have to pay for their CO2 emis-sions sooner or later. In Hppners opinion, voluntary commitments to CO2 reduction are preferable to le-gal requirements. A subject of heated debate. Critics question the relevance of ship emissions for climate change. Hppner isnt so sure either: Ships are the

    most environment-friendly way of hauling goods from here to there. The specific CO2 emissions of trucks are many times higher, not to mention planes. Even rail transport is no competition for ships when it comes to the climate hazard of CO2 emissions. Those are strong arguments. But the dramatic symp-toms of climate change observed in recent decades leave no room for exceptions: each and every CO2 source must be scrutinized. The IMO is working hard to push measures for CO2 reduction, but the focus of these efforts is not really on the current contribution of shipping to worldwide CO2 emissions, which is a mere four per cent. What is much more worrisome is where shipping is headed. Apart from occasional dips in the business cycle, the volume of sea traffic is on a steady rise. By 2050, CO2 output from ships could reach up to five times the present volume. That

    would definitely make commercial shipping a big emitter.

    Comparison Reveals Weak SpotsAs long as ship engines burn heavy fuel oil or diesel, they will inevitably produce CO2. As a rule of thumb, burning one tonne of fossil fuel releases nearly three tonnes of carbon dioxide, and there is no technical gadget to avoid that. The only thing that can make a difference is boosting efficiency. This is where ECO-Patterns comes in, an analysis tool developed by Hppner and others. The first step towards optimizing the fuel consumption of a vessel is analyzing its current operation. The tool is used to gather all relevant travel information over a period of time long enough to be representative. The resulting long-term study covers all data needed to assess

  • 25knowledge&innovation

    the current energy consumption. Of course, the data alone doesnt really tell us anything, says Hppner. We need to follow up with a comparison, wherever possible with one or several sister ships, or at least with the data from a similar ship type. This quickly tells us whether there are any statistical outliers with regard to energy consumption. The best possible scenario for Hppner has been an analysis project involving an entire fleet of ships identical by design and operating in very similar environments. Com-parison was straight forward and the outlier was quickly identified on the summary diagram: its En-ergy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI), which ECO-Patterns is based on, was ten per cent lower than the average of the other ships. Among the rest of the fleet, the CO2 emissions and, consequently, the fuel consumption values were very similar the expected result for identical ships operating under nearly identical conditions.

    Drawing on the Skippers ExpertiseSo what is next after the ECO-Patterns analysis? Future-Ship can then offer a root-cause analysis, says Hppner. Our next step is what we call ECO-Practices. This is essentially a Failure Mode and Ef-fects Analysis (FMEA) whereby each energy-relevant system undergoes an error and risk assessment. To

    give an example, Hppner explains, a situation we encounter frequently, the cooling water system often wastes a lot of energy. So we take a close look at its operation and try to come up with the best way to improve efficiency. Another area to scrutinize is the on-board power-generating equipment. Working closely together with the ships officers is essential for Hppner. He draws on their insight into the subtle ways the ships systems interact. The amazing thing is knowledge how to achieve efficient ship opera-tion does exist on board. But in many cases nobody ever asks. We try to bring it out into the open.

    Accurate Directions FutureShip with its varied portfolio of consultancy services can assist in many different ways. The final results of the analysis can be applied on several intervention levels: the lowest or operational level addresses the way the ship is run. The second level involves minor retrofitting measures, and the third level includes major technical modifications. The customer decides how far he wants to go. In the case of the fleet of identical ships described above, the statistical outlier provided some valuable insights: the ECO-Patterns analysis quickly demonstrated that it was worth searching for hidden potential for optimizing operations. The question what to do in a

    given case whether to give new directions to the skipper and his officers or to invest in some technical modifications, such as a better cooling water pump can be answered by running an ECO-Practices analysis. More information on all above GL Group products can be requested by Mr. Konstantinos Vasileiadis, Business Development Manager, GL Piraeus.

    EEOI

    The Energy Efficiency Operational Indi-

    cator (EEOI) was developed by the IMO

    as a means to measure and optimize

    ship efficiency. The indicator is com-

    puted from a CO2 factor specific to the

    fuel used, the amount of fuel consumed,

    the distance travelled and the volume of

    goods transported. The industry is still

    debating whether or not the use of the

    EEOI should become a binding require-

    ment. But it is safe to

    assume that it will be introduced on a

    voluntary basis before long.

    www.internaftiki.gr, [email protected], Tel: +302104126997, Fax: +3021041275666 Alipedou str. GR 18531, Piraeus - Greece

  • knowledge&innovation

    30

    Franman Ltd - EOS Risk Management Ltd Franman Ltd Trading House . , , . management 1997 2006 Imperium Ship-management, Head Operations . Franman. : Franman one stop shop. , - , . Maritime Security Risk Management. , . EOS Risk Management Ltd Risk Management

    Security, , . . , . deviation , , , , . . . , . , , . . . . ., , .., . .

