Msc Thesis Sapanidis: Λήψη διαχειριστικών μέτρων με χρήση...

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ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΕΙΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΓΕΩΤΕΧΝΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΑΣΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΦΥΣΙΚΟΥ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΟΣ ΤΟΜΕΑΣ ΣΧΕΔΙΑΣΜΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΑΠΤΥΞΗΣ ΦΥΣΙΚΩΝ ΠΟΡΩΝ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΟ ΔΑΣΙΚΗΣ ΔΙΑΧΕΙΡΙΣΤΙΚΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΛΕΠΙΣΚΟΠΗΣΗΣ ΔΙΕΥΘΥΝΤΗΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΟΥ: ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ ΚΑΡΤΕΡΗΣ ΜΙΧΑΛΗΣ ΕΠΙΒΛΕΠΩΝ ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ: ΕΠΙΚΟΥΡΟΣ ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ ΚΑΡΑΜΑΝΩΛΗΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΣ «ΛΗΨΗ ΔΙΑΧΕΙΡΙΣΤΙΚΩΝ ΜΕΤΡΩΝ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΓΕΩΓΡΑΦΙΚΩΝ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΩΝ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΩΝ» ΜΕΤΑΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΔΙΑΤΡΙΒΗ ΣΑΠΑΝΙΔΗΣ ΔΗΜ. ΑΘΑΝΑΣΙΟΣ ΔΑΣΟΛΟΓΟΣ ΑΕΜ: 0288 ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗ, ΙΟΥΝΙΟΣ 2010
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Οι εξελίξεις τόσο στο τεχνολογικό, όσο και στον επιστημονικό τομέα, δεν αφήνουν αδιάφορη τη δασική επιστήμη, μέρος της οποίας είναι και η δασική διαχειριστική. Η δασική διαχειριστική ασκείται σχεδόν 5 δεκαετίες και ορίζεται από προδιαγραφές που ισχύουν όλα αυτά τα χρόνια. Είναι επιτακτική ανάγκη να αλλάξουν οι προδιαγραφές αυτές και ήδη υπάρχουν νέες σκέψεις στο θέμα αυτό. Οι νέες προδιαγραφές θα πρέπει να στηρίζονται στην αειφορική διαχείριση των πολλαπλών χρήσεων ή σκοπών, όπως επιτάσσει η παγκόσμια τάση. Πλέον, η αειφορία της ξυλοπαραγωγής θεωρείται ξεπερασμένη και θα πρέπει να δίνεται σημασία στα υπόλοιπα προϊόντα του δάσους και τις λειτουργίες του. Στην κατεύθυνση αυτή κινείται και η παρούσα μεταπτυχιακή διατριβή. Θέλοντας να εφαρμόσει πολλαπλών χρήσεων διαχείριση στη περιοχή μελέτης, που είναι το δασικό σύμπλεγμα Γέρακα – Ξάνθης – Κιμμερίων. Για να ολοκληρωθεί η διαχείριση, προτιμήθηκε η λύση των Γεωγραφικών Συστημάτων Πληροφοριών (ΓΣΠ). Οργανώθηκε με όλα τα απαραίτητα η Γεωβάση Δεδομένων, αφού προηγήθηκε συλλογή, επεξεργασία, ταξινόμηση και επέκταση των δεδομένων. Ακολούθησε η χρήση των χωρικών δεδομένων που προέκυψαν, στη λήψη διαχειριστικών μέτρων βάσει την αειφορία των πολλαπλών χρήσεων και την χωρική τους κατανομή.The developments so much in technological and in the scientific sector, do not leave incurious the forestal science, part of which is also forest management. Forest management is practised almost 5 decades and it is fixed by specifications that are in effect all these years. It is imperative need to change these specifications and there exists already new thoughts in this subject. The new specifications will be supposed to support sustainable multipurposal or multifunctional management, as ordains the world tendency. Henceforth, the use of timber is considered exceeded and it will be supposed is given importance in the remainder products of forest and his operations. In this direction is moved also the present postgraduate thesis. Wanting applies multipurposal management in the region of study, that is the forestal cluster of Geraka – Xanthi - Kimmerion. In order to complete the management, was preferred the solution of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Was organised with all essential the Geodatabase, after it preceded collection, treatment, classification and extension of data. Followed the use of territorial data that resulted, in the reception of management metres, based on the viability of multiple uses and their territorial distribution.

