Moulana abu ssabah

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    02-Apr-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    226
  • download

    2

Embed Size (px)

description

Moulana Abussabah Ahmed Ali Biography-Rouzathul uloom Arabic College-Farook- kerala-Mappila muslim Education -Grace- Muhammad Kuttassery

Transcript of Moulana abu ssabah

  • auem\m A_p--_mlvAlvaZv Aen

    (c-mw ]Xn-v)

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    {]km-[\w:s{Kbvkv FPyp-t-j-W Atkm-kn-tb-j

  • MalayalamNethrusmrithi - 5

    MOULANA ABUSSABAH AHMAD ALI(Biography)

    byP.Mohammed Kuttassery

    General EditorP.A.Rasheed

    All rights reservedFirst Edition : March 2012Second Edition : May 2014

    Published byGrace Educational Association

    PB No. 3, Malappuram Dist. 676 317

    DTP : Appletalk, KozhikodeCover : enteradvt, Calicut

    Printed at Red Star,Kozhikode

    DistributersGrace Books

    Camp Sayyid, PB No. 3Malappuram Dist. 676317

    9895114673

    80

  • {]km-[-I-p-dnv

    auem\m A_p--_mlv Al--Zv Aen(1906-1971) tIc-f-nshnZym-`ym-k-N-cn-{X-n Hcn-epw ad-m ]mSn-m \ma-t[-b-am-Wv. ]n-Zkp-I-fn {]mY-an-I-]-T\w ]qn-bm-n, A-A-kvlk-I-em-im-e-bn \np _ncpZw t\Sn, ZoL-amb temI-k-mcw\Sn, HSp-hn ^tdm-n du-fq Deq-an-sbpw ^mdqJv tImtf-Pn-s-bpw DZ-b-n\p I-kmyw hln A_p-k-_mlv auehnA-cm-n hn`m-X-ns hn[m-Xm-hm-bn. tIc-f-apkvenwI-fpsS]ptcm-K-Xn-bpsS ]mX-bn A_p-k-_mlv Hcp hnf-p-a-c-ambn\npp.

    At-l-ns {]nb-in-jy\pw k-X-k-l-Nm-cn-bp-am-bn-cp duf-p Deqw Ad-_n-tIm-tfPv ap {]nkn- ]n. apl-Zv Ip-t-cn-bmWv Cu eLp-{K--ns cN\ \nh-ln-n-cn-p--Xv. hnZym-`ym-k-kmw-kvm-cnI cwKv Hcp Zim-_vZ-ambn {]hn-p s{KbvkvFPp-t-j-W Atkm-kn-tb-j ]mc--cy-]-T-\-ns `mK-ambnGs-Sp s{]mP-IvSp-I-fn HmWv "t\Xr-kvar-Xn'. Cu ]c--c-bnseAm-as ]pkvX-I-am-Wn-Xv.

    "t\Xr-kvarXn" ]c-c ae-bm-fn-hm-b-\-m Xmev]-cy-]qw kzoI-cn-pp FXv Nmcn-Xmy-P-\-I-am-Wv. ZoL-Ime {]k-n-bpaqey--fpsS Poham-Xr-I-I ]pXp-X-e-ap-dbvp ssIam-dm-\p CuFfn-b -{i-as t{]mm-ln-n-psap {]Xo-n-pp.

    s{Kbvkv FPp-t-jW Atkm-kn-tb-j

  • s{]m^.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    1936 Pqembv Hn\v ae-pdw Pn-bn at-cn --SpvFf-wIq Awi-nse Ip-t-cn-bn P\n-p. ]nXmhv ]pq-cIpn aue-hn, amXmhv kn.-_o--pn D.dufp Deq-an \nv A^vk-ep Deam ]mm-bn. 1963 AhnsS A[ym-]-I-\m-bn. 1979 apX 1996 hnc-an-p-Xv hsc{]nkn -m. bq\n -th -g vknn sk\- v , t_mUv Hm^v-Uokv Fn-h-bnepw hnhn[ hnZym-`ymk kan-Xn-I-fnepw AwK-am-bn-cp-p.15 {K--fpsS Imhv. 45 hj-ambn tdUntbm {]`m-j-I.hnhn[ tZiob AtZ-iob skan-\m-dp-I-fn {]_--Ah-X-cn-n-p. Am-Zan t^m Uokv BUv dnkvsNbam, du-f-p Deqw Atkm-kn-tb-j \nhm-lIkanXn AwKw, CkvemanI hnm\ tImiw D]-tZ-iI kanXnAwKw XpSn \nc-h[n m\- hln-p-p.{]ikvX ]n-X Aco-tmSv F.-hn.-A-_vZp-emw aue-hn-bpsS aI F.-hn.-B-knb (dn-. Ad_n A[ym-]n-I) bmWv`mcy. a Abva iuJn, AZo_v ^lm, _mkn-a, tUm.-\Pvh. acp-a- : k\n apn, Xkvenb Aco-tm-Sv, A_vZp-emw tamw, tUm.-dp-Iv\p-o Ja-dp-sskv samd-bq.

    hnemkw:Ip-tcn lukv^mdqJv tImtfPv ]n.H

    ]n: 673632 t^m: 0495 2440782

  • BapJw

    D As-n A Fv ]d-bp-tm Dn \ndp \nphnIm-c-sf hmp-I-fn-eqsS {]I-Sn-n-m Ign-bptam? Kpcp-hns\Hmp-tmgpw CtX A\p-`hw Xs-bmWv a\-n. auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen F Kpcp-hn-t\m-sSmw 14 hjw Ignp IqSnbHcp injys Dn ]Xn Nn{X--fmWv Cu ]pkvX-I-n. Balm-i-bs kw`-h-_-lp-e-amb PohnXw ]qW-ambn A\m-h-cWwsNm Hcp _rlXv {Kw Xs thn hcpw. Cu sImp ]pkvXIwAXn-te-p Hcp PmeIw am{Xw. At-l-ns apXv hjsA[ym-]I PohnXw hmp-hn \qdp--W-n injy-m-cn Hcmam{X-amWv Rm. Fm hniz-kvX-\mb ss{]hv sk{I--dn-sb-tmseAt-ls A\p-K-an-m F\nv Ah-kcw e`n-p. Fs hyn-Xz-sbpw Nnm-K-Xn-sbbpw cq]-s-Sp-p--Xn Ghpw A[nIw kzm[o-\n alm-]-n-X.

    A_p--_mlv! t]cv A\z-ampw hn[w tIc-f-n hnZym-` ymkcwKv Hcp ]pXnb {]`mXw krjvSn DZ-b-kq-cy. XnI aX-]m-n-Xyhpw hnZym-`ymk ]cn-jv-cW {]h-\hpw ka-\z-bn-nA]q hyn-Xzw. aX-]-c-amb X--fn \nsmw AIv \nvtkh-\-n\v PohnXw Dgn-p-sh Ia-tbm-Kn. Atlw hnX-dnb shfn--n hgn Isn F{Xtbm t] DXnbpsS ]S-hp-I Ib-dnaX-k-ap-Zmb t`Z-a-t\y. tIc-f-nse k kn-Zmbn Ncn{Xw At-lstcJ-s-Sp-n. ]t, A_p--_mlv Ncn-{X-n A[n-I-sampw NsN-s-n FXv Hcp ZpxJ-k-Xyw. kwL-S-\-I-Xo-X-\mbn \ne-sIm-Xv Hcp Imc-W-am-Imw. Xs Ime-L- -nse kap--X-cmb t\Xm--fp-sSbpw {]K--a-Xn-I-fp-sSbpw BZ-chpw kvt\lhpw km-Zn-mIgn Atlw Ah-cpsS Ncn-{X-ns Hcp `mK-am-bn. duk-pDeqw Ad-_n-tm-tfPpw ^mdqJv tImtfPpw Im-knse ap al-mbhnZym-`ymk m]-\-fpw akvPn-Zp Akvl-dp-samw Fpw At-

  • l-ns alXzw hnfn-tm-Xn-sm-n-cnpw.auem-\m-bpsS Poh-N-cn{Xw kaq-l-n\v kan-m aptmv h

    s{Kbvkns\ A\p-tam-Zn-p-p. AXns P\-d sk{I-dn knZvAivd v^ X-fp-sSbpw Imen-v bq\n-th-gvknn kn.-F-v.-ap-l-Zv tImbsNb Ub-d-IvS ]n.-F.-d-jo-Zn-sbpw kvt\l-]qW-amb \n_--n\v Rm hg-p-I-bm-bn-cp-p. auem\m A_p--_m-lns hntbmKwkw`-hnv \m]n Hv hj-ambn XpS-cp Hcp iq\yX \nI-mCh \nan--am-bXv Hcp \ntbm-Kw. Ncn{X tcJ-I kqn-pA_vZp-dlvam am-Sns klmbw ChnsS \n-]qhw kvacn-p-p.

    A_p--_m-lns\ amXr-I-bmn ]pXnb {]`m-X- krjvSn-mCu ]pkvXIw Xe-apdv {]tNm-Z-\-ta-Is Fv {]mn-p-p.

    s{]m^.-ap-l-Zv Ip-tcn

    ^mdqJv tImtfPv1.3.2012

  • Ah-Xm-cnI

    ae_mdns hnZym-`ym-k-N-cn-{X-n Hcp \mgn-I--m-Wv 1948 ^mdqJv tImtf-Pns ]nd-hn. Fs A`n-h-y-\mb t\Xmhv sI.Fw. koXn-km-ln_v CXns XpSw apX 1961 ac-W-s-Sp-Xvhsc ^mdqJv tImtfPv amt\-PnwKv In-n-bpsS sk{I--dn-bm-bn-cp-p.Atlw BZcthmsS Ftmgpw ]d-bm-dp hyn-bmWv A_p--_mlv AlZen aue-hn. hyn-]-c-ambn F\np A_p-_mlp-ambn ASp _-ap-m-bn-cp-n-s-nepw tIc-f-ns hnZym-`ym-k-]p-tcm-K-Xn-bp-ambn _-sv Atlw sNbvX hne-s tkh-\-sfASpv \nv ImWm F\nv Ah-kcw e`n-n-pv.

    A_p_mlns Poh-N-cn{Xw Ipdp sshIn-bm-sW-nepw]pdv hcn-I-bm-Wv. At-l-ns {]nbc-\mb injy\pw {]ikvX]WvUn-X-\p-amb ]n. apl-Zv Ip-t-cn-bpsS A\p-Kr-loXXqen-I-bn\nmWv Cu IrXn \app e`n-p--Xv. ^mdqJv tImtf-Pn-tbpwAXns ]nd-hnv Imc-W-amb duf-q Deq-an-tbpw {]tNm-Z-\-_n-p-hmb A_p-_mlv Al--Zen auehn A\p-kva-cn--s-Sp-XvGhpw Bm-Z-I-c-am-Wv.

    kzmX-{y-]q-Im-e-L--n-epw XpSpw {]apJ apkvenwt\Xm--fp-ambn A_p-lm-_n\p ASp _-ap-m-bn-cp-p.auem\m apl--Z-en-bpsS D]-tZiw kzoI-cn-p-sImv ae-_m {]h-\- tI{-ambn sXc-s-Sp A_p-lm-_v auehn B Imev Akm-[y-am-bn-cp ZuXyw km[y-am-nb [nj-Wm-im-en-bm-Wv. Id-I-faX-`-nbpw hnZym-`ym-k-Nn-bpw ]mWvUn-Xyhpw Hn-W-nb Akp-e-`-hy-n-Xz-amWv A_p-_mln-t-Xv. apkvenw kap-Zm-b-ns]ptcm-K-Xnp hgn-Im-n-bm-bn-o A_p--_m-lns PohnXw ]pXn-b-X-e-ap-d Xo-bmbpw ]Tn--Ww. _lp-am-\y-\mb Ip-tcn HcpalZvI-amWv \nh-ln-n-cn-p--Xv.

    Cp B[p-\nI hnZym-`ymkw A\p--W- hn-Im-k-ns ]mX-bn-em-Wv. ]pXnb temI-km-l-N-cy--fn imkv{X--km-t-XnI hnZy-

  • bpsS {]Nmcw Adn-hn\pw AXns {]tbmK-n\pw ]pXnb am\-\Ip-p. Adnhv D]-tbmK-s-Sp-p--Xnse aqey-t_m-[-ns A\n-hm-cy-X-bn-te-mWv Imcy- \op-Xv. icn-bmb aX-[mn-I-t_m-[-ns ASn--d-bn am{Xta kmaq-ln-I-Po-hn-X-n\p \ne-\nmIgn-bq. aX-I-em-ebw Bcw-`n-p-Ibpw AXns\ XpSp ^v t{KUvtImtfPv Dbp-Ibpw sNbvX A_p--_m-lns amXrI Ghpwhne-s--Xm-Wv. "hnm-\-ns ]qm-h\w' FmWv Atlwm]-\-n\p t]cn--Xv. B[p-\nI Iem-e-b-ap-b-tm AXn\p"^mdqJv" Fp \ma-I-cWw sNbvXp. AXy-p-X-amb Ncn-{X-t_m-[hpwmt\m-]m-k-\bpw CXn XpSn-p-Xv ImWmw.

    hnZym-` ym-k-Nn--I-cn temtIm-c hyn-I-tfm-sSmw m\-ap-f-f {]Xn-`m-k\mWv A_q-k-_m-lv. dufp-D-eqapw ^mdqJvtImtfPpw AXns Pohn-p \nZi-\-fm-Wv. {]K--cmb At\Iwinjy-m-cp A_q-k-_m-lns I-a-WvUew Cp temI-s-hn-sSbpw \nd-p-\np-p. ae-bm-f-ns alm-\mb Cu a\ojnsb]cn-N-b-s-Sp-p Cu {Kw Ah-X-cn-n-p--Xn F\np AXn-bmb Nmcn-Xmy-ap-v.

    C. Al-Zv

    \yqUln28.2.2012

  • D-Sw

    1. {]`m-X-n-d-hnv apv 11

    2. A_p--_mlv: tIcfw apX ssItdm hsc 20

    3. Cy-bn Npn--dn Imnse Kpl-bn 26

    4. hnZym-Zo-]-hp-ambn ae-pdw an 32

    5. Snp-hns ^mdq-Jm-_m-Zn hnm\ ]qm-h\w 37

    6. ^mdqJv tImtfPv : kap-Zm-b-ns {]Im-i-tKm-]pcw 41

    7. hnm-\-q-m-h-\-ns hnkva-b-I-c-amb hf 47

    8. A_p--_m-lns hynXz hnti-j- 53

    9. Cu {]`m-X-n\v AkvX-a-b-an 62

    A\p-_w

    Ckvem-anse \a-kvmcw 67

    duk-p Depw ]q-hn-Zymn-I-tfmSv Hcp-]-tZiw 84

  • 1.{]`m-X-n-d-hnv apv

    A_p--_mlv{]`m-X-ns hn[m-XmhvtIc-f-n hnm-\-ns ]pXnb {]`mXw krjvSn ]nX

    kqcy-\t{X auem\m A_p_mlv AlvaZv Aen. Atlw F{X-bmbncw a\-p-I-fn Adn-hns Zo]vXn ]Ip. A_p--_mlv \p-h-fnb "]qm-h\w' Cv IuXpI]pjv]-fpw sNSn-Ifpw \ndvhnkvabImgvN-bmbn amdn-bn-cn-p-p. Xe-ap-d-Iv shfn--taIn Imem-Xo-X-ambn \ne-sIm-p {]ImitKm]p-c-am-W-t-lw. hnZym-` ymk \thm-m\\mb-I.

    {]`mXw hcnI Ccp- n\v tij-am-Wv. ]pe-cn-bpsS XpSnpw ku-cyhpwAdn-b-W-sa-n AXv ]ndpw aps Ccp A-cow ImW-Ww. A_p--_m-lns BK-a\w hsc-bp tIc-f-nse apkvenw kaq-l-ns Hcp Nn{Xw ChnsS Ah-X-cn-n-p-I-bm-Wv.

    tIc-f-n Ckvemans Bhn`mhw

    tIc-f-n Ckvemans Bhn`mhw apX ChnsS Bcw-`n-s:apl-Zv \_n-bpsS Imev Xs ChnsS Ckvemw {]N-cnp F-XmWv {]_-e-amb Ncn-{Xw. Ad-_n-I ]v Imew apXv XshmWn-Pym-h-iy-mbn tIc-f-n hcm-dp-m-bn-cp-p. sImSp--qcn hn-d-nb Hcp Ad_n I-hS kwL-n \nv AscmPm-hmb tNc-am s]cp-am N{I-hn \_n-sb-n tI -dnv At-l-n hniz-kn-p. kwLw Xncnp t]mIp-tm \_nsb ImWmthn a-bn-tev Ahsc A\pKan-p. \_nsb Zinv amen-Ip_v\pZo\m-dns t\Xr-Xz-n-ep 44 AwK {]t_m-[\ kwL-tm-sSmw

  • 12

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    aS-th hgn aty \ncym-X-\m-bn. sImSp--q-cn I-en-d-nb kwLws]cp-am-fpsS Iv `c-Wm-[n-Im-cnv \In. Atlw Ahv AhnsS]n ]Wn-bm `qanbpw hkvXp-fpw \In. anj-\-dn-am-cmbn hAd-_n-I aX-]{]t_m-[-\-n Gs-p. sImSp--q, sImw,Nmenbw, ]-em-bn-\n, [a-Sw, {ioI-WvT-]pcw Ggn-a-e, ImktKm-Uv,awK-em-]pcw Fo {]tZ-i--fn ]n-I ]Wn-Xp. Ah-cpsS {]h-\-^-e-ambn [mcmfw t] Ckvemw aXw kzoI-cn-p. Ah-cpsS kXy-k--X-bn-ep hnizm-khpw s]cp-am--ns BIj-Wo-b-Xbpw P\--fn Ahv kzoIm-cyX e`n-m Imc-W-am-bn. ]pdsa Ad-_n-I-fp-ambn hmWn-Py-_--ap-m-bn-cp tIc-fo-bv Ah-cpsS kmn[ywA\n-hm-cy-am-bn-cp-p. cmP-Ip-Spw-_--fn \nv t]mepw aX-]-cn-h\w\S-p. Ad_nIfpsS aXw kzoI-cn-p--tXm-sSmw Ahv X-fpsSs]Ip-n-Isf hnhmlw sNbvXp sImSp-p--Xnepw tIc-fo-b X]-c-cm-bn-cp-p. D-\o-NXzw \ne-hn-ep-m-bn-cp Am-ev aXw amdn-bm Abn--an-msX am\y-ambn Pohn-m-sa Ah-bpw [mcm-f-Wn aX-]-cn-h\w \S-m Imc-W-am-bn.

    tIm-tema\- Ip-m-envXncpw \mbcpw Hp-t]m-se.F \mS ]mns hcn-I Cu kaXz`mh-amWv kqNn-n-p--Xv.tIc-f-nse \mp-cm-Pm--m-cpsS sImm-c-n apkvenwIv

    henb m\-am-Wp-m-bn-cp--Xv. apkvenwIfpsS klm-b-tm-sS-bmWvtImgn-tms kmaq-Xncn cmPmhv Zn-tW-y-bnse Ghpw henbssk\nI in-bmbn hf-Xv. Ad-_n---ep-I-fn Poh-\-msc \nb-an-p-tm Ahv aX-]-cn-h-\-n-\p kzmX-{yhpw \In-bn-cp-p. Hcp apkvenan\v kmaq-Xn-cn-tbm-sSmw Ccn-p--Xn\v Hcp XS--hp-ap-m-bn-cp-n-. \mbtm IogvPmXn-mtm AXv A\p-h-Zn-n-cp-n-. s]mm-\n-bnse aJvZqap-I kmaq-Xn-cn-bpsS D]-tZjvSm-fm-bn-cp-p. apkvenwIfpsS in-bpsS sXfn-hmWv Ad- cmP-hw-i-ns ]ndhn Xs.

    hnZym-`ym-k-cw-Ks aptw

    tIc-f-n apkvenwIfpsS hf--\p-k-cnv Ahv hnZym-`ym-k-cw-Kpw apt--ap-m-bn. ]n-I-tfm-S-\p-_-n Zkp-I-fm-bn-cppBZy-Im-es hnZym-]o-T-. ]Xn-\mw \qm-n ae-_m-dnki\w \S-nb {]kn Ncn-{X-Im-c C_v\p _XqX Ggn-a-e-bn I Hcp Zkn-s\-n Cs\ hnh-cn-p-p. ""Cu ]n-bnhnm-\-k-m-Z-\-n Gs Hcp Iqw hnZymn-I-fp-v. Ahv]n kzn \nv thX\w \Ip-p. ]n-tbm-S-\p-_-nv Hcp

  • 13

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    ASp--f-bp-v. AhnsS hcphpw t]mIp--hp-samw thnbpwapkvenw km[p--fpsS ]nWn Xom\pw `Ww ]mIw sNp-p.''s]mm-\n-bnse Zkn\v Hcp kh-I-em-im-e-bpsS m\-am-Wp-m-bn-cp--Xv. Ahn-Sp ]T\w ]qn-bmn ]pdp hcp--h-cm-bn-cpphnhn[ ]n-I-fn A[ym-]-I-cmbn hn-n-cp--Xv. Nmen-b-am-bn-cppXpS--n sshm-\nI {]h-\-ns tI{w. Nmen-bs{]Ya Jmfn amenIv C_v\p Zo\m-dns ]u{X apl-Zv C_v\p amenIvBbn-cp-p. 1871 hmg-mv Bcw-`n Zkv ]nm-ev Hcp \thm-m\ tI{-ambn hnI-knp Fv ]d-bmw. sImS--q, sX sImw,tImgn-tmSv, Nmen-bw, s]mm-\n, ]-em-bn\n sImw, [a-Sw, hS-I-c, Iq, hf-]--Ww, amSm-bn, Ggn-a-e, {ioI-WvT-]p-cw, ImktKm-Uv,awK-em-]pcw Fn-h-bm-bn-cpphtm {]mNo\ apkvenw tI{-. Ch-bp-ambn _-s ]e ]n-I-fnepw DX \ne-hm-c-n-ep Zkp-I-fp-m-bn-cp-p. Ccw Zkp-I-fn ico-Av hnm-\-v ]pdsa`qan-im-kv{Xw, tKmf-im-kv{Xw, X-im-kv{Xw, sshZy-imkv{Xw XpS-n-b-hbpw A`y-kn-n-cp-p. Nne {]tZ-i--fn sshZy Fm apkvenwFmWv A-am-n-bn-cp--X-s{X.