    . Best Management Practices, , MSCHOA UKMTO . . radar . security . EOS Franman . EOS 2003 . , Mr. David Johnson, . , , Ship Security Officer. EOS

  • 31knowledge&innovation

    ,- , - , - , - , - . . , , . EOS, , .

    . EOS . . Ship, Company Port Security Officer , , , (Department of Transport) (MCA). . Secure by Design EOS , , , . . EOS

    , . , . , . security . EOS Risk Management Ltd Maritime Security Risk Management .

    6EY22 Yanmar

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  • knowledge&innovation

    32

    DNV Research & Innovation GreeceNikolaos KakalisHead of DNV Research & Innovation Greece

    DNV Research and Innovation (DNVR&I) is the corporate DNV unit with prime focus on new knowledge and technologies that will have a long-term impact on business growth. In 2008 DNVR&I established a Research & Innovation hub in Piraeus aiming to provide high-caliber R&D solutions to future needs of shipping and the Greek shipping community in particular. Significant pillars are the cooperation with Greek companies and the strategic collaboration with the School of Naval Ar-chitecture and Marine Engineering of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). Since 2008, we have built a team of highly qualified people, with a mix of strong skills in marine, mechanical and process engineering, significant international experience and networking.

    The main R&D activities of DNVR&I Greece focus on the development of next-generation solutions for energy-efficient, greener and more effective maritime transportation. On the one strand we de-velop a novel tool for performance assessment and optimisation of marine energy systems (propulsion and auxiliaries), a significant aspect of the ship/fleet daily business. The tool aims at providing decision support for ships in operation and new buildings design, focusing on increased fuel savings and reduced emissions. In addition, it is capable of assessing the potential and operational capabilities of innovative designs like the fuel cell systems for alternative auxiliary power on cruise vessels being developed in the PaXell German joint industry project.

    On the other strand, DNVR&I Greece develops new methods that address important problems in the area of operations and logistics. We are involved in the development of decision support tools on (a). optimal fleet sizing and allocation under uncertainty at the strategic level, and (b). tactical routing, deployment and speed optimisation. Further work in maritime logistics include the SuperGreen EU project coordinated by NTUA, which aims at the development of sustainable transport networks by fulfilling requirements covering environmental, technical, economical, social, and spatial planning aspects.

    Being at the forefront in innovation, in 2009 DNVR&I Greece and Process Systems Enter-prise Ltd secured and initiated the Maritime CCS (Carbon Capture Storage) project under the

    EUROSTARS-EUREKA initiative. The project aims at the design of an onboard process for chemical capture and temporary storage of CO2 emissions for ships in transit, until discharge into transmis-sion and storage infrastructures at the next suitable port. The unique challenges posed by the maritime environment, including constant ship movement, limited space and access to utilities, stringent safety requirements and the need for energy ef-ficiency are being considered, elevating the level of complexity. The concept of maritime carbon capture is completely new in the field of maritime transpor-tation, with no current end-to-end solution available. As such, Maritime CCS intends to provide the shipbuilding and relevant manufacturing industries with a sound basis for the development of CCS systems for ships.

    In order to brand and position DNV, sound results of the hubs work are presented at international conferences and journal publications, while at-tracting the interest and feedback of the shipping industry. The efficient collaboration with DNVR&I in Norway ensures the optimal utilisation of compe-tence, acceleration of development, and creative transfer of knowledge across units and countries. Important to our progress has also been the strong support from DNV Maritime in Greece.

    DNVR&I Greece has also delivered a first pilot pro-ject on a decision support tool for financial assess-ment and comparison of air emissions abatement measures. For DNV, a pilot is a significant step in developing new products and services. For our col-laborating companies it is also important as they re-ceive a service of topical interest and come closer to the most recent DNV developments. These pilots were done in collaboration with tankers operator Arcadia Shipmanagement and Luis Cruise Lines, and our successful interaction has already resulted in further business development of the tool.

    wFinally, our work and the strong interaction with one of the most dynamic markets worldwide, the Greek shipping community, enable us to take initiatives and attract novel projects. The strategic research activities at R&I Piraeus have already contributed with new knowledge and methods that will have a long-term impact for DNV. DNVR&I Greece will continue performing high-quality R&D that respond to questions of today and the needs of a sustainable future.