Transcript of Msc Thesis Sapanidis: Λήψη διαχειριστικών μέτρων με χρήση...

: :

. : 0288 , 2010

: :

. : 0288 , 2010

() , . . . 2006-2010. , . . . , , . . , . , , 4 . . , . , , . , , , . . . , 2010

I

..........................................................................................V .........................................................................................VI ........................................................................................................IX ..............................................................................................................X SUMMARY.............................................................................................................XI 1. ............................................................................................................2 1.1 .........................................................................................................3 1.2 ...........................................................................................................3 1.3 ....................................................................................................4 1.4 .............................................................................................4 2. .....................................................................5 2.1 .........................................................................5 2.2 ...............................................................................6 2.3 .................................7 2.4 (GIS) ............................................................9 2.5 ...............................................................................11 3. ..........................................................12 3.1 ...................................................................................12 3.1.1 ............................................................................13 3.1.1.1 ..........................................13 3.1.1.2 ...................13 3.1.1.3 .........................................................13 3.1.1.4 .........................................................14 3.1.1.5 .......................................................15 3.1.1.5.1 ......................................................................................15 3.1.1.5.2 .......................16 3.1.1.5.3 ..................................................17 3.1.1.6 ..........................................................17 3.1.1.6.1 ....................................................18 3.1.1.6.2 ....................................................................................19 3.1.1.7 .................................................20 3.1.1.7.1 ....................................................20 3.1.1.7.2 ......................................................20 3.1.1.7.3 ...........................................................................20 3.1.1.7.4 ................22 3.1.1.7.5 , ................................................................................23 3.1.1.7.6 ...............................................23 3.1.2 ...........................................................................23 3.1.2.1 ...............................................................23 3.1.2.1.1 ..........................................23 3.1.2.1.2 ....................................................25 3.1.2.2 ...............................................................27 3.1.2.2.1 (..)...............................................................................29 3.1.2.2.2 .. ........................29 3.1.2.2.3 ..............................................................29 3.1.2.2.4 .. .....................................................29

II

3.2 ..................................................................................................29 3.2.1 ......................................................................29 3.2.2 ............................................................31 3.2.3 .................................................................32 3.3 ...............................................................................32 4. ..........................................................................33 4.1 .........................................33 4.2 ........................................................34 4.2.1 ......................................................................34 4.2.1.1 .............................................................................34 4.2.1.2 ................................................................................35 4.2.2 ............................................................39 4.2.2.1 .............................................................................39 4.2.2.2 ................................................................................40 4.2.3 .................................................................45 4.3 ...................................................46 4.3.1 ......................................................................46 4.3.2 ............................................................47 4.3.2.1 .....................................................47 4.3.2.2 ........................................................49 4.3.2.3 ..................................................................................50 4.3.3 .................................................................................................55 4.3.3.1 ...........................55 4.3.3.2 ...........................56 4.3.3.3 .....................................................................................................................57 4.4 ...............................................................................57 5. ....................................58 5.1 ..............................58 5.2 ..........................................................................59 5.2.1 ................................................59 5.2.1.1 ......................................................................60 5.2.1.2 ...................................................69 5.2.1.3 ........................................................71 5.3 ..........................73 5.3.1 ..............76 5.3.2 ........................................78 5.3.3 ...................81 5.3.4 ....................................81 5.3.5 .....................................84 5.3.6 ..........................................................................................................84 5.3.7 ....................86 5.3.8 .......86 5.3.9 ...................88 5.4 ..........96 5.5 ...............................................................................96 6. - .....................................................................97 7. ...........................................................................................100