    Ad_n kmlnXyw

    Ad_n kmln-Xy-cw-Kpw apkvenwI anI ]ptcm-KXn t\Sn. ]Xn-\memw \qm-n Pohn Nmen-bs Jmfn ssk\p-o da-Zm Xk-p-^n cNn {K-amWv BZys Ad_n {K-sav ]dbs-Sp-p. lnPvd 1159 tImgn-tm-s-nb ssiJp_v\p apl--Zp Pn^vcn-bpsS {][m-\-Ir-Xn-bmWv Ikp _dm-lo. knZv ^Zvep Pn^vdn{_no-jp-ImsXn-cn s]mcp-Xm Blzm\w sNbvXv sImv "Ass-^p _m' cNn-p. ln.1025- A-cn Jmfn apl-Zv cNn"aplvbno ame' `mjm-]n-Xm-hmb Xp-s-gp--s Aym--cm-am-b-W-t-m Ap hjw ]g--ap IrXn-bm-Wv. At-l-nsAd-_n-Im-hy-amb "^Xvlp ap_o' ]d-n-Is-Xn-cn apkvenwIsfklm-bn kmaq-Xn-cn-m-Sns A]-Zm-\-sf hWn-p-Xpw kap-ZmbkulmZ-ns ktiw Pzen-n-p--Xp-am-Wv. thsdbpw ap-tXmfw{K- Atlw cNn-n-p-v. aJvZpw AlvaZv ssk\p-o (ln.1028)cNn Xplv^ -p apPm-ln-Zo temI-{]-kn--hpw temI-` m-j-I-fn-tevhnh\w sN-s--Xp-amb IrXn-bm-Wv. s]mm\n \nc-h[n Ad_n{K-Im-c-msc kw`m-h\ sNbvXn-p-v. tIc-f-nse Adn-b-s-Sp]pcm-X\ Ad_n Ihn-bmWv A_q-_-I C_v\p da-Zm Nmen-bmXo({In.1521). henb ssk\p-o F t]cn-e-dn-b-s-Sp ssk\p-ZoC_v\p Aenbpw hne-s ]e {K-fpw cNn-n-p-v. Cs\ tIc-

  • 14

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    f-n {K cN\\S-nb \nc-h[n ]n-X-m-cp-v. Ah-cn Nnea-bnepw CuPn-]vXnepw D]-cn-]-T\w \S-n-bn-cp-p.

    t]mp-Kokv B{I-aWw

    Ggp-\q--p-I Cs\ tIc-f-nse apkvenwI sshm-\n-I--km--nI cwK--fn anIhv ]pen Ign-p. CXc P\-hn-`m-K--fp-ambn kulrZw ]penbpw `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn -I-fpsS aXnvBPnpw Pohn-p. As\ A-nepw kam-[m-\-nepw Ign-bp-tm-gmWv 1498- hmkvtIm-Un-Kma tImgn-tms ImmSv I-en-d-p--Xv.apkvenw kvs]bn XIv ISp apkvenw hntcm-[-hp-ambn ht]mpKokp-Imv apkvenwIfn \nv kap{Z hym]mcw ]nSn-s-SpvAhsc \in-n-p-I-bm-bn-cpp eyw. 240 lmPn-am-scbpw sImv a-bn \nv Xncn-p-h-cn-I-bm-bn-cp I-en\v Xo sImSpv AXn-epapgp-h lmPn-am-scbpw Nps-cn-p. t]mp-Ko-kp-Im apkvenwItfmSvsNbvX {Iqc-X-I ssiJv ssk\p-o Ic apdnv Io-cmbnHgpIpw hn[w Xs XqenI sImv Cs\ Nn{Xo-I-cn-pp: ""F{X-sb{X DX Ipe-Pm-X-cmb kv{XoI-sf-bmWv Ah XS-hp-Im-cmn am\-`w-K-s-Sp-n-b-Xv- {InkvXy Ipp-v Pw \Im. F{X-sb{X kn-Zp-amscbpw ]n-X-m-scbpw Ah {Iqc]oU-\-n-c-bm-n.'' Hc \qmv Imew kmaq-Xn-cn-bpsS \mhn-I--S-bpsS \mb-IXzw hln-p-Ibpw t]mp-Ko-kp-Im-tcmSv ]S-s]m-cp-Xp-Ibpw sNbvXIpm-en-a-c-ms-Xn-cn kmaq-Xn-cn-bn hntcm[w hfmt]mpKokp-Imv Ign-p. Ipmen \mem-a-s\bpw Iqp-Im-scbpwtKmh-bn-tev sImp-t]mbn h[n-p. arX-tZlw IjvW--fmn ]ee--fnepw {]Zin-n-p.

    A[x-]-X-\-ns XpSw

    Chn-S--tmv apkvenwIfpsS A[x-]-X\w Bcw-` n-p. Ah-cpsS I-h-S-p-I \jvS-s-p. D]-Po-h-\-amKw tXSn {Kma--fn-tev \onbAh sNdnb I-h-S-mcpw Ij-I-cp-am-bn. {_nojv B[n-]Xyw Bcw-`n--tXmsS Ah-cpsS ]ptcm-K-Xnv thn {_no-jp-Im Hpw sNbvXn.`c-W-ns XW-en ss{IkvXh kaqlw A\p-Zn\w Dbp sImn-cpp. apkvenwI km-n-I-ambpw hnZym-`ym-k-]-c-ambpw ]ntm--am-bn. Fm PmXn hyh--bpsS ]oU-\-n \nv c-s-SmXmgv PmXn-m Iq-tmsS Ckvemantev hp. ]t AhvBh-iy-amb inWw \Im apkvenwI {ian-n-. AXn-\m lnp-a-X-nse ]e ]gb BNm-c-fpw apkvenwI Bb-Xn\v tijhpwAh \ne-\nn. CXv hnZym-`ym-k-]-c-amb ]ntm-m-h--v ]p-dsa

  • 15

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    Ahn-S-bn A-hn-izm-k- {]N-cn-p--Xn\pw Imc-W-am-bn.hnZy t\Sp--Xn \nv apkvenwI _lp-Zqcw AIp. hnti-jnpw

    kvIq, tImtfPv hnZym-`ym-kw. Cwo-jn-t\mSv ISp hntcm[w]pen. Cwojv kvIqfn Ipnsb tN amb Fv t]cpBsf "Im^ amb' Fv hnfn-n-cpp t]m. As apkvenw]ntm-m-h--sb-n temK ae-_m am\z-en ]d-bpp: ""Hcp kap-Zm-b-sa \ne-bn Ah, apgp-h-\p-a-s-nepw an-hmdpw Fm-hcpwXs \nc--c-cm-Wv. Ahv Inp Htc Hcp hnZym-`ymkw Ad_n`mj-bn-ep Jp-B-\nse Nne hN-\- sNmn tIp-Xv X-sb-tmse Dcp-hn-Sp-Xv am{X-am-Wv. lnp--fpsS ]n-q-S--fn sNvapkvenwI ]Tn-p--Xns\ apkvenw cn-Xm- A\p-h-Zn-p-I-bn-.''

    ]ntm kap-Zmbw

    temIw ]ptcm-K-an-p-Ibpw Npp-ap lnp, {InkvXy kaq-l-hnZym-`ym-k-]-c-ambn Db-cp-Ibpw sNp k`-n hnPvRm\--imkv{X cwKv temI-n\v Xs shfnw \Inb apkvenwIfpsS]nKm-an-I tIc-f-n hnZym-`ym-k-tmSpw imkv{X-]-T-\-tmSpwGhpw ]ptcm-K-an `mj-bmb Cwo-jn-t\mSpw apJw Xncnp \npFXv Ncn-{X-nse Ghpw henb hntcm-[m-`m-k-am-bn-cp-p. kap-Zm-bs D_p-X {]m]n-m t{]cn-n-t aX-]-n-X-m AhschnZym-`ymkw t\Sp--Xn \nv ]nn-cn-n-p-I-bm-bn-cp-p. Cwojv \c-I-nse `mj-bm-sWv Ah P\-sf [cn-n-p. apkvenw s]Ip-n-Iv Is-gpv ]Tn-n- ldmw BsWv ^Xvhm \In.CXns\sbmw adn-I-Sv kvIqfn ]Tnv Hcp s]Ipn So-dm-b-Xn\vtijw Ah-cpsS ]qhm-\p-`hw Cs\ tcJ-s-Sp-pp:

    ""Fs _m Jo_pw Cam-ap-am-bn-cp-p. hon-\-Sp-p Hcp lnpkvIqfn Atlw Fs tNp. Jo-_ns aI kvIqfn ]Tn-p--Xn i-amb FXnv hp. Rm ]T\w \ndp-n. ]nsHfnpw adnpw kvIqfn t]mv ]p\-cm-cw-`n-p. kvIq hoSn-\-Sp-m-bn-cp-p-sh-nepw Bcpw ImWm-Xn-cn-m hf hgn-bn-eqsS Hcp]pg ISv cp aqv ^temv bm{X sNbvXv kvIqfns ]nn-se-pw. AXn-en-Sv kvIqfns hmjnIw hp. Rm Hcp Cwojv{]kwKw \Sn. FXnv AXn-cq--ambn. Ah-km\w Hcp ]n-Xs^Xvhm hmn. ""\a-kvIm-c-n shfn-hm-Ip `mK--sfmw shfn-hmn kvIqfn t]mIp-tm "tImmbn' (sN-Ip-m) Fv hnfnpIpn-I Ifn-bm-pw. Ap apX Fs _msb ]n-bn \nv]pd-m-n...''

  • 16

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    As Ah Cs\:""ASp-f hnv t]mbnAdn-hp-tmsc InAdn-hp-I-sfmpw ]Tn-n^Xvhmsmpw apn''

    \thm-m\ {]h\w

    Fnepw apkvenw temIv Bcw-`n apkvenw \thm-m\ Ne-\-ns Inc-W- tIc-f-nepw Nne `mK--fn {]Xy--s-n-cp-p. AXn BIr-jvS-\mbn cwKv h BZys ]n-X-\s{Xshfn-b-tmSv P\n an X (1847-1912). Atlw Cwojv ]Tn-m\pw {_nojv Khsans Iogn DtZym-K- hln-m\pwBlzm\w sNbvXp. kv{Xo hnZym-`ym-ks t{]mm-ln-n-p-Ibpws]Ip-n -Iv {]tXyI hnZym-e-b- m]n-t-W-savBlzm\w \Ip-Ibpw sNbvXp. sX tIc-f-n hSp-X-e-bnP\n laZm\n X (a.1922) Ad-_n--kw-kvIr-X--a-e-bmf \nLpcNn ]n-X\mWv. At-l-n\v km hnZym-`ymk m]-\-\nan-m 8 G ew A\p-h-Zn-p-sh-nepw kap-Zm-b-n \nvkl-I-cWw e`n-mbvI ImcWw AXv ]cm-P-b-s-Sp-I-bm-Wp-m-b-Xv.aX--hn-Zym-`ym-k--km-ln-Xy--kmw-kvIm-cnI cwKv ]e ]cn-jvI-cW{]h-\-fpw \S-nb \thm-m\ \mb-I-\s{X hw A_vZpJmZ auehn (18731932) Atlw 1907- cma-Ir-jvW-]n-sb ]{Xm-[n-]-cmbn \nb-anv Bcw-`n kztZ-im-`n-am\n ]{Xw \thm-m-\-nsi_vZ-am-bn-cp-p. apkvenw ]ntm-m-h-v {][m\ ImcWw hnZym-`ym-k-ns Ipd-hm-sWv Is-nb Atlw apkvenwIsf D_p--cm-m\pw Ah-cn hnm\w hfm\pw Dt-inv apkvenw, A-Ckvemw, Zo]nI Fo ]{X- {]kn-o-I-cn-p. 1918- Atlw Fgp-Xnb teJ-\-n apkvenwIfpsS km-cXm \ncv Hcp iX-am-\-am-sWv kan-p-p-v. apkvenw \thm-m\ cwKv {]hnasmcp alm-hy-n-Xz-as{X sI.-Fw.-au-ehn (1886-1964). \mSns kzmX-{y-n\v thn k[ocw {]hn aue-hnsb {_no-jp-Im Xqn-sm-m hn[n-p. Atlw sImSp--q-cn-tev Hfn-tm-Sn. koXn kmln-_ns hon-emWv Iptd-Imew Xma-kn--Xv. sImSp--q-cn \thm-m\{]h-\- \S-n-sm-n-cns hj-v tijw {_no-jp-Im At-l-ns t]cn Npa-nb Ipw ]nh-en--tm Xncq-c-m-Sn-bn-tev aS-n. ]e ]{X-am-kn-I-Ifpw {K-fpw {]kn-o-I-cn-p-Ibpw hnZym-`ymk kap-m-cW {]h-\- \S-p-IbpwsNbvXp. Xncq-c-m-Sn bXow Jm\ m]n-p--Xn Fw.-sI.-lm-Pn-tbm-

  • 17

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    sSm--ap At-l-ns ]v kphn-Zn-X-am-Wv. Xe-t-cn-bn `qPm-X-\mb C.-sI.-au-ehn hmg-mSv Nmen-e-I-ns Zkn \nv hnc-antijw sImSp--q-cn A[ym-]I\mbn hcn-Ibpw km kho-kn{]th-inv 1944- Fd-Wm-Ipfw alm-cm-Pmkv tImtf-Pn A[ym-]-I-\mbn \nb-an--s-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. sImn apkvenwIfpsS hnZym-`ymk]ptcm-K-Xnv thn {]hn auehn 1947- P-\m-n-tev aSnAhnsS hnZym-` ymk {]h-\--fn-tes- p. ]ns Xncq-c-mSn bXowJm\-bpsS {]h-\--fnepw kPo-h-ambn ]s-Sp-p.

    tIc-f-n apkvenw kap-Zm-b-ns hnZym-`ymk Ncn-{X-n HcpkphWm-ymbw cNn t\Xm-hs{X sImSp--q-cn `qPm-X-\mb sI.-Fw.-ko-Xn-km-ln_v (1899-1961). Atlw \nb-a-_n-cpZw t\Sn ]pdph-tm \mn kwL-Sn-n--s henb kzoI-cWw _ncpZw t\Sp-Xv apkvenw kap-Zm-b-n Av Hcp A]qh kw -`h-ambncpp Fvhy-am-p-p. koXn-km-ln-_ns t\Xr-Xz-n aWmv ]n.-Ip-n-ap-l-Zv lmPn, sI.-Fw.-au-ehn, C.-sI.-au-ehn XpS-n-b-h tNv1922 sImSp--q-cn Bcw-`n apkvenw sFIy-kwLw tIc-fo-b-cpsShnZym-`ymk ]ptcm-K-Xnpw \thm-m-\-n\pw \Inb kw`m-h-\-IanI--Xm-bn-cp-p. apkvenweoKv t\Xm-hv, \nb-a-k-` mw-Kw, kv]o, N{nI]{X-ns kvYm]-I, {K-Im-hv, Dz\mb hmn Fo \ne-smw koXn-km-ln_v {]kn--\m-bn.

    aX-hn-Zym-`ymk cwKv

    a{Zkm hnZym-`ymk cwKpw DX Ad_n ]T-\-cw-Kpw ]e ]cn-jvI-c-W-fpw \S-n-em-n-b, Cwojv ASw Av `mj-IssIImcyw sNm Ign-hp-m-bn-cp ]n-X-\s{X Nmen-e-IvIp-l-Zv lmPn (1866-1919). Atlw cwKv hcp Imesa{Zkm ]T-\-ns coXn Cs\: ""Amdv Imep-I-fn \nnbad-bn-m Hcp sN-p-c. Ip-I-fn ac--eI \nc-nb s_v.tNSnav tXp-W-nb Fgpv ]e-I. "Aen-^n\v ]pn-bn-. _mvHcp ]pn Xsg...' C-s\-bp A-c-]-T-\w.'' t_mUv, sUkvIv,s_v, s_v Fnh D]-tbm-Knpw ]ncn-tb-Up-I IW-m-n-bp-apa{Z-km-coXn Nmen-e-Iv \S-m-n-b-tm AXn\v henb FXnv hp.hJv^v kzv CXn\v D]-tbm-Kn-m ]mSn-sv Hcp hn`mKw hmZn-p.t_mUn JpB Fgp-Xn-bm AXns tNmv s]mSn \nev hohp-Xv Jp-Bs\ A]-am-\n--em-sWv FXn hn`mKw ]n-X-mBtcm-]n-p. Fnepw P\--fn \nv Ip-l-Zv lmPn-bpsS ]-Xnv hn kzoIm-cyX e`n-p. Atm asmcp ^Xvhmbp-ambn Hcphn`mKw ]n-X-m At-ls t\cn-p. ""kv{XoIv Is-gpv

  • 18

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    ]Tn-n- Idm-lv BsWpw ldm-am-sWpw cv Ju DXvsImv AXv aX-n \ntcm-[n--s--Xm-Wv.'' Fm Atlw Xscv s]a-sf kvIqfn-te--bv amXrI krjvSn-p.