    Since 2008, we have built a team of highly qualified people, with a mix of strong skills in marine, mechanical and process engineering, significant international experience and net-working.

    Being at the forefront in innovation, in 2009 DNVR&I Greece and Process Systems Enter-prise Ltd secured and initiated the Maritime CCS (Carbon Capture Storage) project under the EUROSTARS-EU-REKA initiative.

    DNVR&I Greece has also delivered a first pi-lot project on a decision support tool for financial assessment and com-parison of air emissions abatement measures.

    PHOTO KAKALI

  • JUNE-2006.indd 191 5/23/06 12:59:32 PM

  • 34

    Intra Mare becomes exclusive repre-sentative for Greece of the GMO groupIntra Mare is pleased to announce that has been appointed by Aqua Signal - Glamox as the exclusive representative for Greece of the GMO group.Global Marine & Offshore group consists of Aqua Signal, Glamox, Hoviklys, Norselight and Luxo and is the leading supplier of lighting solutions to the marine and offshore markets worldwide.Intra Mare will serve the demands of the entire Greek Marine Market in respect of New Projects and Spare Parts Handling.Through our five brands we trust that we can fulfill all your requirements, from floodlights and searchlights, through explosion proof luminaires and interior systems to navigation lighting.The company develops high quality products and energy efficient systems for extreme applications. All based on inno-vative technology. Our solutions demand more than todays expertise - it demands generations of experience.

    CleanBallast system receives type approvalThe CleanBallast system, developed over many years by water treatment experts from RWO, a Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies company, has received its Type Approval. The system, con-sisting of a mechanical filter process and a special disinfection unit, has so far been ordered for more than 40 plants. A number of these plants have been installed and in success-ful commercial operation since the end of 2009, making CleanBallast one of the few systems that can demonstrate a longer operational duration in commer-cial application. Because of the increasing negative impacts of alien marine organisms transported in the ballast water of oceangoing ships, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) spent many years working on a Ballast Water Convention. This convention adopted in 2004 is aimed at preventing the unintended transport of microorganisms in ballast water.The CleanBallast technology was devel-oped by RWO from 2003, refined over the years and extensively tested under real-life conditions. Even under extreme conditions, such as high sediment concentrations, CleanBallast exceeded the IMO test requirements. The design and testing

    of the plant under real environmental conditions is an essential prerequisite for guaran-teeing a fast and safe loading of ballast water and short times alongside in port. In addition, the efficient removal of the sediment considerably reduces tank clean-ing costs and prevents the loss of valuable load-

    ing capacities. Many years experience in treating water and wastewater aboard ships and offshore rigs helped the Bremen-based company in developing the modular system, which stands out for its techno-

    logical reliability, sustainability and economical operating and investment costs. The CleanBallast system, which can operate not only in sea water but also in waters with a low salt content, is of-fered for various capacities and assignments and both for new building and retrofitting.

    Designed and made in Germany is still an internationally well-known and recognised mark of quality of the RWO maritime water treatment experts, with the CleanBallast plants being manu-factured at their main site in Bremen.We are very satisfied with the perfor-mance of the CleanBallast systems, which already enable us to implement the loading and discharge of ballast wa-ter in conformity with the D2 standard of the IMO, says Niels Stolberg, President and CEO of Beluga Shipping GmbH, about the RWO technology. Due to its leading edge technologies, plant reliability and short delivery times, RWO has in the course of recent years already established itself as the

    international market leader in bilge wa-ter treat-ment. RWO is now also pursuing this goal with the ballast water treatment system CleanBallast. RWO is represented in Greece and Cyprus by Franman Ltd.

    ABN AMRO

    ABN AMRO Bank , , (ECT) . ABN AMRO Bank , . ABN AMRO Bank , (ECT). 2009, . . , , (ECT), : , . . . . Gust Biesbroeck, ABN AMRO Bank, : . . ABN AMRO Bank .

  • SFAKTIRIAS 17 & PAPASTRATOU 52 PIRAEUSTEL +302104082638 FAX +302104082639emails : [email protected] [email protected] A MEMBER OF WIMA

    ORFANIDIS PETROS & CO

    WORKSHOP-SHIP REPAIRS-SPARE PARTS

  • Safety4SeaCorner

    36

    Risk Management era : Entering at your own riskAre you ready to play the game?Apostolos BelokasPrincipal Consultant & CEO of IBS Marine Consulting Group