III

...................................................................................................101 ...............................................................104 ....................................................................................................105 ...................................................................................................114 ..................................................................................................116 V..................................................................................................117

IV

1. . ....................................................................................12 2. .............................24 3. . ................................28 4. (..). ..............................................................30 5. '87. .............................................................................35 6. . ........................................52 7. . ...........................................................54 8. . ....................................72 9. . ...............................................................74 10. . .......................................................75 11. . ....................................77 12. . ....................................................77 13. . ......................................................78 14. . ............................80 15. .........................................82 16. ( ). ................................83 17. . ............................85 18. .................................87

V

1. . ..............................................14 2. .................................................21 3. . ..........................25 4. ...........................26 5. . ........................26 6. . .........................................................................................................................27 7. ...............................................................................................................27 8. ( ). ..........................................................................60 9. ( )...........................................................61 10. ( ). ..............................................................61 11. , ( ). .................................................................61 12. ( ). ..........................................................................62 13. ( ). .........................................................63 14. ( ). ..............................................................63 15. , ( ). .................................................................63 16. ( ). ........................................................................64 17. ( ).........................................................64 18. ( ). ............................................................65 19. , ( ). ...............................................................65 20. ( ). .............................................66 21. ( ). ............................66 22. ( )..................................67 23. , ( ). ....................................67 24. ( ). ...........................................68 25. ( )............................68 26. ( ). ...............................68

VI

27. , ( ). ..................................69 28. . .....................................79 29. ( ). ..........................................................................89 30. ( )...........................................................89 31. ( ). ..............................................................89 32. , ( ). .................................................................90 33. ( ). ..........................................................................90 34. ( ). .........................................................90 35. ( ). ..............................................................91 36. , ( ). .................................................................91 37. ( ). ........................................................................91 38. ( ).........................................................92 39. ( ). ............................................................92 40. , ( ). ...............................................................92 41. ( ). .............................................93 42. ( ). ............................93 43. ( )..................................94 44. , ( ). ....................................94 45. ( ). ...........................................94 46. ( )............................95 47. ( ). ...............................95 48. , ( ). ..................................95 49. (1). ...........................................................................106 50. (2). ...........................................................................107 51. (3). ...........................................................................108 52. (4). ...........................................................................109 53. (5). ...........................................................................110 54. (6). ...........................................................................111 55. (7). ...........................................................................112

VII

56. (8). ...........................................................................113 57. .........................................................115

VIII

, , . , , , , , . , , . , , . , , . , , . .

IX

, , , . 5 . . , . , . . , . , (). , , , . , . : , , , , .

X

SUMMARYThe developments so much in technological and in the scientific sector, do not leave incurious the forestal science, part of which is also forest management. Forest management is practised almost 5 decades and it is fixed by specifications that are in effect all these years. It is imperative need to change this specifications and there exists already new thoughts in this subject. The new specifications will be supposed to support sustainable multipurposal or multifunctional management, as ordains the world tendency. Henceforth, the use of timber is considered exceeded and it will be supposed is given importance in the remainder products of forest and his operations. In this direction is moved also the present postgraduate thesis. Wanting applies multipurposal management in the region of study, that is the forestal cluster of Geraka Xanthi - Kimmerion. In order to complete the management, was preferred the solution of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Was organised with all essential the Geodatabase, after it preceded collection, treatment, classification and extension of data. Followed the use of territorial data that resulted, in the reception of management metres, based on the viability of multiple uses and their territorial distribution. Keywords: sustainable forest management, multiple purposes, multiple functions, Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

XI

Good foresters must always look toward harvests that they will not live to reap Wendell Berry

1. . , . (Forest Management) , - , , , , (, 2005). , . ( 86/89) 40 , . ( 63.1): , : 1) 10223/958/1953 , 2) 158072/1120/1965 . , . (Sustainable Forest Management), . , (2005) , . , (Multifunctional Forest Management). ( ) (, 2005). , , , , , , . . .... ( ) . / ( , 2008). ... ( - , , , , , ) (, 2009).