    ]n Zknepw Atlw kaq-e-amb ]cn-jvI-cWw hcp-n. Xsinjy-mv ` uXnI hnZym-` ymkw Ipd-hm-sWv I auem\ KWnXw,ae-bmfw, s]mXp-hn-m\w Fnh kne-_-kn Ds-Sp-n. henb]n-X-m tpw ]nSnv IWv sNp-Xv ImWm-am-bn-cpp FvAs Hcp ZrIvkmn ]d-bp-p. As\ hmg-mSv Zmdp Depw\thm-m\ \mb-I-msc hms-Sp-p m]-\-am-bn.

    kvIq tImtfPv hnZym-`ymkw

    hnZym-`ymk cwKv apkvenw kap-Zm-b-n ]Xps DWhv DS-se-Sp-p-sh-nepw Ahv kvIqfp-I-sfm-p-ap-m-bn-. 1912- BWvtImgn-tmSv lnam-b-Xp Ckvemw k -`bpsS Iogn Hcp kvIq m]n-X-am-b-Xv. tIc-f-nse BZy apkvenw hnZym-`ymk m]-\w. 1918-aZvd-k-p apl--Zn F t]cn tImgn-tmSv asmcp kvIqfpwBcw-`n-p. 1910- Xs ae-p-dv amn-f-am-cpsS hnZym-`ymk ]ptcm-KXn eyw shv Hcp s{Sbn-\nwKv kvIq m]n-X-am-bn-cp-p. FmapkvenwIv Hcp sslkvIq thW-sa Nn in-s--Xn-\m1935- ae-_m Pnm hnZym-`ymk Hm^o-k Jm _l-Zq sI.-ap-l-Zns t\Xr-Xz-n Xe-t-cn-bn Hcp kvIq In cq]o-Ir-X-am-bn. 1936- ae-p-dv BZys apkvenw sslkvIq \ne-hn hp.

    Aen-K apkvenw bq\n -th-g vknn m]n-X-am-b-tm AXvapkvenwIfn hen-sbmcp hnZym-`ym-km-thiw krjvSn-p. FmapkvenwIv An-mbn kvIqfp-I \ne-hn hp-sh-nepw"apkvenwIv Hcp BSvkv & kbkv tImtfPv' F kz]v\wkmmIrX-am-bn-. Ccp-]Xmw \qm-ns ]ndhn apX CXn-\mbn]e L--fn-embn \S H-s {ia- Hpw Xs hnPbw In-. 1921 se ae-_m Iem]w bYm-n apkvenw kap-Zm-b-nsDWhn\pw aptm-p Ka-\-n\pw hen-sbmcp Xncn--Sn-bm-bn-cp-p.1923- koXn kmln-_ns t\Xr-Xz-n \ne-hn h apkvenwsFIy-kwLw "tIcf apkvenw tImtfPv In' F t]cn Hcp kwL-S\ cq]o-I-cnv tImtf-Pn-\m-h-iy-amb ew ]gb Xncp-hn-Xmw-IqKhsan \nv km-Znv {iaw Bcw-`n-p-sh-nepw hnP-bn-n-.apkvenwIv tIc-f-n \ne-hn-ep-m-bn-cp lnp--{In-kvXytImtf-Pp-I-fn AUvan-j e`n-m hfsc {]bmkw A\p-`-h-s-n-cp-p. Ad_n D-X-hn-Zym-`ym-k-cw-K-m-sW-n Nmen-e-I-ns hmg-mSv Zmdp Deq-ans ]cn-jvI-c-W-n-\-pdw aptmv t]mIm

  • 19

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    apkvenwImbn-.BsI-IqSn Ccp apnb \ncm-im-P-\-I-amb Cu Aco-n-te-

    mWv Bbncw hjw ]g--ap CuPn-]vXnse temI {]kn--ambA Akvl kh-I-em-im-e-bn \nv sImfp-n-sb-Sp {]Im-i-\m-f-hp-ambn hnZym-`ymk \thm-m\ \mb-I-\mb Hcp aX-]-n-XISp hcp--Xv AsX, Hcp ]pXnb {]`m-X-n\v P-ta-Inb auem\mA_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen.

  • 20

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    2.A_p--_mlv:

    tIcfw apX ssItdm hsc

    P\-\w--hn-Zym-`ymkw

    Xriq Pn-bnse Nmh-ms sht-\mv Hcp CS-cw IpSpw-_-n 1906- P\n AlvaZv Aen F A\mY inip hfp hep-Xm-bn- `m-hn-bn \nc-h[n t]v hnm\ shfnw ]IpsImSpp Hcp Ncn{X ]pcp-j-\mbn Db-cp-sav Av Bc-dn-p. alm-m-cmb ]e-cp-sSbpw Pohn-X-IY ]cn-tim-[n-m {]Xn-Iqe kml-N-cy-sf AXn-Po-hnv Db-c- {]m]n ApXw Ah-cn Is-mIgn-bpw. hnZym-`ymk kuIcyw hfsc ]cn-an-X-am-bn-cp Am-ev{]mY-anI kvIq hnZym-`ymkw t\Sm am{Xta AlvaZv Aenv Ah-kcw e`n-p-p. As Hmp]naX-]-T\w ]qn-bm-n-b-tijw\mnse k{Zmba\p-k-cnv XpS aX-]-T-\-n-\mbn ae-pdw Pn-bnsetImq ]n Zkn tNp. ]t, sNdpw apXte AZ-ay-ambhnm\ XrjvWbpw Dbv ]Tn-m-\p A`n-hm-RvObpw At-l-n \ms-Sp-n-cp-p. AXv ImcWw Db ]n-X-m-cpsSinjyXzw kzoI-cn-m Atlw sImXn-p. Ad_n hymI-cW imkv{X-n hyp]n t\Snb Hcp ]n-X agnbn mv \S-p-p-s--dnv AhnsS t]mbn At-l-ns Zkn tNp. AXnshv ]e hnj-b-fpw ]TntXmsSmw [mcmfw kplr-p-sfbpwkm-Zn-p. ]n Zknse ]T\w Hcp \ne-hm-c-n-se-n-bm ]nsDX ]T-\-n\v Av shq _mJn-bm-p-m-en-lmv Ad_ntImtf-Pns\ B{i-bn-p-I-bm-bn-cpp ]Xn-hv. ]qh Imes ]n-X-m-cpsS t]cn-t\m-sSmw tNn-cp _ncpZw Fw.-F-^v._n (auehn^mkn _mJ-hn) Fm-bn-cp-p. AlvaZv Aen _mJn-bm-ns\ Dt-inv sNs-nepw {]mb-p-dhv ImcWw ]dv At-l-n\v {]th-i\w \ntj-[n--s-p. {]mbs Ih-p-sh-p _pn-]-chpw

  • 21

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    sshm-\n-I-hp-amb Ignhv At-l-n\v hn\-bm-bn. \ncm-i-\m-ImsXAtlw a{Zmkv Pam-en tImtf-Pns Ihm-Shpw apn-t\m-n.

    A Akvl kh-I-em-im-e-bn-tev

    ]Xn-s\-p-Im-c-\mb Cu bphmhv a-gn-bnse ]T-\-Im-ev km-Zn kplr-p--fnepw kl-]m-Tn-I-fnepw s] Nne sImfw-t_m-bn_nkn-\kv \S-p-p-m-bn-cp-p. Ah-cpsS W-{]Imcw Ahn-sS-sb-nb AlvaZv Aenv CuPn-]vXnse A Akvl kh-I-em-im-e-bn \nv _ncpZw t\Snb Nne ]n-X-m-cp-ambn ]cn-N-b-s-Sp-hmAh-kcw e`n-p. temI-nse Ghpw A[nIw ]g--ap {]uVn-\n-d Cu hnPvRm\ tI{-n tNv ]Tn-m-\p Xm]cyw At-l-n Hcm-th-i-ambn hfp. sImsfmwt_mbn \nv \mn Xncn-s-nb tijw ]ns A Akvl am{X-ambn At-l-ns Nn.{]Xn_--fpsS {]hmlw Xs apn-tev HgpIn hs-nepw Ah-sbmw Xn-b-In Atlw ey-n-tev {]bmWw \S-n. km-nI {]iv\- ]cn-l-cn-m kzw t]cnepm-bn-cp `qan hnp]W-ap-m-n. t_mws_-bnsensb-nepw hnk icn-s-Sm Znh-k- Imp-\ntn hp. Cu CS-thf DZp ]Tn-m D]-tbm-K-s-Sp-n. 1924- Hcp ]pXnb hnZymn PohnXw Bcw-` n-m AtlwCuPn-]vXn-tev I Ib-dn.

    A Akvldns Ncn{Xw

    Ncn{X {]kn--amb A Akvl khI-em-ime {In.968-CuPn]vXv `cn ^mXznan `c-W-nse tk\m-\m-b-I-\mbncpPuldpnJven ssItdm-hn \nan ]n-bn \nmWv Bcw-`n-p--Xv. AXn\v Atlw {]hm-NI ]p{Xn-bmb ^mXzna _ohnv \Im-dp "AklvdmAv' F hnti-j-Ws kqNn-np sImv AAkvl Fv t]cn-p. ^mXznan Jeo^ Akokv _nm-bpsS a{n-bm-bn-cp bAvJp_p_v\p Inkv BZy-ambn AXn ]T\ k{-ZmbwGs-Spn aX-]-n-X-msc \nb-an-p. AtXmsS "A akvPn-ZpPman-Av' Hcp "PmanA' (kh-I-em-im-e) Bbn `mhn-bn cq]m--c-s-p. ]noSv ]ntbmS-\p-_-nv Hcp sse{_dn m]n--s-p. `cWIn-bmb ^mXznanI ioA-aZvl_v A\p-k-cn-mWv ]n-bn NS-p-I \S-n-bn-cp--Xv. Fnepw ]nbnse Zkn im^nCu,amenIo aZvl-_p-I ]Tnnncpp. {In.1171- ^mXznan `cWw Ah-km-\n tijw kpn Bi-b-m-cmb Aq-_n-I A[n-Im-c-nh-tm ap `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-IfpsS Fm \S-]-Sn-Ifpw \nn-sh-p.]ns A[n-Im-c-n h aweq-Ip-I CSnp s]mfn ]n

  • 22

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    ]pXpn ]Wn-Xp. {In.1303 Hcp `qan Ipep-s XpSv AAkvl-dn\v \mi-\-jvS- kw`-hn--tm Aao km AXv]pXpn ]Wn-Xp. temI-ns hnhn[ `mK--fn \nv A Akvl-dn ]Tn-m hnZymn-I hp sImn-cp-p. alm-]-n-X-m-cmbC_v\p-aZq, JJ-i-n, C_v\p lP-dp AkvJ-em-\n, kpbqXznXpS-n-b-h-scmw B Ime-L--n A Akvl-dn ]Tn--h-cm-Wv.{]kn Ncn{XImc C_v\p JZp CuPn-]vXn h-tm AAk-l-dn mv FSp-n-cp-p.

    1798 s\tm-fn-b CuPn-]vXn A[n-\n-thiw \S-n-b-Xns\XpSv A Akvl tZiob kzmX-{y-k-a-c-ns kncm-tI-{-ambnamdn. A Akvl-dn hn-h-Im-cn-I XSnp IqSn. {^v ssk\nIta[m-hnsb Ipn-sm-p. XpSv A Akvl XIm {^vssk\yw D-c-hn-p. ]n-bpsS AI-tv IpXn-c-Isf Ib-n. hnf-p-I Xn-bp-S-p. hnZymn-I-fpsS ]mT-]p-kvX-I- henp Iodn.hn-h-n ]s-Sp apgp-h t]scbpw h[n-m s\tm-fn-bD-c-hn-p. \mem-bncw CuPn-]vXp-Im sIm-s-p. hopw AAkvl hnhw ]p\-cm-cw-` n-p. A Akvl hnZymn-bmb kpsse-am le_n {^v tk\m-\m-b-I-\mb t_sd ]Xn-bn-cpp B{I-anp sIme-s-Sp-n. kpsse-am\pw \mev A Akvl hnZymn-Ipw ` c-W-IqSw h[-in hn[n-p. 1919- A Akvl _ncpZ[mcn-bmb kAZv kK-eq-ens t\Xr-Xz-n {_n-s\-Xn-cn Hcp henbhnhw \S-p.

    apkvenw temI-nse Ghpw henb ]cn-jvIm-hmbn KWn--s-Sp apl-Zv A_vZp (1845-1905) A Akvl-dn A[ym-]-I-\mbn\nb-an-X-\m-b-tijw Atlw Ahn-Ss ]T\ coXn-bn hn ]cn-jvm-c- hcp-n.

    hn-h-Imcnbmb hnZymn

    temI-{]-ikvX ]n-X-mcpw kmln-Xy-Im-c-m-cp-amb tUm.-Xzmlmlpssk, cn^m AXzlvXzmhn, A_vZp ^nIvco, AlvaZv AaoXpS-n-b-h-sc-sbmw hms-Sp Cu al-mb hnZym-]o-T-n-te-mWv 19 hb-p-Im-c-\mb AlvaZv Aen Ad_n coXn-b-\p-k-cnv "A_p--_mlv' ({]-`m-X-ns ]nXm-hv) F _lp-a-Xn-tcv kzoI-cn-p-sImv ISp h-Xv. hntZi hnZymn-I-fpsS AUvan-j Npa-XeAv amZzo-]p-Im-c-\mb ssiJv dphm-Jn-\m-bn-cp-p. {]mb-am-bn-n-sImcWw ]dv Atlw A_p--_m-ln\v AUvan-j \ntj-[np.Fnepw kmayw {]tbm-Knv Bdp amk-n\v tijw AtlwAwKo-IrX ]Z-hn-bp hnZymn-bm-bn. AtXmsS Atlw A

  • 23

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    Akvl-dn tN cm-as ae-bm-fn-bm-bn. Hm-as ae-bmfnhw aue-hn-bpsS Afn-b\pw Aen-K apkvenw kh-I-emi _ncp-Z-[m-cn, {K-Im-hv, aZn-cmin apl--Z tImtfPv Ad_n A[ym-]-I Fo \ne-smw {]kn--\mb Fw.Fw.-A-_vZp JmZ auehn(1890-1951) BWv. im-\mbn Hcp apdn-bn ]pkvX-I-p-gp-hmbn NSpIqSp {]Ir-X-m-c-\m-bn-cp-n A_p--_m-lv. adnv Xn-I-tfmSvi-ambn {]Xn-I-cn-p-Ibpw hnZymn {]iv\--fn kPo-h-ambn CS-s]-Sp-Ibpw sNp hn-h-Im-cn-bm-bn-cpp kh-I-em-im-e-bn AvhntZi hnZymn-I-tfm-Sp kao-]\w hnth-N-\-]-c-am-bn-cp-p. Ahve`n-p Xmak kuI-cy- Xr]vXn-I-c-am-bn-cp-n-. CXv t]mseA Akvl-dnse As ]T\ k{-Zmbw Ip-gn-Xpw ]g--\p-am-bn-cp-p. A_p--_mlv "A dm_nXXpJn' F t]cnHcp hnZymn kwL-S\ cq]o-I-cnv X-fpsS Bh-iy- AS-nbsatmdmw Xm-dmn As A Akvl ta[mhn (ssi-JpAkvl)-bm-bn-cp ssiJv apkvX^m adm-Knpw AwK-pw AbpsImSp-p. satm-dm--nse apgp-h Bh-iy-fpw DS ]cn-l-cn--s-p.

    N-\-ncn hn\mc

    A Akvl-dnse hnZymn Pohn-X-Im-ev km-nI {]bm-k- A_p--_m-lns\ hmsX sRcp-n-bn-cp-p. ]t A`n-am\t_m[w Xs kzIm-cy-ZpxJw Bsc-sb-nepw Adn-bn-p--Xn \nvAt-ls XS-p. kqpw tImpw [cnv A-n \S-p-tmt`Z-s- -h-\m-sWt tXmp-I-bp-q. AXvsImv Xs "knZv Aao'F t]cn-emWv hnZymn-In-Sbn Atlw Adn-b-s-n-cp--Xv.tImn\v Idp \ndw sXc-s-Sp-p--Xn Hcp cl-ky-ap-m-bn-cp-p. thKw apjn-bn-. Aepw tkmpw em`n-mw. Bh-iy-n\v ]W-ap-m-m Atlw efn-X-amb Nne km-Z-\-amK- kzoI-cn-p.blq-Zv Ghpw {]nb-s hkvXp-hmWv N-\-n-cn. AtlwAXns \namWw ]Tn-p. {]tXyI em_-fp-mn AXv hn\ \S-n. Bh-iy-n\v ]Ww e`np XpS-n. ]{Xhm-b\ B hnZymnvHgn-p IqSm Zn\-N-cy-bm-bn-cpp. cm{Xn-bmWv ]{X- hmp-I.ImcWw cmhnse _mn hcp ]{X- cm{Xn Npcp-nb hnevInpw. hmb\ A_p--_m-ln\v Fpw ` Ww t]mse Pohn-X-nsA`n-hm-Py-L-S-I-am-bn-cp-p.

    dioZv cnZm-bp-ambn Gp-apn

    A Akvl-dn Ignp Iqnb hj--f-{Xbpw Atlw Ne-\m-

  • 24

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    I PohnXw \bn-p. X^vko-dp a\m F temI-{]-kn--amb Jp-B hymJym\ {K-ns Im-hv, Aa-\m Ad_n amkn-I-bpsS ]{Xm-[n-], Adn-b-s Ad_n Fgp-p-Im-c, ap^vXn, ]cn-jvImhv Fo \ne-smw {]kn--\mb knZv apl-Zv dioZvcnZm (18651935) bpambn Atlw Gp-ap- nb Hcp k -`ap-m-bn. kpDu-Zn-I lnPmkv Iog-S-nb tijw hnhn[ cmjv{S--fnse apkvenw t\Xm--sfbpw ]n-X-m-scbpw hnfnp tNv Hcp kt-f\w kwL-Sn-np hnhn[ hnj-b- N sNbvXp. Cy-bn \nv auem\mapl--Z-enbpw (1878-1931) CuPn-]vXn \nv knZv dioZv cnZm-bp-amWv]s-Sp--Xv. kpDu-Zn-bnse `c-W-{Iaw F-s\-bm-bn-cn-t-W-saN h-tm auem\m apl--Zen P\m-[n-]Xyw thW-sav hmZn-p. kpDuZn cmPm-hns apn Cs\ ]d-Xv dioZv cnZmsb sNmSn-n-p.

    ""Xm FvsImv cmPm-hns\ `b-s-Sp-n?'' F dioZv cnZm-bpsS tNmZy-n\v auem\m \Inb ad-p]Sn Cu Jp-B hmIyw(3:97) Bbn-cpp: ""B AhnsS (a--bnse A\p-Kr-loX ` h-\w) {]th-inpthm Ah \n`-b-\m-Wv.'' kt-f\w Ignv CuPn-]vXn Xncn-s-nb DSs\ auem-\sb hnainp sImv dioZv cnZm ]{X--fnFgp-Xn.

    auem\m apl--Z-en-tbm-sSmw

    auem\m apl--Zen Iv Hm-td-j\p thn bqtdm-n-tev t]mIp-tm CuPn-]vXn Cd-n. PwCpp-m F bph-P\ kwL-S\ At-l-n\v Kw`o-c-amb kzoI-cWw \In. CXn-t\m-S-\p-_-nvtN tbmK-n kpDuZn kt-f-\-n Xm FSp \ne-]mSv\ymbo-I-cnp sImv Atlw kwkm-cn-p. ASp Znhkw XsdioZv cnZm CuPn-]vXnse {]kn--amb A Alvdmw ]-{X-n auem-\sb cq-ambn hnain-p-sImv kpZoL-amb Hcp teJ-\-sa-gp-Xn.Cy-bn {_no-jp-Ims-Xn-cn \S-p kzmX-{y-k-a-c-sbpwAtlw A]-e -]np CXv hmbn - -tm A_p--_m -lnstZiobt_m[w Xnfp adnp Xm shdp-samcp hnZymn; dioZvcnZm temI-sapw Adn -b-s-Sp alm-\mb ]n-X CusNdphenw ]cn-K-Wn-msX CuPn-]vXnse "AIv_m-dp buw' Zn\-]-{X-n \mep e--fn-embn Atlw Hcp \o teJ-\-sa-gp-Xn.dioZv cnZm-bpsS {_nojv A\p-Iqe \ne-]mSv ]e kw`-h-fpwFSppcnv Atlw XpdpImn. CuPn-]vXnse Xe-ap-Xn ]n-Xs\ A Akvl-dnse Hcp hnZymn FXnpI alm-kw-`-h-am-bn-cp-p.