    It is widely accepted that from July 1st we are entering a new era where each and every one of us has to think in terms of Risk Assessment. Example : You are trying to cross the road on a pedestrian crossing while at the same time there is a red light for all cars. One inexcusable person is violating the red light and is sending you straight o the Lord to negotiate your options between Heaven and hell. However the Lord is asking you : Whose fault is it? Why are you here at the moment? You have to review what happened and provide a reasonable answer. Have you properly assessed the dangers of crossing the road? Have you accommodated for Contingency Planning? and the ultimate one : Whose fault is it?I have been asking this simple question to conferences and training courses recently and the answer is a simple one. The fault lies with the person who is paying the cost. Who is paying the cost here? YOU. Yes you who is currently negotiating with the Lord.You do understand the meaning of the story. We all have to be proactive. Something easier said than done.There are several interesting developments lately with respect to Risk Management, to name but a few: Deep Water Horizon / Macondo Oil Spill ISO Standard 31000:2009, entitled Risk Management Principles and Guidelines on Implementation. OPA 2010 developments, that is U. S. Oil Pollution Act immediate revision due and the end of the liability limits with respect to Oil Pollution which may include severe consequences (fines, unlimited liability, civil and criminal penalties, and other goodies) for failure to implement a proper safety cultureWe have seen many developments so far in the shipping industry. It happened once every 20-30 years, this is the time now. After the Exxon Valdez disaster and the leguratory wave of the early/mid 90s (SIRE, Vetting, ISM, MARPOL Amendments, SOLAS Amendments, GMDSS, STCW 95 etc) it is happening now. We have Risk to be implemented attached with STCW 2010 due, MLC and other goodies due for implementation starting from 2012. It is an era that calls for leadership in the industry. It is a time for the good and evil to fight. We will see who is going to win.

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  • 38

    The Lloyds Register Strategic Research initiatives in GreeceSpyros Hirdaris Specialist Lloyds Register Strategic Research Group

    knowledge&innovation

    The Lloyds Register Strategic

    Research initiatives in Greece

    cover the complete spectrum of

    methodologies and technologies of

    interest to the Greek marine cus-tomer base, writes Spyros Hirdaris,

    Senior Specialist Lloyds Registers

    Strategic Research Group.

    Lloyds Registers strategic research agenda is aimed at helping the shipping community to respond to the regulatory-driven environmental challenges facing the industry, and working through our subsidiary, Hellenic Lloyds S.A., we are able to better respond to the local needs of Greek ship owners and operators.

    There are the market demands for eco-friendly and fuel efficient ship designs that will not compromise the communitys commitment towards its people and asset safety. There are the new technologies to be assessed, and ways designed to apply them in reducing operating and manufacturing costs without compromising the efficient working of a ship and its engineering components as a system.

    That is why, in Greece, our strategic research efforts are being focused on the future of risk as-sessment methodologies, green shipping initiatives, intelligent ship operations and emerging technolo-gies.

    Ongoing Initiatives

    Current Lloyds Register strategic research initia-tives in Greece are largely facilitated within the context of the EU FP7 WATERBORNE agenda. The Hellenic Strategic Research Group (SRG) is involved with the EU projects MINOAS and GOAL DS.

    Project MINOAS involves collaboration with the Greek companies HORAMA and GLAFCOS. MI-NOAS, aims to facilitate the hull inspection process through the deployment of a robots that can more easily access all parts of a ship. The primary objec-tives are to reduce downtime for the ship operators, achieve more consistent and accurate results, while

    reducing risks. Lloyds Registers initial involvement is to review and test existing technologies and de-velop a baseline to benchmark further technological developments. The research programme assesses the need for robots and then develops equipment that most appropriately satisfies these require-ments. Design parameters for the robots their mobility, sensors, and data recording/management as well as already integrated robot systems, are currently being studied.

    Project GOAL DS (Goal Based Standards for Dam-age Stability) involves collaboration with the NTUA Ship Design Laboratory. The project has been driven by the recent rapid changes in technologi-cal developments as well as the demands by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for ever improved goal-based driven standards. Present damage stability regulations account only for collision damages, despite the fact that accident statistics, particularly of passenger ships, indicate the importance of grounding accidents. The project addresses some of the new challenges related to Design for Safety and Risk and involves research probabilistic damaged stability formulations for large passenger vessels. Upon completion, the GOAL DS consortium will submit key results to IMO for consideration in the future SOLAS Rule making process.

    Forthcoming Initiatives Green Ship DesignMedium term Research

    In the short term, environmental impact considera-tions are expected to increasingly influence the design of ships, their operation and their eventual disposal.

    Lloyds Register has undertaken in-house pre-liminary studies classifying the range of design improvements that could be utilised towards increasing the energy efficiency and reducing the environmental impact of ocean going vessels. It has been concluded that optimisation of the aft and forward parts of ship hull forms may lead to 3-5% energy efficiency improvement. It is expected that further efficiency gai