2

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1.1 . , , , ( ). , ( ) ().

1.2 . , , . , , , , , . , .

3

1.3 (Raster), (Vector), . 1:50.000 1:5.000 (...), 1:50.000 1:500.000 (....), 1:5.000 . , 1:20.000 .... DWG (AutoCAD) : , , , , , 20 ., , . Excel, ( , , , . , , . 4, .

1.4 , , . . ( Geodatabase). . 4 , , . , . 70 . Roger Tomlinson. , , . , , , , , , (Health GIS). . Intergraph, ESRI, Leica, Manifold . ArcGIS Desktop 9.3 ESRI. ArcInfo, .

4

2. . , , . , . . . , , . , .

2.1 , , 86/89. . . , . , . , , 70. , ... (2009) : , 20 10. , (10223/958/1953 158072/1120/1965). , , : , , ( , , . ( ) : , . . , : 10,

5

, (.. , , .) 20. , , (2008): (10) , . : , () . , ... : 10 , . , 1979 , . : 1981, , . , 1998 . 2004 / , / / . 2008 / ( ), ... ( - , , , , , ) 2009. , ... ... ( .. 2009) : .

2.2 . , , . .

6

, , (), (). , . ... (2009) (, , ). , , , , , , , ( ). (2008) , . (2007) , . , (Alabama Forestry Commission, West Virginia Silvicultural, North Carolina Forestry, South Carolina Forestry, Tennessee Department of Agriculture / Division of Forestry) Best Management Practices. .

2.3 . , (2005) ( ) . ... (2009) , . () : , 79/409/, 92/43/ ( Natura 2000), 2000/60/ , INSPIRE. , : 1) , , 2) ( ), 3) ( ), 4) ,

7

( ), 5) , ( ), 6) ( ), 7) , , ( ) ( ) 8) ( ). , . (2008) , . : 1) , 2) , 3) , 4) , 5) ( , , , , .), 6) , 7) , 8) , 9) ( , ) 10) . (2007) , . (, , , .). , ( .) . (2002) (, , .) ( -, , .) , . (2001) : (, , ), , , , , , , , ., , , , , , ,

8

, , , (, , .) . Virginia Natural Resources Leadership Institute (2006) ( University of Virginia Institute for Environmental Negotiation, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Department of Forestry) : (Timber), (Wildlife), (Recreation) (Forest Cooperatives) , . (2007) , . , , , , . Stiptzov Duerr (2005) , . Assenova Dobrichov (2005) . .. . , , . , . (European Environment Agency Report 2008). WWF (2009).

2.4 (GIS) , . , , . , ..., ....,

9

. ... (2009) ..., 1:5.000 ( 20.) , ..., 1:50.000 ( 20.), . 1:5.000 LSO .., (< 1.), (geodatabase). . , . (2008) , , , , . Upadhyay (2009) , , . Bettinger Wing (2004) (, , , .), , . Rao (2006) , . Baral (2004) ( ) , . Wang (2010) , () . ESRI (2006, 2010) , Lidar Mapping Forestry. Lowell, Edwards, Gold (2006) . . . . , , , , ( ).

10

2.5 , , . ( ), . , 40 , . , . . , , , .

11

3. , . , 2006 2007 2016. , . , . , , . , , .

3.1 , (. 1). 30.665 Ha (306,65 ..) . , ..., .

1. . 12

3.1.1 3.1.1.1 , , , . : : , , . , , , . : , . : , , , . , , ( ). : , , ( ) . 3.1.1.2 24 40 25 6 41 4 41 15 . , , , . . , . . , . 3.1.1.3 , , ) 1/5 , , . 1.

13

) 27, 29, 59 103 : 103 ERICA VERTICILLATA ( ) , 59 ( .), 27 29 . / . ( ) 265 254 155 147 118/123 45 26 118/1306 61 18/93 137/44 95 112 143 142 100, 107, 235 242, 256, 263 182 106 95, 230, 237, 248, 251 173 156/1289 . . . 78/1931

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22

180 100 120 80 200 100 100 170 200 1000 180 700 250 200 250 270 320 375 375 250 225 5870

24/1933

19/1934

1. .