  • 25

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    A Akvl-dn A_p--_mlv hnZymn-Ipw A[ym-]-Ipsamw kp]-cn-Nn-X\pw {]nb--c-\p-am-bn-cp-p. A[ym-]-I-cpsS hoSp-I kinv {]tXyI hnj-b- N sNpI At-l-nsk{-Zm-b-am-bn-cp-p. Ah-cpsS {]nb-s hnZymnsb "b _v\o'(Fs aI-t\) FmWv Ah A`n-kw-t_m-[\ sNbvXn-cp--Xv. ]noSvA Akvl ta[m-hn-bmbn Ah-tcm-[n-X-\m-b, ]ptcm-K-a-\m-i-b--fpsShm-hmb AlvaZv i XqXp-ambn At-l-n\v {]tXyI _-am-Wp-m-bn-cp--Xv.

    A Akvl hnv Cy-bn-tev

    As CuPn-]vjy `c-Wm-[n-Imcn ^pBZv cmPmhv AAkvl kin-p-tm ]e-tmgpw hnZymn-Isf {]Xn-\n-[o-I-cnv At-l-amWv A\p-tam-Z\ {]kwKw \S-m-dp-m-bn-cp--Xv. Cy-bn \nv hcp AXn-Yn-Iv kzoI-cWw \Ip--Xnepw Atlwt\XrXzw hln-pw. {]kn Ihn Ama CJv_m-ens\ ]cn-N-b-s-XvA Akvl-dn shmWv. Atlw ^ e-kvXo kt-f-\-n\v t]mIp-tm-gm-bn-cpp IqSn-m-gvN. Ipdp Znh-k- CJv_mepsamnpIgnp Iqm\pw Ah-kcw e`n-p.

    ]p hjs kw`h _lp-e-amb A Akvl PohnXw Ah-km-\n-p-I-bm-Wv. apkvenw \thm-m\ Nn-bpsS {]`htI{-am-bn-cppAv A Akvl. hn-hm-i-b--fpsS hmhpw ap^vXn-bp-am-bn-cpapl-Zv A_vZp A Akvl-dn A[ym-]-I-\m-bn-cns AhnsS hnX-dnb \qX\ Nn-bpsS kv^pc-W- hnZymn-I-fnepw A[ym-]-I-cnepw `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-fnepsamw Hcp ]p-\p-Whv krjvSnncpp.A\p-Zn\w hf-cp Ime-ns XpSn-p-I a\-n-emn aXXXz-v]p\hm-b\ \S-p Hcp B[p-\nI ]n-X A_p--_m-lnhms-Sp--sp Ign-n-cp-p.

    A Akvl-dnse tImgvkv Ah-km-\np Ign-p. C\n Fv? CuPn-]vXn Hcp ho tPmen-bmWv a\-n BZy-ambn DZnp h Bi-bw. ]t, Atm-tgpw auem\m apl--Zen \Inb Hcp D]-tZiwHma-bn hp; ""ChnsS F{Xtbm ]n-X-m-cpv. ]T\w Ign-mCy-bn-tev Xncnp t]mI-Ww. \n-sf-tm-ep--h-cpsS tkh-\-amWvCy-m-h-iyw.'' Xs ZuXyw tPmen-b-, tkh-\-amWv F NnAt-l-n in-s-p. A Akvl-dnse ]n-X-mcpw kl-]m-Tn-Ifpw At-l-n\v bm{Xbbv \In. ^e-kvXo\pw CdmJpwCdm\pw kin--tijw 1935- _k-d-bn \nv Atlw Idm-n-bn-tev I Ib-dn.

  • 26

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    3.Cy-bn Npn--dn

    Imnse Kpl-bn

    ]p-hjs hnZymn PohnXw Ah-km-\nv tkh\ eywapn Iv PtZi-amb Cy-bn-tev Xncn A_p--_mlv Idm-n-bn I-en-dn AhnsS Ipd-p-Imew Ignp Iqn. ]e Db hyn-I-fp-ambpw AhnsS kw ]penb tijw emtlm-dn-tev t]mbn.Ahn-Ss lnam-b-p Ckvemw tImtfPv At-l-ns tkh\wBh-iy-s-p. ASppw Nn-bp-an-m Hcp m]\w. Atlw ]T-\-{I-a-n\v BsI Hcp amw hcp-n. Fm emtlm-dnse A-cowAt-l-n\v Hpw Xr]vXn-I-c-am-bn-. Ahn-Ss ZuXyw Ah-km-\n-n-m Atlw Xocp-am-\np. Fnepw CXn-\Iw ]e apkvenw t\Xm--fp-ambpw At-l-n\v kw ]pem Ah-kcw e`np Ign-n-cp-p.

    _olm-dn

    XpSv A_p--_mlv _olm-dn-senbtm Ahn-Ss ]gwsN Hcp tImtfPv At-l-ns tkh\w D]-tbm-K-s-Sp-m Xocp-am-\n-p. m]-\-nse Ad-_n--CkvemanIv hIp-ns Xe-h FD-c-hm-ZnXzw At-ls G]n-p. Fm tImtf-Pnse A[ym-]-Iscmw {]mbw sN-hcpw ZoL-Im-es kho-kp--h-cp-am-bn-cp-p. Ah-cp-sS-sbmw ta[m-hn-bmbn Hcp sNdp--m-cs\ \nb-an-Xv {]Xn-tj-[-n-\n-S-bm-n. kam-[m\ t{]an-bmb A_p--_mlv {]iv\-krjvSnv m]-\s {]Xn-k-n-bn-em-msX thKw cmPn-sh-sm-gn-p.

    I--bn

    ]ns Atlw Fn-Xv I--bn-em-Wv. BZy-ambn

  • 27

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    auem\m Bkm-Zp-ambn ]cn-N-b-s-p. Bkm-Zns Jp-B ]cn-`mjtbmSv A_p--_m-ln\v henb aXn-m-bn-cp-p. Hcp I-h-S-m-c-\m-bmP\--fp-ambn IqSp-X kw ]pem\pw AXn-eqsS tkh\taJe IqSp-X hnI-kn-n-m\pw Ign-bptam F Nn At-l-nDS-se-Sp-p. ]co-Ww F \nev Idp-I--, Nmb-sm-Sn, ]pfn XpS-n-bh hnp--Xn Gs-p. ]t, kXy-k-X ]pen I-h-S-n hnP-bn-m Ign-bn-sv At-l-n\v A\p-`-h-n-eqsSt_m[y-am-bn. Fhn-sSbpw ambw tN hkvXp-. B DZyaw Dt]-nv ]ns a{Zm-kn-te-v bm{X Xncn-p.

    a{Zm-kn

    a{Zm-kn Fnb auehn BZyw sNbvXXv apl--Z tImtf-Pns{]m^-k-dm-bn-cp {]Ya A Akvl _ncp-Z-[m-cn-bmb tIc-fob]n-X A_vZp JmZ aue-hn-bp-ambn _-s-Sp-I-bm-bn-cp-p.XpSv a{Zmkv Pam-enb tImtf-Pns {]nkn- Bbn-cp knZvA_vZp hlm_v _pJm-cn kmln-_p-ambn kw ]pen. A_p--_m-lns\ tImtf-Pn A[ym]-I-\mbn \nb-an-m Fm-hcpwXm]cyw ImWn-p. AhnsS A[ym-]\w ` wKn-bmbn \nh-lnp sImn-cns Hcp bmZr-nI kw`-h-ap-mbn: Ahn-Ss {][m-\m-ym-]-IshoSns IpnbSn- Ia-n ap A[ym-]-I-tcm-sSmw A_p--_mlpw ]s-Sp-p. a{Zm-kn B Iatm-S-\p-_-nv asImv Hcp a\p-jy-cq-]-ap-mn Hcp Zo]-ns AI--Sn-tbmsS {]Z-nWw shp Hcp NS-p-v.-A--hn-izmkf-psS ASn-m-\-n-ep inv]c-amb Cu Ia-n\p apn \ni-_vZ-\mbn-cnmXnsXn-cn Xo{h-hn-Im-c-ap [oc-\mb A_p-_m-ln\v Ign-n-. sXv Bcv FhnsS shv sNp-Xv Imepw AXns\ FXnt-Xv apkvenans _m[y-X-bm-sW hnizmkw CXns\Xncn i_vZ-ap-bm B BZi-hm-Znsb t{]cn-n-p. kZ-n shv XsAtlw Xs {]Xn-tj[w Adn-bn-p. NSv \S-p-tm ]qW-amb\n-_vZX ]men-t-W-sa-mWv Nw. {][m-\m-ym-]-I-\p-ambn hmt--am-bn. A_p--_mlv kZv hnv Cd-n-tm-bn.

    A]-am-\n -X-\mb A[ym-]-Is ]I A_p--_m-ln-s\-Xnsc{]hn-m At-ls t{]cn-n-p. A]-hm-Z- ]dp ]c-n. B BZi-imen tImtfPv hnSm Xs Xocp-am-\n-p. tImtf-Pns `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bmbncp Pam apl-Zv kmln-_n\v At-l-tmSv {]tXyI Xm]-cy-ap-m-bn-cp-p. At-l-ns tkh-\-tmSvBZ-c-hp-am-bn-cp-p. At-ls ]nn-cn-n-m \S-nb {ia--sfmpw hnP-bn-n-.

  • 28

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    _\n-b I\nbn sXm-gn-emfn

    a{Zmkv hn auem\m I--bn-sen Ipdv Znh-k- AhnsSIgnp Iqn hopw _olm-dn-tev bm{X-bm-bn. AhnsS Hcp _\n-bI-\n-bn \q apdn-p tPmen-bn Gs-p. Ahn-Sv InpthX\w Xs AXym-h-iy-v aXn-bmbncpp. ]Wn Ignp Hgn-hp ka-b--fn sXmgn-em-fn-Iv Jp-B ms-Sppw. XsbYm nXn-I-sfmpw Bscbpw ]d--dnbnncp-n-. temI-nse Ghpw ]g--ap kh-I-em-im-e-bn \nv _ncp-Z-sa-Spalm-]-n-X-\mWv \q apdn-p tPmen sNp--sX cl-ky-sampw Bcpw Adn-bp-am-bn-cp-n-. Hcn- I\n amt\-P Ftm{]iv\-n A_p--_m-ln-t\mSv A[n-Im-c-kz-c-n kwkm-cn-p.auem-\v AXv Hpw ckn-n-. ""Xm sNbvXXv Ckveman\v hncp--amb \S-]-Sn-bmWv'' A_p--_mlv Hpw ` b-s-SmsX Abm-fpsS apJvt\mn ]d-p. apX-em-fn--n\v hgn Pohn-m Atlw CjvS-s-n-. Cu ]pXnb sXmgn-emfn Bscv apX-emfn At\z-jn--dntmtgpw I\n hnSm Atlw Dd Xocp-am-\-sa-Spp Ign-n-cp-p.

    Imn-tev

    A Akvl-dnse hnm\ temI-nse kzKob hmkw Ah-km-\n-nv tkh-\-ns acp- tXSn P\mn Fn C{Xbpwhjs A\p-`-h- At-l-ns a\-ns\ De-p. GXv cwKpsNp t\mn-bmepw sIm-cp-Xm-bva-I sImSn Ipn hmgp-p. aX-kvYm-]-\-v t]mepw ]qW-ambpw ]cn-ip-X ]men-m Ign-bp-n-. ]p-hjw XnIpw sshm-\n-I-amb A-co--nPohn Hcp bphm-hn\v \mnse hnj-I-ep-jn-X-amb Aco-nizmkwapv A\p-`-h-s-SpI kzm`m-hn-Iw. A_p--_m-lns a\vkwLj-`-cn-X-am-bn. Dnse ]ncn-ap-dp--n\v Abhv Inm\pw{]mXnIqey-sf XcWw sNm-\p Icpv BPn-m\pw thn\mn \nv amdn Imn GIm--X-bn Ipd-p-Imew Ignp Iqn-bmtem F Nn At-l-n in-s-p. Xn_-nepw ap-apk\ym-kn-am-sc-n Ad_n {K-fn Atlw [mcmfw hmbn-n-cp-p. Ah-km\w Cu Nn Hcp Xocp-am\ambn amdn. _olm-dnse k\ym-kn-am-cpsS kt-X-n-tev Ibdn sp. Imnepw \mn-ep-ambn Ipd-p-Imew Ignp Iqn.

    Kpl-bn GIm--\mbn

    k\ym-kn-am-cn \nv ssakq-cnse Hcp {]tXyI ae-sb-n tI-dn-

  • 29

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    p. AXv ]pWy-ap Hcp hninjvS ae-bm-sW-mWv Ah-cpsS hnizm-kw. B ae kin-m At-l-n taml-ap-Zn-p. A_p--_mlv_olm-dn \nv ssakq-cn-sen AhnsS Hcp apkvenw tlm-en Xma-kn-p. k\ym-kn-am-cpsS ]pWy-a-e-bpsS m\w tNmZn--dnp. hfscDb-c-nepw AI-e-n-ep-am-W-Xv. Fn-t-cm Hcp kmlkbm{XXs \S--Ww. Nne ae-hm-kn-I-fpsS klm-b-tmsS Ippw IpgnbpwImSp-Ifpw Xmn ae-ap-I-fn-se-n. hnim-e-amb \ncv \ne-fpw Kpl-Ifpw \nd Hcp henb ae. A_p--_mlv Hcp Kpl sXc-s-Spv AXn Xma-k-am-n. ae-bpsS ASn-`m-Kp IqsS Hcp tNmeHgp-Ip-p-v. IpSn-m\pw hpZp- F-Sp-m-\p-samw AXv D]-tbm-K-s-Sp-n.

    {]-b AmX a\p-jy

    alm-\mb Hcp ]n-X `uXn-I-amb Fm kpJ-ku-I-cy-fpwXyPnv h\m--c-n Hcp Kpl-p-n GIm--Nn--\mbn Ign-bp-p. A-Imc \n_n-U-amb cm{Xn. h\y-ar-K--fpsS `bm-\-I-ambAe tIp-p. ]t, A_p--_mlv Hpw Adn-bmsX GtXmHcmob temIv kpJ-kp-jp-]vXn-bn e-bnv Ign-bpp. CXv BcpwAt-l-n ASn-t]n--X-. kzbw sXc-s-Sp amKw. {IqcPp- sIme-hn-fn-bp-ambn ]e-tmgpw Kplm-ap-Jv hv Fn-t\m-m-dp-v. Nne-tm I\ Hcm-{I-a-W-n-\mbn aptmv Bv IpXn-m-dp-v. Fm Kpl-p-nse B a\p-jys [oc-amb \n]vIntm Ftm Ah ]nhm-p-I-bmWv ]Xn-hv. Fm Hcn-ac-W-ns hmbv-e-n AI-sv Ignp Fv Dd-n-mt]m Hcp kw`-h-ap-m-bn. Iptd Znh-ks Kplm-hmkw ImcWwoWw _m[n At-ls tcmKw ]nSn-Iq-Sn. Bcpw Adn-bp-ItbmImWp-Itbm sNm Kplm-`m-Kw. klm-b-n\v Hcp a\p-jy-\p-an-. \S-m Xs hm-Xm-bn. Duc-bn Hcp In-fn-Npn h\-n-eqsS \ncn \on-bmWv tNme-bn-se-n-bn-cp--Xv. ]t, ]nsAXn\pw hm-Xm-bn. tcmKw A{X Iv aqOn-p. i-amb ]\n. ]nsFv kw`-hnp Fv At-l-n-\-dnp IqSm. Hma Xncnp Inp-tm apl-Zv kpm F Hcm-fpsS hon-emWv. ae-hm-kn-IvAmSn km[-\- hnp Hcp I-h-S-m-c-\mWv At-lw. Imn-\p-n Hcp Kpl--Iv {]-b-p InSp Hcp a\p-jys\ I-tm ae-hm-kn-I At-ls Xmn-sb-Spv I-h-S-m-cs ASp-s-n--Xm-Wv.

    apl-Zv kpms hon tcmK-i--bn InS-p CuAmX hyn B? P\- Fsmstbm [cn-p. ApX

  • 30

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    knn-I-fp GtXm Znhy-\m-sW hnizm-k-n ]pWyw t\Sm\pwtcmK hnapn tXSm\pw hcp--h-cpsS ieyw Ak-l-\o-b-am-bn. hnP-\-amb Hcp e-tv amdn Xma-kn-m A_p--_mlv B{Klw{]I-Sn-n-p. ]e e-fpw At\z-jn apl-Zv kpm HSp-hnKp t] F ev CSnp s]mfn-, P\-k-anmHcp \a-kvIm-c-]n Ip-]n-Sn-p. ASp-smpw B Xma-k-an-. Pnp-I-fpsS kt-X-am-sW-mWv P\-hn-izm-kw. AhnsS Ib-dm t]mepwBfp-I `b-pw. A_p--_m-ln\v ew \t ]nSn-p. ]mb-sImvHcp ad-bp-mn Xmakw Bcw-` n-p. AIv Ip-In-S-bn-eqsS ` oIck- Xe-bnv t\mp-p. ]t Cu `\v Hcp sR-ep-ap-m-bn-.

    Ipm-en-pn lmPn Isn

    ]n-bn-tev \ne-m P\-{]-hmlw. tcmK-hn-apn tXSp--h;Zi\w e`nv kmbq-Py-a-S-bp--h Cs\ ]e-cpw. apl-Zvkpm CS-nsS hv kpJm-t\z-jWw \S-p-p. Hcn- Ipm-en-pn lmPn Fsm-cmv ImWm A\p-aXn \I-W-sa apl-Zv kpm At]-n-p-p. ae-pdw Pn-bnse B\-bw kztZ-in-bmb B Ij-I\v AhnsS aebpw Irjn-bp-ap-v. \nc--c-ambkZs XpSv At-l-n\v ImWm A\p-aXn \In. XpSvki\ k`- h[n-p. Hcn- A_p--_mlv \a-kvI-cn-p-tm-gmWv lmPn-bpsS hc-hv. \a-kvIm-c-nse GIm--Xv `wKw hcp-p Fn-t\mSpw A_p--_m-ln\v ISp hntcm-[-am-bn-cpp.lmPnv IW-n\v iImcw Inn. B km[p a\p-jy s]mn--c-p.CXv I-tm A_p--_m-lns a\v B{Z-am-bn. Cu kw`hwAh Xn-ep _-n\v ]pXn-sbmcp am\-ap-m-n. lmPn At-l-ns hoSv kin-m CS-nsS hv \n_-np sImn-cp-p. Hcn- At-l-ns B{Klw \nd-th-m-sav hmv sImSp-p.

    h[-` o-jWn

    ssakq-cnse Xmakw aXn-bmn hopw Idm-n-bn-tev t]mbn.AhnsS Hcp Jp-B mv Bcw-`n-p. AXns\ XpSv At-l-n\vHcp sIme-]m-XI `oj-Wn-bp-m-bn. Jp-B-\nse ]e `mK-fpwhymJym-\nv _Z bps kw_-n hmIy- hsc-sb-n. _Z-dn Cd-nb ae-p-I kw_-nv km[m-cW tIm-dp hymJym-\-n \nv hyXy-kvX-amb Hcm-ibw Atlw Ah-X-cn-n-p. A-hn-izmknIfpw bmYm-n-I-cp-am-bn-cp Ahn-Ss apkvenwIv CXvZln-n-. Ah tcmjm-Ip-e-cm-bn. A_p--_mlv ]pcm-X\ Jp-B

  • 31

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    hymJym\ {K--fn \nv Xs hmZ-KXnIv Dt]m_-e-I-ambsXfn-hp-I \nc-n. ]t, CXv sImsmpw ^e-ap-m-bn-. At-ls h[n-m-\p Xocp-am-\-n Ah Dd-p-\n-p. ImcWw Ah-cpsS ZrjvSn-bn Cu hymJym\w hen-sbmcp ]mXIam-bn-cp-p. tdmUvhn ]oSnI apdn-bn-emWv At-l-ns Xma-kw. h[n-m Xocp-am-\nv P\w XSnp IqSn. A_p--_mlv Dd `mj-bn Ah-cp-ambnHcp hmKzmZw \Sn C{]-Imcw {]Jym-]\w \S-n. ""sIm-tmfq Fs''CXpw ]dp apdn-bn \nv Xe ]pdtnp. P\--fpsS DnFtm Hcp `oXn ISp IqSn. Ah ]nhmn. ]ns t]meokvAhsc Adv sNbvXp.

    ae-p-dv {]Xy--sp

    Idm-n-bn \nv t_mws_-bn-te-mWv bm{X Xncn--Xv. CuPn-]vXnshv ]cn-N-b-s A_vZp--aZv aue-hnsb kin tijw ae-_m-dn-tev Xncn-p. Ipm-en-pn lmPnv At-l-ns hkXn kin-m-sav hmv sImSp--Xm-W-tm. AXv ]men-m ]-eq-cn-senAhnsS \nv At-l-ns P--e-amb ae-p-d-n-\-Spv B\--bv hp. ]ntv Xs Xncnp t]mIm-\m-bn-cpp Xocp-am-\-sa-nepw lmPn-bpsS \n_--{]-Imcw Ipdv Znhkw IqSn Xma-kn-p.X\nv hnP-\-amb Hcp ev Xma-kn--W-sa Bhiyw A_p--_mlv Bhn-p. BXma-k-an-m-Xpw ]mm sImm-sXv hniz-kn--s-SpXpamb Hcp hoSv lmPn ImWnp sImSp-p. auem-\v AXv CjvS-am-bn. 1941- Atlw AhnsS XmakwBcw-`n-p.

  • 32

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    4.hnZym-Zo-]-hp-ambn ae-pdw an

    "B\--bv Hcp Am-X-hyn {]Xy--s-n-pv'\mn-emsI{ipXn-bm-bn. P\- Ah-cpsS `mh-\-bvsmv Ducpw t]cpw \Inhyn\nWbw \S-n. cmw temI-a-lm-bpw \S-p Ime-am-bn-cp-p. Pa Nmc-\m-sWv Hcp hn`mKw Xd-nv ]dp. A, Ir{Xnas]mp -m-p ]pn -bm -sW-mbn asmcp hn`m -K -nsIp]nSpw. Ftm Akm-[m-cW Ignhp-I-fp Hcp "Huenbm'BsW-mbn aqm-a-sXmcp Iq. tIc-f-nse Nne aX-]-n-X-mAt-ls kao-]np Nne tNmZy- D-bn-p. {]kn Ad_nkmln-Xy-Im-c-\m-bn-cp tUm.-Xzm-lm-lp-ssk-s\--n-bp A`n-{]m-b-am-cm-p. Xzml-bpsS Ign-hp-I-sfbpw {]i-kvXn-sbbpw AwKo-I-cn-p]cm-aiw \S-n-b-tXmsS ]n-X-m-cpsS ZrjvSn-bn Atlw \nco-iz-c-hm-Zn-bm-bn. A_p--_mlv km-dns t\m-p-n-bm-bn. t]meo-kp-tZym-K--m-cpsS \nc-c-amb At\z-j-Whpw tNmZyw sN-epw.hoSpw km[\ kma-{Kn-Ifpw kqva-amb ]cn-tim-[-\v hnt[-b-am-n.]t, Nne Dul--f-msX Dd-p-h-cp-m DX-Ip Hcp tcJbpwIs-Sp-m Ign-n-. A_p--_mlv Xs Pohn-X-IY Ah-tcmSvXpdp ]d--Xp-an-. Ah-km-\-ambn At\z-jWw \S-nb t]meokv]mn-bpsS Xe-h Hcp Aapkvenw Bbn-cp-p. Atlw Xs apgp-h Ignhpw ka-bhpw D]-tbm-Knv tNmZyw sNepw ]cn-tim-[-\bpw\S-n. Zpcq-lX \om-hp Hcp sXfnhpw e`n-n-. auem-\-bm-Isa\v Xpd--Xp-an-. Ah-km\w t]meokv ta[mhn IqsS-bp--h-sc-sbmw ]pd-tv amn A_p--_m-ln-t\mSv Cs\ ]dp: ""Rmt]mbmepw Cu At\z-jWw XpScpw AXn-\m bYm \ne FtmSvXpdp ]d-bWw'' CXv A[n-Im-c-ns kzcambncp-n-. kulrZ`mh-n-ep Hcp bmN-\-bm-bn-cp-p. CXn\v A_p--_mlv Cs\{]Xn-I-cn-p. ""Fs-n IqSp-X Adn-bm a{Zmkv apl--Z tImtfPv

  • 33

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    {]nkn-m tUm.-A-_vZp lJv, Pam-enb tImtfPv {]nkn-m-auem\m A_vZp hlm_v _pJm-cn, knZv aplvbojm Fn-h-tcmSv At\z-jn-m aXn.'' Cu At\z-jWw ]qn-bm-b-tXmsS sXn-m-c-W-I-fpw kwi-b-fpw \on. t]meokv ]cn-tim-[-\bpw \ne-p.

    B\-m-bs Huenbm

    Fm HutZym-KnI Xe-n-ep At\z-jWw \ne-p-sh-nepws]mXp-P-\--fn Ftm Znhy-i-n-bp Hcp kn-\m-sW [mc-Wv am-ap-m-bn-. tcmK-i-a-\hpw a\x-im-nbpw tXSn-sb-p--hh[n-p. AtXm-sSmw Hcp alm-]-WvUn-X F \nev At-lsImWm\pw ]cn-N-b-s-Sm\pw ki\w \S-p {]apJ hyn-I-fp-ap-m-bn-cp-p. skbvXv aplvbo jmbpw kn.-F.-AlvaZv auehnbpwae-pdw Kh.-ssl-kvIq-fn A[ym-]-I-cm-bn-cn-p-tm-gmWv Ipn-I-fn\nv B\--bv Xma-k-am-nb "Huenbm' sbn Adn-bp--Xv.t\cs a{Zm-kn \nv s{]m^.-A-_vZp JmZ auehn A_p--_mlv ae-_m-dn Fhn-sS-bm-sWv Ip-]n-Sn-m Bh-iy-s-n-cp-p. Cu cp-t]cpw A_p--_m-lns\ Hn-e-[nIw XhW kin-p.

    Cs\ ]pdw temI-hp-ambn A[nIw _-sam-p-an-msX A_p--_mlv Hcp hjw Ignp Iqn. CSv Nne ki-I-mv AtlwA\p-aXn \Ipw. Fm CXn-\Iw Xs Pohn-X-ZuXyw \nh-ln-m-\p ]mX-bn-tev \om Atlns a\v ]mI-s-n-cp-p.tIc-f-nse apkvenwIv A Akvl-dns apJ-ap aX-hn-Zym-`ymkw A\n-hm-cy-am-sW Nn At-l-ns Dn in-s-p.Xs kin-m-s\-p {]apJ hyn-I-fpsS apn AtlwCu Bibw Ah-X-cn-n-p. X\nv BXnYyw \Inb Ipm-en-pnlmPn Cu Bi-bs khm-\m kzmKXw sNbvXp. Ad-_n--a-X-hn-Zym-`ymkw ]n Zkp-I-fn \nv Ic--amn DX ]T\w B{K-ln-p \nnX tbmKy-X-bp Bdv hnZymn-Iv {]th-i\w\Im-\mWv Xocp-am-\n--Xv. ` -Whpw Xma-khpw kuP-\y-ambn \Im-\p k-X Ipm-en-pn lmPn {]I-Sn-n-p-Ibpw sNbvXp.hnZymn-Isf skeIvSv sNm skbvXv aplvbo jm, kn.-F.AlvaZv auehn, ^en apl-Zv auehn Fo aqv t]sc Npa-X-e-s-Sp-n.

    Ad_n tImtfPv XpS-pp

    1942 P\p-hcn 5mw XnXn tIc-f-nse hnm\ N{I-hmfw ]pXn-sbmcp kqtcym-Z-b-n\v kmyw hlnp "hnm-\-q-m-h\w'

  • 34

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    F-ap duk-p Deqw F t]cn Hcp Ad-_n-tIm-tf-Pn\vXpSw Ipdn --s-p. Ipm-en-pn lmPn-bpsS hk-Xn-bnXsbmbn-cpp mpw hnZymn-I-fpsS Xma-k-hp-sa-mw. ]noSvaX-cw-Kv {]kn--cm-bn-o kn.-]n.-A-_q-_- aue-hn, FS-hF.-A-ehn auehn XpS-n-b-h Dsm-p--Xm-bn-cpp Hm-as_mv. ipamb Ad-_n-bn am{X-am-bn-cpp auem-\-bpsS mv. kne-_kpw ]ncn-tb-Up-samw {Iao-I-cn-n-cp-p. Fm GtXm A]-I-S-Im-cn-bmWv Cu auehn F [mcW shp ]pep Nnecpw \mn-ep-m-bn-cp-p. Ah mn hn-cpv auehn ]d-bp-Xv {in-mXp\n-p. ]t A_p--_mlv AXv A\p-h-Zn-n-. Jp-B hpZpCmsX sXmSpp Fmbn ]ns Btcm-]-Ww. hnNm-c-Wv hnt[-b-am-b-tm Ipn-I sXmSp--Xmbn Ah IXv Jp-B A, Ad_nUnIvjWdn-bmWv!

    Hcp ki-Is A\p-`hw

    Cu \hmKX-\mb ]n-Xs\ kin-m hnhn[ `mK--fn\nv {]apJ hyn-I B\--b-tv hcn-I-bm-bn. tImgn-tmSv \nvAt-ls kin-m-s\-nb Fw.-Ip-tmbn sshZy At-l-ns A\p-`hw Cs\ hnh-cn-p-p:

    ""Hcp kplrv "\a-kvmcw' F Hcp ]pkvXIw F\nv km-\n-p. AXv hmbn--tm hfsc BIj-I-ambn tXmn. {K-Im-hns t]cv t\mn A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen. Cu ]pkvX-I-nsIpdp tImn-I Abp Xcm\pw Cs-n Bbncw tImn Fskzw sNe-hn A-Snp hnX-cWw sNm A\p-h-Zn--W-sapwBh-iy-sv Rm At-l-n\v Is-gp-Xn. tImn-I Xo-t]m-sbpw kuP-\y-ambn hnX-cWw sNt-W-sa \n_--\-bn BbncwtImn ASn-m A\p-aXn \Ip-p-shpw Adn-bnp sImpadp-]Sn Inn. Rm A{]Imcw sNbvXp.''

    XpSv At-ls kin cwKw Cs\ hnh-cn-pp: ""FsI am{X-bn Atlw Fgp-tp hv Fs BZ-cn-n-cp-n. Rmhfsc \nm-c-\mb a\p-jy. km[m-c-W-a-X-]-n-X-m-cn ImWmkz`m-hw. R Zo\n Bb ]e Imcy-fpw kwkm-cn-p. Fs BZ-c-thmsS k-cn-p. sXmp apdn-bn-emWv Rm cm{Xn InS--Xv.Ddw hcp-n-. ASp apdn-bn \nv Jp-B ]mcm-b-W-n-sbpw\a-kvIm-c-n-sbpw i_vZw. IqsS Ic-n-epw. hfsc sshIn Rm Dd-n. t\cw ]pe-X-dn-n-. Im s]cp-amw tIp DWp. kp_vlv"JZm' BIm C\n 15 an\pv am{Xw _mn-bp-p. Atlw FsDWn. F\nv thn Xm-dm-nb NqSp-sh--n thKw hpZp

  • 35

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    sNbvXv \a-kvI-cn-p... Cu a\p-jy \nco-iz-c-hm-Zn-bm-sWv {]-N-cn-n]n-X-m-sc-n F\nv Bcyw tXmn.'' A_p--_m-lnsBZi hnipn t\cnv Idn Cu hyn ]ns At-ls\ng t]mse ]np-Sp. Fm {]h-\--fnepw klm-bn-p. At-l-ns kvYm]-\-ns s\Spw XqWmbn amdn.

    sslt{Zmkv ho

    tImgn-tms {]apJ A`n-`m-j-I, apkvenw eoKv Sn-n hnP-bn a{Zmkv \nbak`mw-Kw, tImgn-tmSv apkn- Iukn saFo \ne-smw {]kn--\mb AUz.-Fw.-hn.-ssl-t{Zmkv A_p--_m-lp-ambn _-s--Xns Ncn{Xw Cs\: ""1945 se tImgn-tmSv lnam-b-p Ckvemw kvIqfns hmjnI tbmK-n A_p--_mlvAlvaZv Aen kmln_v Byw hln-p-sav ImWn-p W-v F\nv Inn-b-tm B Ah-kcw Rm ]mgm-n-bn-. XpnsXmnbpw ss]Pm-abpw jhm-Wnbpw [cn sNdnb XmSn-bp HcpsImp a\p-jy-\p-am-bmWv Rm Av ]cn-N-b-s--Xv. kz]-t\-cskwkm-chpw s]cp-am-hpw ZoL-Im-e-t-p _-n\v hgn sXfn-bnp ASp Znh-kw, Rmb-dmgvN Rm At-ls kin-m-sav hmv sImSp-p.

    auehn kmln-_ns ]cn-]m-Sn-Ifpw hnZym-`ymk X]-c-XbpwAs aX-]-n-X-m-cn \nv hyXy-kvX-\mb hyn-bmbn At-ls ImWm Fs t{]cn-n-p. A\m-h-iy-amb X--fnkabw ]mgm-msX krjvSn-]-c-ambn Atlw Bin ]cn]mSn-I-fnHcp sNdnb ]v hln-m-sav Rm\pw Gp.''

    tImtfPv at-cn-bn-tev

    B\--bv XpS-nb Ad-_n-tm-tf-Pn hnZymn-I-fpsS Fwh[n-p. kuI-cy--fpsS A]-cym-]vX-X-Im-cWw hn]p-eo-I-cWw eywshv tImtfPv A[nIw Zqscbm at-cn-bn-tev amm Xocp-am-\n-p. Infnban Do kmln-_ns Iqenv hmnb Hcp sIn-S-n 1944- mv Bcw-`n-p. B hjw a{Zmkv bq\n-th-gvkn-n-bnhnZymn-I A^vk-ep Deam ]co--s-gp-Xp-Ibpw Fm-hcpw]mm-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. 1945- a{Zmkv bq\n-th-gvknn Io-j-W-dmbn\nb-an tUm.-A-_vZp lJv tImtfPv ]cn-tim-[nv dntmv \In-b-Xns ASn-m-\-n tImtf-Pn\v A^n-en-tb-j e`n-p. CtXmsStIc-f-n bq\n-th-gvknn AwKo-Im-c-ap BZys Ad-_n-tm-tfPvF Ncn-{X-]-c-amb ]Z-hn-bn-tev duk-p Depw Ad-_n-tm-tfPvDbp. 1946 P\p-hcn Bdmw XnXn sI.-Fw.-koXn kmln-_ns Ay-

  • 36

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    -X-bn tImtf-Pns hmjnIw kap-Nn-X-ambn BtLm-jn--s-p.Ahn-` Cy-bnse apkvenw eoKv t\Xmhpw ap ]mIv {][m\ a{n-bp-am-bn-cp enbm-Jv Aen-Jm ae-_m ]cy-S-\-n-\n-S-bntImtfPv kin-Xv tImtf-Pn\v henb {]i-kvXnbpw AwKo-Im-chpwt\Sn-sm-Spp.

    duk-p Deqw Atkm-kn-tb-j

    Ipm-en-pn lmPn-bpsS t\Xr-Xz-n-ep Hcp sNdnb I-n-bmWv CXv hsc tImtf-Pns Imcy- \nh-lnp t]mn-cp--Xv.Fm tImtf-Pns hn]p-eo-I-cWw A\n-hm-cy-ambn h-Xn-\m tIc-f-nse {]apJ hyn-I Dsm-p Hcp henb In cq]o-I-cn--W-sa Nn i-am-bn. 1946 P\p-hcn 6\v auehn A_p--_m-lns Ay--X-bn tN tbmKw Atlw {]-kn-Upw AUz.-Fw.-hn.-ssl-t{Zmkv sk{I--dn-bpw Fw.-Ip-tmbn sshZy, sI.-hn.-tN-pn lmPn Fn-h Akn.-sk-{I- -dn-am-cpw sI.-Fw.-ko-Xn-km-ln-_v, sI.-Fw.-au-e-hn, lmPnA_vZp--m lmPn CkvlmJv tkv, F.-A-_vZpJmZ lmPn (cm-P), ]p\-n A_q-_- kmln-_v, Fkv.-Fw.-skbvXv apl-Zv kmln_v Fn-h saam-cp-ambn duk-p DepwAtkm-kn-tb-j F t]cn In cq]o-I-cn-p. 1946 sabv 28\vskmssk-okv BIvSv {]Imcw Atkm-kn-tbj cPn-kvX sN-sp.

  • 37

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    5.Snp-hns ^mdq-Jm-_m-Zn

    hnm\ ]qm-h\w

    tIc-f-n Hcp an\n Akvl F kz]v\w hnZym-`ymkt{]an-bmb A_p--_m-lns a\-n \ms-Sp-pI kzm`m-hn-I-am-Wv.]t, at-cn-bnse Cu sImp sIn-S-n Ad-_n-tm-tfPv{]hn-p-t-S-tmfw Imew AXns hnIk-\-tam IqSp-X hnZym-`ymk m]-\--fpsS \namWtam Hcn-epw km[y-am-Ip-am-bn-cp-n-. IqSp-X hnim-e-amb Hcp e-tv tImtfPv ampI F NnAt-ls Ae-n-sm-n-cp-p. ]nb ew Is-m AUz.-Fw.-hn. sslt{Zmkv, Fw.-Ip-tmbn sshZy Fn-hsc Npa-X-e-s-Sp-n. Gd-\m-n Xs tImgn-tm-Sns ]cn-k-cv dbnth kuI-cy-ap e-am-bn-cn--W-sa Xs B{K-lhpw Atlw {]I-Sn-n-p.\ntbm-Kn--s cp t]cpw ]e e-fpw At\z-jn-s-nepwIsm Ign-n. A_p--_m-ln-\m-Is Dd-nepw DW-bn-ep-samw Cu Nn Xs. Hcn- Atlw hnZymn-I-tfmSv mkn-\n-S-bn tNmZn-p. ""tIc-f-n Hcp apkvenw Jeo-^-bpsS t]cpe-taXv?'' Bpw Dcw ]d-bm Ign-n-. Ah-km\w DcwAtlw Xs hy-amn ""^mdqJv!''

    anfn tZiw ^mdqJv Bnb Snp

    ^tdm-ns Ncn{Xw Cs\: Cu {]tZ-i-ns ]s t]cvanfn tZiw Fm-bn-cpp Nmen-bm-dns Xocv A{]-i-kvX-amb Cu{]tZ-iv Irjnbpw Imen hf-ep-ambn Ign-n-cp Hcp hn`mKwBf-pI-fmWv Xma-kn-n-cp--Xv. \mSphmgn-I-fmb aqXvamcm-bn-cpp`cWw \S-n-bn-cp--Xv. Snp kpms BK-a-\-n\v apv ChnsSapkvenwI D-Xmbn Adn-hn-. Atlw h-tXmsS ]pcm-X\hmkn-I-fmb ]qtX-cn-I-f-Sw C--fn-ep--h A\y-tZ-i--fn-tev IpSn-

  • 38

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    tb-dn-mp FmWv A\p-am-\n--s-Sp--Xv. Snp anfn tZi-tvhXv ae-_m-dn Xs ` cWw m]n-m thn-bm-bn-cp-n-. adnv]me-mSv cmPmhv tImgn-tms kmaq-Xn-cn-bpsS B{I-a-W-n \nvc-In-m-\mbn ssakq-cn sNv sslZ-c-en-tbmSv klmbw tXSp-I-bm-bn-cp-p. ssk\y-k-taXw 1755- ae-_m-dn-se-nb sslZ-cen 1782-\ncym-X-\mb tijw 1788 ^n{_-hcn 11-mw Xn-Xn-bmWv ]nXm-hnsZuXyw Gs-Spv Snp tImgn-tm-s-p--Xv. Atlw X\nv Xmh-f-ap-m-m sXc-s-Sp-Xv tImgn-tmSv \nv 8 ssa AIsenXn sNp--Xpw tIm sIm ]nb Ipp-Ifpw XmgvhcIfp-a-S-n-b-Xp-amb anfn {]tZ-i-amWv. Atlw AXn\v [oc-\mb Jeo^Da-dns\ A\p-kva-cn-npw hn[w "^mdq-Jm-_mZv' Fv t]cn-Sp-IbpwsNbvXp.

    anfn {]tZ-is 105 ASn Db-c-ap Ipn apI-fn \nv t\mn-bm Xpd-ap-J-fpw \Zn-Ifpw hon-mw. ChnsS Snp \nan \mep`mK-fpw Iq InS-p-I-fm Np-s tIm-bn ]md Xpc-p-m-nb shSn-a-cp--d-I, Ccp-\q-tdmfw t]n-cn-m-hp lm, \ne-h-d-I, \mW-b---- Fmw Dm-bn-cp-p-h-s{X. tIm-bn \nv]pg-bn-te-p Xpc-w, I\m Fn-h-bp-ap-m-bn-cp-p. 685 ao Np-f-hn, 217 ao hymkn HXv G e-m-bn-cpp CutIm. Hmtcm `mKpw Ftmfw ]ocn Xd-I-fp-ap-m-bn-cp-p.

    tIm-bn \nv Ingv amdn-bm-bn-cpp As Am-Snbpw IS-hpw. CXn-\-Sp-mWv N-ppw Np-hpw. t]v kao-]-ap Poh-lm\n ]d-n-emWv Ip-hm-fn-Isf Xqn-sIm-n-cp--Xv. AhnsS HcpsNdnb ]n-bp-ap-m-bn-cp-p. Cu ]n-bn shmWv Snp At-lsImWm h sImtmn Xsf kzoI-cn--sXv ]d-b-s-Sp-p.GXmv aqv hjta tIm-bp-ambn _-sv Snp-hn\v tImgn-tmSvXm Ign-p-p. 1790 BZy-n Imem-h tami-am-b-Xn-\m tImbpw ap Imcy-fpw am_v Jms\ G]np Snp ssakq-cn-tev Xncn-p-t]m-bn.