3.1.1.4 , . ... 2005-2006.

14

3.1.1.5 3.1.1.5.1 , . 1992-2002 80. : 1. : : 14,86C : 4,95C : 26,26C : 37,48C : -4,21C 2. : 1992-2002 649,39 mm, . 25%. , , . 3. : : 61,29% : 71,18% : 92,06% : 28,91% .

4. : , , , 500-600 . ( ), , , , -, , , . , , , , . . , .

15

3.1.1.5.2 1:50000 .... .... , . , . , . , . , , . , . , , : , . , , . , , , , , ... . , , . . . . . . : . . , . . . ... , , , (, ), . , , , , . , , ,

16

. , , , . 60 1402 ( ) 600 . , , . , . 891 ., , 7.000 . 5 % 80%. 3.1.1.5.3 3 . 6 . , 5 , . 4 , , . , , , . 6 5 . 5 6 45 . . , , , , . , . , , . , . , , , , , . 3.1.1.6

17

3.1.1.6.1 , , , , , . , , . , , . , , (, , , .) , : , , , , , , , ( 30-40 ), , , , , , , , , , . , 1933-36, 1938-39 194546 Pinus Brutia, Cupressus Sempervirens Pinus Nigra. , , , . . ( , ) : Fragaria sp, Hypericum parforatum, , , Primula sp, Galanthus sp, Scilla messeniana, Crocus sp, Rosa canina, , , Rosa sp, Erica sp, Trifolium sp, Hypericum sp, Campanula cervicaria, Erythroniym dens-canis, Driopteris Filia-mas, , Citiscus sp, , Hedera helix, Ruscus aculeatus, Viola sp, Festuca sp, Poa sp, Rubus sp, Crataegus sp, Briza sp, Corydalis sp, Muscari sp, Eurhorbia sp, , Belis perenis, Ruscos sp, Clematis vitalba, Thimus sp, . Natura 2000. ( SPA / Special Protection Areas) GR1120004

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, ( SCI / Sites of Community Importance) GR1120005 . , , (). : , , Fraxinus angustifolia, Quercus frainetto, - Salix alba Populus alba. ( 500 taxa). 11/7/1977. (: ). 3.1.1.6.2 , . , , , , , , , , , , , . , . . - , () (-) . , "" . . , Natura 2000, GR1120004 , GR1120005 . : Lutra lutra, Testudo hermanni, Testudo graeca, Emys orbicularis, Mauremys caspica, Rhodeus sericeus amarus, Barbus plebejus, Cobitis taenia, Lycaena dispar. , (Lutra lutra). (Tadorna ferruginea). (: ). , : 1) " " ( 632/22-8-94), 2) " - " 3788 ./2006 ( 931/19-7-2001, 3) " " ( 561/23-9-85) 4) " " ( 1011/22-8-2001, . , . ,

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. , , . 3.1.1.7 3.1.1.7.1 , , .. , , . 11.675 2001 (....). . 2. ( ). , . 2, , , , . . 3.1.1.7.2 , , . , , , , . , 12 . . , . , " " "" . 8,41 m/Ha, . , , , , . 3.1.1.7.3

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, : : 19.063 Ha 62% : 4.052 Ha 13% : 2.991 Ha 10% : 4.3563 Ha 14% : 203 Ha 1% : 30.665 Ha / 1 .. / 2 3 4 . . 5 . 6 . . 3.222 7 5 4 3.238 1726 638 13 713 683 3.773 928 928 926 121 124 960 2.131 26 137 79 125 367 751 338 71 53 25 1.238 3.736 11.675