    Snp-hns tk\m-\m-b-I lpssk Aen-Jm ]c--\-m-Sn-bn{_nojp-Im-tcmSv tXm-Xns\ XpSv {_nojv ]mfw tIm ]nSs-S-p-p-Ibpw 1792-93 Ah-cpsS Xmh-f-am-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Cwo-jp-Imv ^mdq-Jm-_mZv ^tdmv Bbn-am-dn.

    A_p--_m-lns kz]v\ `qan Isn

    A_p--_m-lns kz]v\-`qan Is-m AUz.-Fw.-hn.-ssl-t{Zmkpw Iptmbn sshZycpw \S-nb {ia-ns `mK-ambn ^tdm-nse ]uc-{][m-\n-bmb ]pfn-bmfn A_vZp--pn lmPnsb kao-]n-

  • 39

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    p. Atlw \nt-inX\p-k-cnv Ah cp-t]cpw Ctm tImtfPv\ne sImp 28 G hcp ew ]cn-tim-[n-p. appw ImSpwDcp-f Ip-Ifpw \nd hnP-\-amb {]tZ-iw. Fn-t-cm hgn-bn-.Xmaknm sImp-I-bn-spw ]nim-Np-fpsS Bhmk tI{-am-sWpw e-]-cn-N-b-ap Nne ]d-p. Fm Ahp ew\t CjvS-s-p. A_p--_m-lns\ hnh-c-a-dn-bnp.

    cmPm A_vZpJm-Z lmPn-bpsS HuZmcyw

    AXn-en-Sv tImtf-Pns {]Nm-c-Wmw auem\m amln-bn-epAt-l-ns Hcp kplr-n-t\m-sSmw kntem-Wn-tev t]mbn-cp-p.Fm ]\n ]nSns]v s]sv aS-n. kpJ-an-msX InS-p-I-bm-bn-cp At-ls kin-m Nmh-ms cmPm A_vZp JmZlmPn Xma-k--e-s-n. tImtf-Pns hn]p-eo-IcWw Dt-invew hmp--Xn-sbpw IqSp-X m]-\- \nan-p--Xn-sbpwBh-iy-I-X-sbmw auem\m At-ls [cn-n-p. lmPn-bpsS {]Xn-I-cWw C-s\-bm-bn-cpp: ""aue-ho, m]-\s sNmn \n hnj-an-t-. \apv hgn-bp-m-mw.'' Hcp ZrIvkmn hnh-cWw: lmPnAt-l-ns I-\n-bnse Imcy--t\mSv A_p--_m-ln\v Is-gp-Xm-\p hmNIw ]dp sImSp-p. Imcy-: ""apX-emfo ]Xn-\m-bncw Ddp-nI sImSp-m \psS I-hSw ]ns Fs\\Spw?'' lmPn: ""\apv Amlp Xcpw!'' As ]Xn-\m-bncw Ddp-n-I-bpsS hne Cs \ne-hm-c-n F{X hcp-sav a\-n-em--Ww. Am-lp-hn-ep ZrVhnizm-khpw ip`-{]-Xo-bpw!

    28 G \Inb A_vZppn lmPn

    ^tdm-n ew t\mm \ntbm-Kn--s cp-t]cpw Is-nb A\p-tbm-Py-amb ew hmm Xs A_p--_mlv Xocp-am-\n-p. hne \nP-s-Sp-m Ch cp-t]sc Xs Npa-X-e-s-Sp-n. A_p--_m-lns ssIh-i-ap ]Xn-\m-bncw cq] sImv ewhmepw sInS \nam-Whpw cpw IqSn Fs\ km[y-amIpw FBi--bn-em-bn-cpp Ah. Fnepw lmPn-tbmSv hnp-hogvN sNmAt]-n-m-sa {]Xo--bn At-ls kao-]n-p. ew hmp--Xns Dt-iy-e-y- Atlw tNmZn--dn-p. A_p--_m-lns\Ah At-l-n\v ]cn-N-b-s-Spn sImSp-p. apkvenw kap-Zm-b-ns A`n-hr-nv Bh-iy-amb hnZym-`ymk m]-\- \nan-p-I-bmWv ey-sav t_m[y-s-Sp-n. Atm lmPn-bpsS {]Xn-I-cWw : ""Fm Rm Cu kzv Hcp {]Xn-^-ehpw IqSmsX hJv^vsNbvXmtem?'' F{X kwip--amb a\v! Fsmcp `n. Cu ]pWy-

  • 40

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    Iaw ImcWw Atlw tIcf apkvenwIfpsS hnZym-` ymk Ncn-{X-nseHcp kp{]-[m\ kw -`h-ambn amdn. ktmj`cn-X-cmb A_p--_m-lns{]Xn-\n[nI ]dp: ""Alw-Zp-en-m..!'' hnhcw auem-\sb Adn-bn-p. ]{X-Zzmcm s]mXp-P-\--sfbpw.

    Acsshcn-I-fpsS FXnv

    Cu hm apkvenw kap-Zm-b-n s]mXpsh BmZw P\n-n--tm asmcp hn`m-K-n\v sR-ep-m-n. \mn hen-sbm-c-]-ISwkw`-hn-m t]mhp-I-bm-sW hn[-n-em-bn-cpp Ah-cpsS kao-]-\w. lmPnsb Cu DZy-a-n \nv ]nn-cn-n-m-\mbn Ah-cpsS {iaw.\mn \ne-hn-ep k{-Zm-b-n \np Hcp amhpw AwKo-I-cn-m Hcp hn`mKw Av kPo-h-am-bn-cp-p. apkvenw kap-Zm-b-nshnZym-`ymk apt--n-\p XS-hpw ]ntm-m-h--p Imc-Whpw Cu hn`m-K-ns kao-]\w Xs-bm-bn-cp-p. ASp-smcpZnhkw hoepw sshZycpw dPn-kvt{S-j XnXn \nW-bn-m lmPn-bpsS hk-Xn-bn-se-n. Atm AhnsS Nne aX-]-n-X-mcpw {]ap-J-hy-n-I-fp-ap-v. Ch Ccp-h-scbpw I-am-{X-bn lmPn: ""tl, ho-te, B[mcw thKw dPn-kv{Sm-q. Fm Chv thsd ]Wn t\mm-a-tm.'' ]d hmv amn--d-bm am\y\pw \njvI-f--\p-amb Cua\p-jys {]Jym-]\w Atls ]nn-cn-n-m h-hsc Cfn-`y-cm-n. ASp Znhkw Xs Ppap-Av tijw duk-p DepwAtkm-kn-tb-js {]kn-Uv F \nev A_p--_m-lns t]cnew dPn-kvS sNbvXp. "apkvenw kap-Zm-b-ns A`n-hr-npwFs ]c-tem-I-Kp-W-n\pw thn' FmWv B[mc-n lmPn{]kvXm-hn-n- p--Xv. 1947- Ad-_n-tm-tf-Pn-\p sIn-S-ns ]WnBcw-`np.

  • 41

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    6.^mdqJv tImtfPv :

    kap-Zm-b-ns {]Im-i-tKm-]pcw

    Aen-K apkvenw bq\n-th-gvkn-n-bpsS m]\w apkvenw Cy-bpsSNcn-{X-nse alm-kw-`-h-am-bn-cp-p. tIc-fob apkvenw kaq-l-nCXv hnZym-`ym-k-]-c-amb ]pXnb Ah-t_m[w krjvSnp FXv icnXs. Ccp-]Xmw \qm-ns \memw Zi-I-ns Ah-km-\-n-se-n-bnpw Ahv kz-ambn Hcp BSvkv & kbkv tImtfPv m]n-m Ign-n F ZpxJ-kXyw Ah-ti-jn-p. AXn-\p {iaw N-Ipw Xocp-am-\pw In cq]o-I-c-W-n-\p-a-pdw aptmvsImv t]mIm Ign-n-. ae-_m-dns As Bm-\-amba{Zm-kn-em-Is apl--Z tImtfPv t]mep m]-\- \ne-hnhnv hj--fm-bn-cp-p. apkvenwI Ad-_n--aX hnm-\-fnam{X-a-, B[p-\nI hnZym-`ym-k-nepw ]ptcm-KXn {]m]n--W-saBibw A_p--_mlv a\-n t]dn-smv \S-p. Xm _-s apkvenw t\Xm-fpw [\m-Vycpw hyn{]ap-J-cp-ambn Cu BibwAtlw ]v shp-Ibpw sNbvXp. AUz-v Fw.-hn.-ssl-t{Zmkv Fgp-Xp-p: ""A_vZp JmZ lmPn hmKvZw sNbvX 10000 I sImvAd_ntmtf-Pn\v thn \nan-p sIn-S-ns Xd-Wn GXmvXo-tm lmPn ]Wnv tat\mw hln-m \ntbm-Kn-n-cptakv{Xn sambvXo Ipn F\nv FgpXn: s]mp ho-te, BsIIpg--n-em-b-tm. FSp ]Wn ]qn-bm-m C\n Fv amKw?''Fm Cu Ah-k-c-nepw auehn kmln-_ns Bi aptm v Xs-bm-bn-cp-p. \apv Hcp _n.-F.-tIm-tfPv XpS-Ww Fv CXn-en-Sv]e-tmgpw Atlw kl-{]-h-I-tcmSv ]d-bm-dp-v.''

    apkvenwIv Hcp ^v t{KUv tImtfPv

    1947 sabv 17-\v A_p--_m-lns Ay--X-bn tN duk-

  • 42

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    p Deqw Atkm-kn-tb-js tbmK-n Atkm-kn-tb-js IognHcp ^v t{KUv tImtf-Pn\v AwKo-Im-c-n\v At]-n-m Xocp-am-\n-p. AUz.-Fw.-hn.-ssl-t{Zmkv Fgp-Xpp: ""CXns hnP-b-s-nNnev kwi-bhpw ap Nnev ]cn-lm-k-hp-am-bn-cp-p. Ap sI.-Fw.-ko-Xn-km-ln_pw duk-p Deqw Atkm-kn-tb-j sk{I-dnAUz.-Fw.-hn.-ssl-t{Zmkv kmln_pw a{Zmkv sePn. Akwn saam-cm-bn-cp-p. A_p--_mlv DSs\ a{Zm-kn-tev ]pd-s-p. Ch-cp-ambpwCy bq\n-b apkvenweoKv {]kn-Uv apl-Zv CkvamCu kmln-_v, _n.-t]m- kmln_v Fn-h-cp-ambpw N sNbvXv tImtf-Pn\vAt] \Im Xocp-am-\n-p. 1947 k]vXw-_ 17\v A_p--_mlvAtkm-kn-tb-j {]kn-Uv F \ne-v tImtf-Pn\v bq\n-th-gvkn-n-bn At] \In. At]tbmsSmw AS-t 600 I a{Zm-knse Hcp I-h-S-m-c-\n \nv hmbv] hmp-I-bm-Wp-m-b-Xv. km-n-I-ambn A{Xbpw hnj-am-h--bm-bn-cpp Av. a{Zmkv bq\n-th-gvknn sshkv Nmk-e tUm.-F.-e-vaW kzman apX-en-bm CuDZy-a-n\v Fm-hn[ t{]mm-l-\hpw \In. tUm.-A-_vZp lJv,auem\m A_vZp hlm_v _pJmcn Fn-h Bh-iy-amb Fm klm-b-fpw \In. At] sImSp DSs\s apl-Zv Ckvam-Cukmln-_ns t\Xr-Xz-n Hcp tbmKw tNv Atlw sNbam\pwAUz.-Fw.-hn.-ssl-t{Zmkv Iho-\-dp-ambn Ccp-]-XwK In tImtfPvXpS-m-\m-h-iy-amb ^v tiJ-c-W-n-\mbn cq]o-I-cn-p. s]mXp-P-\--tfmSv klmbw \Im-\p Hcp A`y-\bpw ]pd-s-Sp-hn-p. sI.-Fw.-ko-Xn-km-ln-_v, t]m kmln-_v, cmPm A_vZpJmZ lmPn,sImb--smSn AlvaZv Ipn, ]n.-]n.-l-k tImb XpS-n-b-h-cpsSt\Xr-Xz-n-emWv [\-k-am-l-cW {]-h\w \S--Xv. tImtf-PnsAwKo-Im-c-n-\p km[yX ]cn-tim-[n-m ]me-mSv hnIvtSm-dnbtImtfPv {]nkn-m sI.-Fkv.-bp.-\m-b \ntbm-Kn--s-p.

    kw`m-h-\-I-fpsS {]hmlw

    1948 G{]n 9, 10 Xn-Xn-I-fn a{Zmkv kh-I-em-ime Io-j-\mbn \ntbm-Kn s{]m^.-A-- ]n ({]kn-Ukn tImtf-Pv) tImtf-Pns \nZnjvS ew kin-p. sInSw ]Wn-bm Dt-inv ]qn-bmb Hcp Xd am{Xta Dm-bn-cp-p-p. Fnepw AhnsS IqSnb kap-Zmb kvt\ln-I-fpsS Bth-ihpw \nb ZmVyhpw I-tm kmt-XnI {]Xn-_---sf-sbmw adn-I-Sv Io-j A\p-Iqe \ne-]m-sS-Sp-p-I-bm-Wp-m-b-Xv. tImtf-Pn-\m-h-iy-amb kuI-cy--sfm-cp-mkmh-Imiw \I-W-sav Io-j ip]mi sNbvXn-cp-p. AtXm-sSmw bq\n-th-gvkn-n-bn FtUmhvsa v ^mbn 5 ew cq]

  • 43

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    sIn-sh-m\pw \ntZ-in-n-cp-p. \mn maw \ne-\np ka-b-am-b-Xn-\m CXn-tev 1,70,000 I am{Xta ]ncn-s-Sp-m Ign-p-p. C\n Fv sNt-W-sa-m-tem-Nn-m A_p--_m-lns Ay--X-bn tbmKw tNp. ]Ww e`n-m hnhcw tbmKs Adn-bn--tm AUz.-ssl-t{Zmkv Ic-bp-I-bm-bn-cp-p. Xs hoSpw ]dpw]W-b-s-Sp-m Xm-dm-sWv Atlw {]Jym-]n-p. hmX-tcmKw ]nSn-s]v Ah-i-\mbn tbmK-n ]s-Sp ]n.-Fw.-B--tmb XCu cwKw Iv C{]-Imcw ]dp: ""F\nv \S-m h. Fs\n Npa-en-te-n-smv \S-p-I-bm-sW-n ]Ww Rm ]ncn-p-sIm-mw.'' Cu hmp-I AhnsS IqSn-b-h-cn Bthiw ]Ip.XpSp {ia-ns ^ e-ambn kw`m-h-\-I-fpsS {]hm-l-am-bn. sImSn-smSn AlvaZv Ipn kmln_v sImtm-n-bnse Fm-]-d-n 15G ` qan, sI.-Fw.-koXn kmln_v k`m ]dv F sXn tXmw,knoJv tkv kmln_v 404 G hcp ]n-pdw ap\w Ft-v,aW-mSv Ipn-ap-l-Zv lmPn sshw apm Ftv Fn-h-sbmwkw`m-h-\-bmbn \In. Ad_ntmtf-Pns ]cn-k-cv `qan \In-b-h-cn hSt hon sambvXn Ipn lmPn, hSt hon ap Fn-h Ds-Sp-p. As\ amkw tXmdpw 2000 cq]-bpsS BZmbw Inm-hp GI-tZiw Hcp ew cq]-bpsS BkvXn thW-sa bq\n-th-gvknn \ntZ-ihpw ]qo-I-cn--s-p.

    tImtf-Pn\v At] kan-Xv duk-p Deqw ^v t{KUvtItfPv F t]cn-em-bn-cp-p. Fm ]noSv sshkv Nmk-eevaW kzman apX-en-bm-cpsS A`n-{]mbw am\n-v, knZv A_vZphlm_v _pJmcn kmln-_ns D]-tZi{]Imcw tImtf-Pns t]cv e-\m-a-tm-sSm-nv ^mdqJv Fmn amp-I-bm-Wp-m-b-Xv. 1948 Pq12 \v B-tmb X-fpsS hon shv tN Atkm-kn-tb-jtbmK-n shmWv Cu t]cv am-n\v AwKo-Imcw \In-b-Xv. AtXtbmK-n shv Xs Atkm-kn-tb-js Iogn ^mdqJv tImtf-Pn\pw Ad_ntmtf-Pn\pw cv hyXykvX I-n-I cq]o-I-cn-m\pwXocp-am-\-am-bn. sI.-Fw.-ko-Xn-km-ln_v sk{I--dn-bmbn sXc-s-Sp--s ^mdqJv tImtfPv I-n-bpsS {]kn-Uv Jm _l-Zq hn.-sI.-D-n-p kmln_pw ssh.-{]-kn-Uv Jm _l-Zq ]n.-Fw.-B--tmbX-fp-am-bn-cp-p. ]n.-sF.-Ip--l-Zv Ipn lmPn tPm.-sk-{I--dn-bpwsI.-CkvamCu kmln_v {Sj-dpw auehn A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen-bpw F.-sI.-Jm-Z Ipn kmln_pw AwK--fp-am-bn-cp-p. auehn A_p--_mlv {]kn-U-mbn Ad-_n-tm-tf-Pn\v asmcp I-nbpw \ne-hn hp. Atkm-kn-tb-js Iogn-ep kzp-fpw cp -I--n-

  • 44

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    Ip-ambn hn -`Pn--s- p. Ad-_n-tm-tf-Pn\v thn \namWw \SpsImn-cn-p Hcp lmfpw \mep mv apdn-I-fp-ap sInSw ^mdqJvtImtf-Pn\v AwKo-Imcw e`n-p-tm AXn\v hnp-sIm-Sp-m Xocp-am-\n-p. Ad-_n-tm-tfPv at-cn-bn \nv ^tdm-n-tev jn^vvsNbvX-tm Xmew mp-I Bcw-` n-Xv Bim-cn--Wnv thnD]-tbm-Kn-n-cp sjn-emWv. Fm ]ns ^tdm-nse ac-hy-h-km-bnbpw DZm-c-a-Xn-bp-amb sI.-A-h-dmIpn lmPn ap ssIs-SpvAd-_n-tm-tf-Pn\v kz-ambn CS-p-a-cp-I-sfm-p-an-m Hcp lm\nanp sImSp-p. Atlw kzw \ne-mWv ^ mdqJv tImtfPv Im-knse akvPn-Zp Akvl \nan-Xpw. Ad-_n-tm-tfPv sIn-S-nkv{Io\p-I shv mp-I Bcw-`n-p.

    {]Ya {]nknm

    ^mdqJv tImtf-Pns {]Ya {]nkn-m Bbn skbvXv aplvbojmsb \nb-an-m Xocp-am-\n-p. A_p--_m-lns\ Ghpw A[nIwBZ-cn-p-Ibpw kvt\ln-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp Atlw a{Zmkv Kh.-kho-kn \nv eosh-Spv hv ^ mdqJv tImtf-Pns m]-\-n\vthn ITn\ bXv\w \S-p-I-bm-bn-cp-p. ^ tdm-n-s\-n jm kmln_vat-cn-bn shv A_p--_m-lp-am-bp-mb Hc-\p-`hw Cs\ hnh-cn-pp: ""Hcp Znhkw {]m-\-n-S-bn A_p--_mlv auehnFtmSv ]dp: ""^mdqJv! ^mdqJv! Fsmcp i_vZw kz]v\-n.FmWo ^mdq-Jv.'' Rm ]dp: tImgn-tm-Sn-\-Sp Hcp e-am-W-Xv. AXns icn-bmb t]cv ^mdqJm_mZv Fm-Wv. Snp-kpmtIc-f-ns Xe-m-\-am-m Hcp-n-bn-cp e-am-W-Xv. "^mdqJv'F ev h m]-\hpw \nan-mtam FmtemNn-WwA_p--_mlv ]d-p.' Kh.-ap-l--Z tImtfPv s{]m^-k-dm-bn-cpjm kmln-_n-t\mSv ^mdqJv tImtf-Pns {]nkn-m m\w Gs-Sp-m apl-Zv CkvamCu kmln_pw t]m kmln_pw \ntZ-in-p.

    tImtfPv Bcw-`n-p--Xn\v kh-I-em-im-e-bpsS AwKo-Imcw e`n-p. 1948 Pq 12 \v 1 aWnv Jm _l-Zq ]n.-Fw.-B--tmb X-fpsS hk-Xn-bn shv tImtfPv Bcw-` n--Xmbn {]Jym-]n--s- p. sIn-S-ns ]Wn ]qn-bm-Im--Xn-\m ^tdmv Np-n-\-Sp If-n- CkvamCu kmln-_ns hk-Xn-bn-emWv tImtfPv Bcw-`n--Xv. C aoUn-b-v, _n.-F.-m-p-Ifpw 32 hnZymn-I-fp-am-Wp-m-bn-cp--Xv. ]noSv sInSns ]Wn ]qn-bm-b-tm AXn-tev amn.BkmZv tlm \ne-hn hcp-Xv hscbpw CkvamCu kmln-_ns sIn-S-n Xs-bmWv hnZymn-I Xma-kn-n-cp--Xpw.

  • 45

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    hn.-ap-l-Zv kmln_v ^ mdqJv tImtfPv Bcw-` n BZy Znhkw Xsm]-\-n Aym-]-I-\mbn tkh-\-am-cw-`n-p. Atlw A_p--_m-lns\ 1944 apXt ImWm-dp-m-bn-cp-p. hn.-ap-l-Zv kmln_vFgp-Xpp: ""1944-48 Imev auehn kmln_v CS-nsS aZn-cm-in-bnhcm-dp-m-bn-cp-p. Atm {S^vfn--bn ssltdm-Un Xpdm_vlpssk kmln_v Xma-kn-n-cp hon AXn-Yn-bm-bn-mWv AtlwXma-kn-n-cp--Xv. B tdmUn \nv A[nIw AI-se-b-m-bn-cppRm\pw Kh.-aplZ tImtf-Pnse Nne tIc-fob hnZymn-Ifpw Xma-kn-n-cp ss{S\nwKv kvIq tlm. auehn kmln_v hm NnetIcfmcmb hnZymn-I B hon t]mbn Ipdp kabw At-l-ns IqsS sNe-h-gn-m-dp-v. Xpdm_v lpssk kmln_pwAhnsS Dm-Ipw.''

    apkvenweoKpw ^mdqJv tImtfPpw

    ^mdqJv tImtfPv m]n-p--Xn apkvenw eoKpw AXns apJ-]-{X-amb N{n-Ibpw hln ]v A\n-tj-[y-a-s{X. kn.-F-Ov.-ap-l-ZvtImb Fgp-Xp-p. ""tImtf-Pns\ kw_-n Hcm-thiw kap-Zmb a[y-n ]c-p--Xn\pw tImtf-Pn\v e`n kw`m-h-\-Iv {]kn-o-I-cWw \IpI hgn IqSp-X DZm-c-Xv {]-tNm-Z\w \Ip--Xn\pwN{nI hln ]v Av B ]{X-nse Hcp {]h-I-\m-bn-cpRm A`n-am\ ]qhw kvacn-p-p. Iptd-Imew N{n-I-bpsS tImf--fn-emWv tImtfPv Pohn--Xv. kap-Zmbw s]mXpsh Bthiw ImWn-p-sh-nepw km-n-I-amb _mem-cn-jvSp-I m]\w apXte tImtf-Pns\ sRn-sm-n-cp-p. Av sI.-Fw.-koXn kmln_v ae-_mPnm apkvenw eoKns sk{I--dn-bm-bn-cp-p. At-l-n-sbpwJPmn F.-sI.-Jm-ZIpn kmln-_n-sbpw ]cn-{i-a-^-e-ambn Pnm-eoKv ^n \nv 25000 I ^mdqJv tImtfPv ^n-tev \ImPnm eoKv k-Xn-p. As \nev AsXmcp henb kw`m-h-\-bm-bn-cp-p. AXn\v ]pdsa Hcp Imdpw tImtf-Pn\v thn \In-bn-cp-p.''B Ime-L--n ae-_m apkvenw eoKns Ay--\m-bn-cpknZv A_vZp-dlvam _m^n X tImtf-Pns ss^\mkvIn sa-dm-bn-cp-p. apkvenw eoKv t\Xm-hmb koXn kmln_v tImtf-Pn\v thn sNbvX tkh-\- Bpw hnkva-cn-m Ign-bmNcn{X tcJ-bm-Wv. Hmw t{KUv tImtfPv Bcw-`n-p--Xn-\p ^v]ncn-p-m-p--Xn Atlw \nWm-b-I-amb ]v hln-p. At-l-ns ]nXmhv ePv\-p la-Zm-\nb kwL-n\v kw`m-h\ sNbvXn-cp kzv Atlw ^mdqJv tImtf-Pn\v \In. 1947 tImtf-PnsBZys `cW kanXn cq]o-I-cn-Xv apX acWw hsc koXn-km-

  • 46

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    ln_v AXns sk{I--dn-bmbn XpSp.

    apkvenw kap-Zm-b-ns Bthiw

    ^mdqJv tImtf-Pns m]\w tIc-f-nse apkvenw hnZym-`ymkNcn-{X-n Hcp ]pXnb Aym-b-ns XpS--am-bn-cp-p. Ac-\q-m-n-\n-Sv ]ecpw ]e k`--fn-embn apkvenwIv Hcp tImtfPvm]n-m {ianp ]cm-P-b-s-t -S-mWv Hcp aX-]-n-X-\mb A_p--_mlv hnPbw t\Sp--Xv. CXn-eqsS Atlw a\-n cp-hj-ambn Xmtem-en-p- sImv \S kz]v\w kmm-Xv-cn--s-p. A_p--_m-ln\v Fs\ CXv km[np? Am-es kap-Zmb t\Xm--fpsSbpw [\m-Vy-m-cp-sSbpw {]apJ hyn-I-fp-sS-bp-samw ]npWFvsImv At-l-n\v e`n-p? At-l-ns \nkzm-X-bnepwkap-Zmb ]ptcm-K-Xn-bn-ep XmXv]-cy-nepw kaq-l-n\v ]qW-hn-izm-k-am-bn-cp-p. Am-lp-hn-ep AN--e-amb hnizm-kw, Ahsklmbw e`n-p-sa Dd-v, {]Xn-_--sf AXn-P-bn-m-\p Icp-v, B-hn-izm-kw, ip` {]Xo- Ch-sbm-s-bm-bn-cpp B hnZym-`ymk{]h-Is ssIap-X. Hcp eyw apn Im AXn\vXS--ambn \np GXv {]Xn-_--sbpw Xn-b-I-m-\p\nbZmVyw A_p--_m-lns apJ-ap-{Z-bm-bn-cp-p. Ad-_n-tm-tf-Pns Bh-iymw hJv^v sN-s 28 G `qan-bn 17 Gdpw\namWnen-cn-p sIn-Shpw Atlw ^mdqJv tImtf-Pn\v hnp-sIm-Sp-p. apkvenw kap-Zmbw aX [manI hnZym-`ym-k-nepw B[p-\nI hnZym-`ym-k-nepw Htc Ah-kcw ]ptcm-K-Xn-bmPn-t-W-saNn-bmWv B ]cn-jvIm-hns\ \bn-n-cp--Xv.

  • 47

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    7.hnm-\-q-m-h-\-nshnkva-b-I-c-amb hf

    A_p--_mlv Bcw-`n BZys hnZym-`ymk m]-\-n\pwhnZym-`ymk {]h\w \S-m-\p kwL-S-\bvpw "hnm-\--fpsS aehmSn' F-ap duk-p Deqw Fv t]cv \In-b-tm At-l-ns a\-nse k]w hnhn[ m]-\- XeDbn \np alm hnm\ kap--b-am-Wv. ImSv aqSnnS-,Ipdp--m-cp-sSbpw ]mp-I-fp-sSbpw Bhmk tI{-am-bn-cp Ccp-aq-fn--d-ns\ Xs a\-nse ]qm-h-\-amn amm Atlw ITn-\-bXv\w\S-p-I-bm-bn-cp-p. ]W-mcpw ]n-X-mcpw cmjv{Sob t\Xm-fpwhnZym-k---cp-samw At-l-ns Ic-v in ]Ip.Ad_ntmtf-Pnsbpw ^mdqJv tImtf-Pnsbpw cn-sbpw ]ptcm-K-Xnpw IqSp-X m]-\- ]Sp-p-bp--Xn\pw Atlw {iaw\S-n-sm-n-cp-p.

    Ad-_n-tm-tf-Pn\v ]pXnb sInSw

    Ad-_n-tm-tf-Pn\v hn]p-e-amb kuI-cy- AS-nb mv apdn-I Dsm-p ]pXnb sInSw. AXns aph-iv CuPn-]vjyIem-Im-c-m Xm-dm-nb Jp-B hmIy- sImn-sh-p.hnZymn-Iv Xma-kn-m tlm \nan-p. `-Whpw Xma-khpw Ahv kuP-\y-ambn \In. kaq-l-n\v hnm\w ]IpsImSp-p-Ibpw Ahv amKZi\w \Ip-Ibpw sNp Hcp aX-]-n-X-\p-m-bn-cn-t Ign-hp-I-sfbpw KpWhnti-j--sfbpw kw_-np At-l-n\v hy-amb ImgvN-m-Sp-m-bn-cp-p. CuPn-]vXnsekp{]-kn--amb A Akvl kh-I-em-im-e-bn \nv ]pdvhcp {]K--cmb ]n-X-m-cpsS Nn{X-amWv At-l-ns a\-n-ep-m-bn-cp--Xv. Ad_n `mj-bnepw aX-hn-m-\--fnepw \ Ignhpw

  • 48

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    B[p-\nI Nnbpw tkh\ {]Xn-_--X-bp-ap--h-cm-bn-cn-Ww Xsinjy-m-scv eyw shv Atlw {]hn-p. ]t, hnZymn-I-fpsS sNe-hn\pw A[ym-]-Iv ifw sImSp-p--Xn\pw {]Xn-amkw\smcp kwJy Bh-iy-am-bn-cp-p. hnI-k\ {]h-\-vthsdbpw ]Ww Is--Ww. As Ah Ad-_n-tm-tfPvko\n-b Aym-]-I-\m-bn-cp Fw.-ap-l-Zv A_p--emlv auehnCs\ hnh-cn-pp:

    ""kzw hoSn-t\-m auehn kvt\ln-n-cp-Xv tImtf-Pn-s\-bm-bn-cp-p. hnZymn-Iv Hcp Znhkw ]n-Wn-bm-sWv Im Fhn-sS-sb-nepw t]mbn IS-am-bn-s-nepw Acnbpw km[-\-fpw hmn-smp hcpw.'' Aym-]-I-cpsS Ah C-s\-bm-bn-cpp: ""Aym-]-I-cmbn Av R Bdv t]cp-m-bn-cp-p. Rv i-f-an-.kw`m-h\ Inp--Xn \nv hXpw Xcpw. hfsc sNdnb XpI AXpwnc-ambn Inp-I-bn-. A-s\-sbm-s-bm-sW-nepw BmXsImm-hWw R kwXr-]vX-cm-bn-cpp''. apkvenw kap-Zm-b-nskm-nI \ne Hpw sa-a-m Hcp Ime-am-bn-cpp AXv. C-s\-sbm-s-bm-sW-nepw Amlp klm-bn-p-sa ip`m]vXn hnizmkwssIap-X-emn A_p--_mlv aptmv \on. A`n-hrn ]-Xn-IAtlw XpSp sImn-cp-p.

    ^mdqJv sslkvIq

    Xm hn`m-h\w sNp hnm\ aehm-Sn-bn {]mY-anI hnZym-`ymkw apX _ncp-Zm-\-c _ncpZw hsc-bp tImgvkp-Ifpw A[ym-]-Isc hms-Sp-m-\p m]-\hpw thW-sav A_p--_mlvhn`m-h\w sNbvXn-cp-p. 1954- Ad_n `mjbvv IqSp-X {]m[m\yw\Ip "^mdqJv Hmdn-b sslkvIq' F m]\w Ad-_n-tm-tfPv amt\-PnwKv I-n-bpsS Iogn Atlw m]n-p. Fm]ns kvIqfns ]ptcm-K-Xnbpw PmXn-a-X-t`-Z-at\y IqSp-X t]v]Tn-m-\p kuI-cyhpw ap\n-dpn 1957- AXv Hcp km[m-cWsslkvIq-fmn amn. kvIqfn-t\m-S-\p-_-nv tlm kuIcywGs-SpnbXn-\m tIc-f-ns \m\m-`m-Kp \np-ap apkvenwhnZymn-I kvIqfn ]Tn-m Fn-bn-cp-p. Ahsmw{]tXyI aX-]-T\ mp-Ifpw Gs-Sp-n. hnZymn-Iptlm \nanp kw`m-h\ sNbvXXv cmPm A_vZp JmZ lmPn-bm-bn-cp-p. 1960- sslkvIq-fn-t\m-S-\p-_-nv temh ss{]adnkvIqfpw m]np. Cu m]-\--fp-sS-sbmw amt\-P A_p--_mlvauehn Xs-bm-bn-cp-p.

  • 49

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    jm kmln-_n\p tijw

    Imn \nv \mn h A_p--_m-ln\v Fsm-stbm knn-I-fp-s hnizm-k-m-c-\m-bn-cp-p ^mdqJv tImtf-Pns {]Ya{]nknm Bb skbvXv aplvbojm. aue-hn-tbm-sSmw Atlw^mdqJv tImtf-Pns\ iq\y-X-bn \nv ]Sp-p-bp-I-bmbn-cpp.sIn-S-m-h-iy-amb ]Ww tiJ-cn-m-\mbn Atlw hn{i-a-an-msXHmSn \S-p. hnZymn-I-sfbpw Aym-]-I-scbpw Is-pI AXn-t\-m {]bm-k-I-c-am-bn-cp-p. ""Aym-]-Iv ifw sImSp-m]W-ap-m-bn-cp-n-. ]etcmSpw hyn]c-ambn ISw hmn ifwsImSp-p. Fm ]e-tmgpw F\nv i-f-ap-m-bn-cp-n-.'' jmkmln_v Fgp-Xp-p. ssl{Zm-_m-Zn Hcp tImtf-Pns {]nkn-mBbn-cp Am-hs kzw ]pkvXI tiJ-c-n \nv 1000 ]pkvX-I- km-Znv BZy-ambn jm kmln_v ^mdqJv tImtfPv sse{_-dnv XpSw Ipdn-p. Am-ev tImtf-Pn\v t\sc s]mXp-P-\-p-m-bn-cp hnImcw a\-n-em-m DX-Ip Hcp kw`hw: jm kmln_v^tdmv Npv tdmUn-eqsS \Sp t]mhp-I-bm-Wv. Hcp sXmgn-emfnAt-ls kao-]n-p. Hcp Ddp-nI tImtf-Pn\v kw`m-h-\-bmbn \In.Fsm-cm-thiw! tImtf-Pn\v ]Ww ]ncn-p--tXm-sSmw ]pXnbtImgvkp-Ifpw ^mn-Ifpw m]np Am-U-anIv \ne A`n-hr-n-s-Sp-m\pw Atlw bXv\n-p. As\ kap-Zmb ay-nepw bq\n-th-gvknn Xe-nepw XpSw sXmt tImtf-Pn\v \smcp t]cv t\Sn-sm-Sp-m At-l-n\v Ign-p.