2. . 21

CORINE Land Cover 2000, : 111 - : 4,5 Ha 0,01% 112 - : 428,6 Ha 1,40% 121 - : 390,4 Ha 1,27% 131 - : 27,4 Ha 0,09% 211 - : 1635,5 Ha 5,33% 221 : 45,3 Ha 0,15% 231 : 313,0 Ha 1,02% 242 - : 210,5 Ha 0,68% 243 - : 2138,1 Ha 6,97% 311 - : 10714,2 Ha 34,94% 312 - : 362,1 Ha 1,18% 313 - : 263,0 Ha 0,86% 321 - : 3652,4 Ha 11,91% 323 - : 6621,5 Ha 21,59% 324 - : 3369,2 Ha 10,99% 331 - , , : 56,8 Ha 0,19% 332 - : 136,0 Ha 0,44% 333 - : 97,0 Ha 0,32% 511 : 199,5 Ha 0,66% 3.1.1.7.4 . , 30 . . , . , , : , , , , , , . , , . , . . . 37.000 (36.500 500 : 2006) . , . , . 22

, . , . , . . 3.1.1.7.5 , . , . . , 3.1.1.3. , , . 3.1.1.7.6 . , , . , , .

3.1.2 3.1.2.1 , , . 3.1.2.1.1 GPS . (1,2,3,4,) (,,,,). 101 , 247 (. 2). , (, .) .

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3.1.2.1.2 ( ), , 5 : . 113 . , . , , - ( ) . , ( , -). , 7978,388 Ha : 1. . . . . . 2. 3. 4. 5. (Ha) 4573,269 260,1689 88,2745 122,4535 402,5044 5446,671 1078,245 399,0483 1030,517 23,9078 7978,388

3. . . 41 . , . , . 2981,87 Ha : 1. . . . (Ha) 166,4149 1948,496 1,6715

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. . 2. 3. 4. 5.

169,5067 137,196 2423,286 294,6678 14,6175 241,5946 7,704 2981,87

4. . . 9 , . ( ). , , . 1049,36 Ha : 1. . . . . . 2. 3. 4. 5. (Ha) 41,0203 473,7316 85,9375 600,6894 98,1595 232,2442 35,735 82,5288 1049,36

5. . . 36 . , , , , , . , , , (Oxycedrus Foetetidissima), , (Celtis Australis). 7780,445 Ha : 1. . . . . (Ha) 26,0495 81,7429 12,4196 4235,447

26

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56

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63

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(Ha)

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(m3/Ha) 301,2423068 77,76637421

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65

- . (Ha) (Ha) 81,7429 5,7563 12,4196 26,0495 1,1222 4235,447 1141,031 257,7491 573,8206 (Ha) 29,7335 (Ha) 1,0961

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5.3.6 , . Natura, , 4 5.3.4 . 8874 Ha. 3.1.1.6.2 , Natura. Natura : : Lutra lutra. : Accipiter brevipes, Accipiter gentilis, Alcedo atthis, Apus melba, Aquila chrysaetos, Aquila pomarina, Ardea cinerea, Bubo bubo, Buteo buteo, Caprimulgus europaeus, Charadrius dubius, Ciconia ciconia, Ciconia nigra, Circaetus gallicus, Columba oenas, Corvus frugilegus, Delichon urbica, Dendrocopos syriacus, Egretta alba, Egretta garzetta, Emberiza hortulana, Falco peregrinus, Falco subbuteo, Fringilla coelebs, Gyps fulvus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Hieraaetus pennatus, Hippolais olivetorum, Hirundo daurica, Hirundo rustica, Lullula arborea, Luscinia megarhynchos, Motacilla alba, Motacilla flava, Neophron percnopterus, Oriolus oriolus, Passer hispaniolensis, Pernis apivorus, Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, Phalacrocorax pygmeus, Picus canus, Streptopelia turtur, Tadorna ferruginea, Upupa epops. / : Bombina variegata, Emys orbicularis, Mauremys caspica, Testudo graeca, Testudo hermanni, Triturus cristatus. : Barbus plebejus, Cobitis taenia, Rhodeus sericeus amarus. : Lycaena dispar.

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