    Fm jm kmln_v a{Zmkv km kho-kn \nv Aphjs sU]yq-t-j-\n h-Xm-bn-cp-p-h-tm. ^mdqJv tImtfPvamt\-PnwKv In {]kn-U-m-bn-cp F.-sI.-Ip-n-am-b lmPn-bpsSBhiy {]Imcw Atlw Hcp hjw IqSn XpSp. 1955- kho-kn-tev Xncnp t]mbn. asmcp {]nkn-m \nb-an-X-\m-Ip-Xv hscKWnX imkv{X hn`mKw s{]m^-k-dm-bn-cp F.-hn.-_o-cm kmlo_vBm\w hlnp 1957- BWv Cwojv s{]m^-k Bbn-cp sI.-F.-P-eo kmln_v {]nkn-m Bbn \nb-an-X-\m-Ip--Xv. AtlwhmWn-b-mSn Ckvemanb tImtf-Pn eIvN-d Bbn-cn-p-tm-gmWv^mdqJv tImtf-Pns ]ckyw ImWp--Xv. s{]m^. Peo Fgp-Xpp:""Dkm-l-tmSpw {]Xo--tbmSpw 1948 PqWn Rm ^tdmvsdbnsh tj-\n hn-bn-d-n. ]e-tcmSpw At\z-jn-npw tImtf-Pn-s\-p-dnv Bpw Adn-bn-m-bn-cp-p. tj\p apn kwi-bnp\np-tm Hcp Pov apn hp \np. auehn A_p_mlvAlvaZv Aen kmln-_mWv Pon-ep-m-bn-cp--Xv. Fs {]tXyI thjw

  • 50

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    Iv kwi-bnv \nn-b-Xm-bn-cn--Ww. R Hcp-anv tImgn-tmSvsslt{Zmkv ho-ens hon t]mbn. Ap cm{Xn Xs tImtfPvamt\-PnwKv I-n-tbmKw tImgn-tmSv \S-p-pspw AXn ]s-Sp tijw Xncnp t]mIm-sapw Ah ]d-p. Rm XmPvaltlm-en apdn-sb-Sp-p. t\cmw-hw Ipfn-m t]mepw kuI-cy-an-m B tlm-ense Xmakw Ctmgpw Hma-bn-ep-v. B-tmbX-fpsS hon-emWv In tbmKw. Rm Fn-t DSs\ Xe-t-cn-bn \nv koXn kmln_pw Fn-tp. R Gsd t\cwkwkm-cn-p. tbmK-n shp-mb Xocp-am-\-ns ASn-m-\-nCkvemanb tImtf-Pn \nv cmPn shv ^mdqJv tImtf-Pn eIvN-dBbn tNp.

    s{]m^: Peo {]nkn-m

    s{]m^-k Peo A_p--_m-lp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nnpw kl-I-cnpw {]hn-m {]tXyIw {in-p. tImtf-Pn\v A`p-X-I-c-ambhf-bmWv At-l-ns Ime-p-m-b-Xv . t\cs sI. -CkvamCu kmln_v \nan 40 apdn-I-fp BkmZv tlmepwA_vZppn lmPn \nan \yqtlm--epw Ah-dm Ipn-lmPn\nan t\mv Cuv tlm-ep-amWv tImtf-Pn-\p-m-bn-cp--Xv.Fm Peo kmln_v F.-e-vaW kzman apX-en-bm-cpsS \ma-t[-b-n F.-F.-Fw.-tlm--epw, bp.-Pn.-kn. ^ v D]-tbm-Knv k knZvtlm-epw, amt\-PnwKv In {]kn-U-m-bn-cp F.-sI.-Ip-n-am-blmPn-bpsS kw`m-h-\-bmb {]kn-Ukv tlmepw \nan-p. CtUm--km-c-k in]-Iem ` wKn-tbmsS \nan cmPm-tKv cmPm A_vZpJm-

    Z lmPn-bpsS kw`m-h-\-bm-Wv. bp\kvtIm slUv Izmt -gvkns amXr-I-bn \nan sabn _nUnwKv ]WnXXpw Peo kmln_nsIme-m-Wv. 1959 - BWv ^mdqJv tImtf -Pn BZy -ambns]IpnIv {]th-i\w \In-b-Xv. AXpw kap-Zm-b-ns {]Xn-I-c-W-s--n-bp `bm-i--I-tfm-sS. Av BsI tN ]Xn-aqvs]Ip- n-I-fn apkvenw s]Ipn Htc Hcm am{Xw. ]noSv s]Ip-n-Iv am{X-ambn Hcp tlm ]Wn-Xp. a{Zmkv Khsans tIm-Hm--d-ohv luknwKv kvIoan 14 m^v tImt-gvkp-I ]Wn-Xp. bp.-Pn.-kn. {Km v D]-tbm-Knv Bdv Izmt -gvkp-I-fp-ap-m-n. bp.-Pn.-kn-bn\nv Inm-hp klm-b- Hs t\Sn-sb-Sp-p--Xn Peokmln_v Akm-am\y sshZ-Kv[y-amWv ImWn--Xv. Ipmen ac-mCtm tUnbw, kpthm-fPn Kth-jW tI{w, slv sk,tImtfPv {Kuv, Imo XpS-nb Htsd ]ptcm-K-Xn-I At-l-n\v t\Sn-sb-Sp-m Ign-p. ^mdqJv tImtf-Pn-t\m-S-\p-_-nv

  • 51

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    koXn-km-ln_v satm-dn-b _nUnw-Kn A[ym-]I ]cn-io-e-\-n-\mbn ^mdqJv ss{S\nwKv tImtfPv Bcw-`n-Xpw At-l-ns Ime-m-Wv. ]e Un{Kn, ]n.-Pn.-tIm-gvkp-Ifpw Atlw tImtf-Pn\v t\Sn-sm-Sp-p.

    A_p--_m-lns kz]v\-

    A_p--_mlv m]n duk-p Depw F hnm\ aehm-Sn-bn ]ns A^mdqJv dkn-Ujy Cwojv aoUnbw ko\n-bsk-dn kvIq (1991) A^m-dqJv FPp-t-j sk (1991)A^m-dqJv Cn-yqv Hm^v knhn khokv FIvkm-an-t\-j,A^m-dqJv kvSp kvIq, ^mdqJv Cn-yqv Hm^v So FPp-t-j (2005) Fo m]-\- Dbp hp.

    A_p--_mlv _mn sh kz]v\- Atlw Xs hnh-cn-pp: ""C\nbpw \apv ktlm-Z-cn-Iv th {]tXyI m]-\-, Fn-\o-b-dnwKv tImtf-Pv, saUn- tImtf-Pv, Fm-Xcw hnm-\-fpw Dsm-p Db hnZym-` ym-k-n-\p m]-\w, AXn\nv hnZqc cmPy--fn-tev {]m]vXsc Ab-p--Xn-\p kwhn-[m-\w, Hcp CkvemanI {]kn-o-I-c-Wm-ebw XpS-nb ]eXpw hfscAXym-h-iy-am-Wv. \mw A-p Hcp Poh kap-Zm-b-ambnocmCh-sbms AXym-h-iy-am-Wv.''

    1979- s{]m^.-P-eo Imen-v bq\n-th-gvknn sshkv Nmk-e-dmbn \nb-an-X-\m-b-tijw ^mdqJv tImtf-Pns {]nkn-m ]Z-hn-bn s{]m.-hn.-ap-l--Zv, s{]m^. bp.-ap-l--Zv, tUm.-Sn.-sI.-ap-l--Zv, s{]m^.-hn.-hn.-Ip--_vZp, tUm.-]n.-Fw.-ap-_m-dIv ]mj, s{]m.-F.-Ip-ym-en-p-n, s{]m.-C.-]n.-C-n-n-tmb Fn-h \nb-an-X-cm-bn.

    s{]m^.-P-eo dn-bsan-\p-tijw tIcf hJ^v t_mUv, km^nCn-yqv Fn-h-bpsS t\Xr-m\w Gs-Spv tkh\w sNbvXp.2012 sk]vXw-_ 12 \v \ncym-X-\m-bn.

    ae-_m-dnse Ghpw {]K`cpw {]i-kvX-cp-amb hyn-I-fpsS tkh-\hpw kl-I-c-Whpw ^ mdqJv tImtf-Pn\v e`n-p--Xn\v A_p--_mlv{in-n-cp-p.

    {]K hyn-I-fpsS tkh\w

    tImtf-Pns amt\-PnwKv In {]kn-U-p-am-cmbn hnhn[ Ime-L---fn Jm _l-Zq hn.-sI.-D-Wn-p kmln-_v, F.-sI.-Ip-n-am-b lmPn, F.-sI.-Jm-ZIp-n, sI.-kn.-l-kIp-n, Fkv.-C-kvam-Cu,]n.-sI. Al-vaZv Fn-h tkh-\-a-\p-jvTn-n-p-v. {]Ya sk{I--dn-bmbsI.-Fw.koXokm-ln_v 1947 apX 1961 Atlw \ncym-X-\m-Ip-Xv

  • 52

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    hsc B m\v XpSp. tij-ap- Ime-L---fn ]n.-sF.-Ip--l-Zv Ipn lmPn, Fkv.-F.-Pn^vcn, sI.-kn.-l-kIp-n, sI.-hn.-Ip--Zv tImb Fn-h m\w Ae--cn-n-p-v. A_p_m-lnsGhpw hniz-kvX-\mb hynbpw hnZym-`ymk {]-h-I-\p-am-bn-cppAUz.-Fw.-hn.-ssl-t{Zm-kns ]p{X AUz.-Fw.-ap-l-Zv ]nXm-hns ]mc-cyw \ne-\nn tImtf-Pns amt\-P-cmbn Ctmgpw tkh-\-a-\p-jvTn-p-p. tImtfPv Bcw-`n-p-tm AXns Xmpw XW-ep-ambn{]hn NXp--n-I Fv hnti-jn-n--s-Sp A_vZp--pnlmPn, Ah-dm Ipn lmPn, Ckvam-Cu, lk lmPn Fo \mep-t]-cpsS afpw _p--fpw, sI.-B.-F-kv.-kn.-]n.-Ipnapl-Zpwhnhn[ I-n-I-fn-embn tkh\-a-\p-jvTn-p-p. aZn-cmin {]kn-UkntImtfPv {]nkn-mfpw hnZym-` ymk hnN--W-\p-amb tUm.-A-_vZpl-Jv, Imen-v bq\n-th-gvknn {]Ya sshkv Nmk-e-dmb s{]m^.-Fw.-Fw.-K\n Fn-h hnhn[ Ime--fn-embn tImtfPv I-n-bnse bq\n-th-gvknn {]Xn-\n-[n-I-fmbn \nb-an-X-cmbncpp. A_p--_m-lnsImes ^mdqJv tImtfPv A[ym-]-I-cn N{n-I-bn \nc--c-ambnFgp-Xn-bn-cp ae-bmf Ihnbpw amn-f-m v cN-bn-Xm-hp-am-bn-cp hnZzmSn.-kn.-a-n, ae-bmf kmln-Xy-Im-c-\m-bn-cp F.-]n.-]n.-\-q-Xn-cn, {]`m-jW Ie-bn {]i-kvX-\mb s{]m^.-Fw.-F.-jp-q, CkvemanIkmnI imkv{X-n {K- Fgp-Xnb s{]m^.-Sn.-A-_vZp-,s{]m^.-]n.-A-_vZp-dlvam, a\x-imkv{X hnZ-Kv IqSn-bmb s{]m^.-ap-l-Zv lk XpS-n-b-h tIc-f-n apgps Adn-b-s s{]m^-kam-cm-Wv. ^mdqJv tImtfPv Bcw-`n-p--Xn\v apv Xs A_p--_m-lp-ambn _-s-n-cp s{]m^.-hn.-ap-l-Zv kmln_v Pohn-n-cpIme-a-{Xbpw Im-kn-se t]mse ]pdpw \ndp \n hyn-Xz-am-bn-cp-p. kmaqly {]h-I, Jp-B hnh-I, J-o-_v,\nLp \nam-Xm-hv, aX-{]-t_m-[-I Fo \ne-smw AtlwAdn-b-s-p.

    A_p-_mlns Imev Xs ^mdqJv tImtfPv sXt Cy-bnse Aen-K F hnti-j-W-n\pw Hcp UowUv bq\n-th-gvkn-npwAlX t\Sn-bn-cp-p. kpc-`ne kq\- \nd AXyw at\m-l-c-amb aehmSn F kz]v\w ]qW-ambpw kmm-cn-m A_p--_m-ln\v Pohn-X-Im-ev Ign-n-s-nepw Fm-e-tpw aXn-bmb ASn-d ]Wn-bm-\pw ]nX-e-ap-d-mv A]w _mn-shvGdnb ]pw ]qn-bm-m\pw At-l-n\v Ign-p.

  • 53

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    8.A_p--_m-lns

    hynXz hnti-j-

    1. alm-]-n-X; ]cn-jvImhv

    Iri-Km-{X. Dbcw A[n-I-an-. Kuchw ap-p apJw. sNdnb XmSn.Pzen-p Ip-I. ]pd-n-d-p-tm ss]Pm-abpw jhm-\nbpwXpn-sXm-nbpw. A-p thjw \n_-w. kpKw han-pw.Im Bcnepw BZcw Df-hm-Ipw CXmWv auem\m A_p--_m-lns ]pdw ImgvN-bnse cq]w. AKm-[-m-\-ap ]ptcm-K-a\ Nn-I-\mb Hcp ]n-X At-l-ns Dn IpSn-bn-cn-p-p. tIc-f-n ]mc--cy-co-Xn-bn ]n Zkp-I-fn ]T\w ]qn-bm-n. ]nstemI-nse Ghpw ]g--ap aX-]-T\ tI{-amb A Akvlkh-I-em-im-e-bn ]p hjw ]Tn-p. Amew A Akvldnapl-Zv A_vZp krjvSn ]cn-jv-cW Nn A[ym-]-IscbpwhnZymn-I-sfbpw Ghpw A[nIw kzm[o-\n k`-am-bn-cp-p.AXvsImv Xs A_p--_mlv ]ptcm-K-a-\m-i-b-ap Hcp ]cn-jvIm-hm-bmWv tIc-f-n {]Xy--s--Xv. ap apkvenw ]n-X-m-cn \nv hyXy-kvX-amb Hcp ho-Whpw ssienbpw AtlwkzoI-cn-p.

    Jp-B-\n AKm-[-m\w

    hnip Jp-Bs Bg-n-ep ]T-\hpw Nn-bp-am-bn-cppAtlns apJ-ap-{Z. tIc-f-n Av ]n-X-mn-S-bn \ne-hn-ep-m-bn-cp Ia-im-kv{X-]-c-amb X--fn-sempw Atlw CS-s]-n-. AtX Ah-kcw hnip Jp-B Dbn-m-Wn-pauenI knm--amb Xulo-Zn ASn-bp-dv \ne-sIm-p. aX-]-n-X-m Ah-cpsS apgp-h {ibpw sNdnb Imcy--fn-tev Xncnphnv henb Imcy--sf Ah-K-Wn-p {]h-W-Xsb Atlw A]-e-

  • 54

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    ]n-p. CXv XhnX--fn Gs-n-cp ]ptcm-K-a\ hmZn-I-sfvAh-Im-i-s-n-cp Nne ]n-X-m-cpsS FXnv Wnp hcp-n.sI. -Fw. -au-e-hn -bpsS ]{Xm-[n -]-Xy-n {]kn-o-I-cn -n -cp"AapinZv' amkn-I-bn Atlw Bh-iy-s--X-\p-k-cnv A_p--_mlv Ad-_n-bn Fgp-Xnb teJ-\-n tIc-f-nse aX-]-n-X-m aX-]-c-amb X--fn Gsv ka-bhpw Ignhpw \jvS-s-Sp-p-Ibpw kap-Zm-b-ns hnZym-`ym-k--km-aqly ]ptcm-K-Xnv thn{]hn-m-Xn-cn-p-Ibpw sNp {]h-W-Xsb A]-e-]n-p. CXvkrjvSn tImfn-fw Ipd-sm-p-am-bn-cp-n-. teJ-\-nse Nne{]tbm-K- hymI-c-W-\n-b-a-v hncp--am-sWv Nqn-m-WnNnev, A_p--_m-lns {]tbmKw Xs-bmWv icn Fv ap NneAapin-Zn Xs adp-]Sn FgpXn. aX-]-c-amb A`n-{]mb `n-X-bn Atlw `mK-`m-m-bn-cp-n-s-nepw aX-hn-j-b--fn ^XvhmtNmZnp sImv At-ls kao-]n-p--hsmw {]am-W--fpsSASn-m-\-n bpn`{Z-amb ^XvhmIfmWv auem\m \In-bn-cp--X v . {]bm -k-sf eLqIcn -pI FXv Atlw Xs^XvhmIfpsS ASn-m\ XXz-ambn kzoI-cn-n-cp-p. Hcp Zp_e \nan-j-n Htc Ccp-n samgn aqpw sNmn IpSp-nb Nne {]iv\-]-cn-lm-c-n-\mbn At-ls kao-]n-p-tm AXns\ Hcp Xzem-JmbnIW-mn Xncn-s-Spv _w ]p\x-m-]n-m-sa-mWv Atlw\In-bn-cp aX-hn-[n. ]g-a-bpsS auen-I-Xbpw B[p-\n-I-X-bpsS Nnm-ku--cyhpw ka-\z-bn-n-p Hcp kao-]\ coXn Jp-B hymJym-\n-p--Xn-se--t]mse aX-hn-j-b- ssIImcyw sNp--Xnepw A_p--_mlv kzoI-cn-p. knlvdv _m[bvv NnIn tXSn-sb-p--hpwAtlw a\-m-kv{X-]-c-amb acpv \Ip-am-bn-cp-p.

    Ad-_n-`m-j-bnse sshZKvyw

    Ad-_n-`m-j-bn, hnti-jnpw B[p-\nI Ad-_n-bn A_p--_m-ln-\p Ignhv \no-a-ambncpp. At-l-hp-ambn _-sv Bibhn\nabw \S-nb Ad_v ki-I-scmw CXn aXnv {]I-Sn-n-n-p-v. D]a-I-fpw Aem-c--fp-ap kp-c-amb kmln-Xy-ssi-en. Ad-_n-I-fp-ambn In-S-]m-Sp-I \S-p-tmgpw tImtf-Pns hnhn[ Bh-iy-mbn At]--I kan-p-tmgpw CXv {]Im-c-am-bn-cp-p.ms-Sp-p-tm {]kwK ssien-bn kv^pSw sNbvX hmp-ItImn-W-nb sImp-hm-N-I--fmWv Atlw D]-tbm-Kn-p-I.auem\m tIc-f-n hcp-tm ChnsS B[p-\nI Ad_n en]n{]Nmcn-ep-m-bn-cp-n-. AXvsImv A_p--_m-lns BIj-I-amb Ad_n en]n A\p-I-cn-m ]e-cpw hnti-jnpw duk-p

  • 55

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    Deq-anse At-l-ns injy-m--Xn-Spw ImWn-m-dp-m-bn-cp-p.{]kn Ad_n ]n-X\pw ]Xn-t\gv Ad_n {K--fpsS Im-hp-amb tUm.-aplvbo Bep-hmbn At-l-ns Hc-\p-`hw Cs\hnh-cn-pp: ""hmg-mSv Zmdp Deq-an ]Tn-p-tm Rm Nne-tmIm\-S-bmbn (Av bm{Xm-ku-Icyw Ipd-hm-bn-cp-p) at-cn-bnseduk-p Deq-an-tev t]mIpw A_p--_m-lns Ad-_n-bn-epmv tIm\pw dpJvCu en]n-bn mIv t_mUn Atlw Fgp-Xp-Xv ImWm\pw thn. Av tIc-f-n Cu en]n ssIImcywsNp GI ]n-X At-l-am-bn-cp-p. CuPn-]vXnse aAvlZpJpXqXn (en]n ]Tn-n-p m]-\w) \nmWv Atlw AXv ]Tn--Xv.''

    hnZym-`ymk{]-h-I-\mb aX-]-n-X

    A_p--_mlv ap-]-e-cn \npw hyXy-kvX-\mbn hnm-\-tem-Iv am{Xw HXpn \nmsX k knZv AlvaZvJms\-tmsehnZym-`ymk \thm-m\w krjvSn-m P\-a-y-n-en-dn {]hn-p aX-]-n-X-\m-bn-cp-p. auem\m apl-Zv Aen-bmWv At-lsapkvenw kap-Zm-b-ns ]ptcm-K-Xnv thn tkh\w An-p]n-X-\m-Im D]-tZ-in--Xv. ^ mdq-Jm-_m-Zn Xe Dbn \nphnZym-`ymk m]-\--sfmw At-l-ns al-mb Pohn-X-n-sbpw tkh-\-nsbpw \nXykvamc-I--fm-Wv. a-bnse dm_n-Xz-p Be-an Ckveman (apkvenw thUv eoKv) A_p--_m-lnsal-mb {]h-\-p AwKo-Im-c-sa \nev kpDuZn Atd-_y-bnse bq\n-th-gvkn-n-bn D]cn ]T\w \S-p--Xn\v A_p--_m-lns t]cn Hcp kvtImfjnv Gs-Sp-n-bn-p-v. CXn\v BZy-ambn sXc-s-Sp--s lpssk aS-hq Dp Jpdm-bq-\n-thgvknn-bn D]-cn-]-T\w \S-n. ]ns a-bn {]hmk PohnXw \bn `mc-Xob ]n-X-m-sc-n Kth-jWw \Sn tUmIvS-tdv t\Sn. amXr-m-]-\-n-tev Xncn-sn AXn A[ym-]-I\pw {]nkn-m-fp-am-bn. Ad-_n-tm-tf-Pn-sbpw ^mdqJv tImtf-Pn-sbpw sse{_-dn-IvA_p--_m-lns t]cv \In-bXv amdn amdn hcp A[ym-]-I,hnZymn Xe-ap-d-I-sfmw At-ls hmbnv {]tNm-Z\w Dsm-m-\m-Wv.

    hnm\t{]aw imkv{X-t_m[w

    hnm\ IpXp-In-bmb A_p--_m-lns hmb-\m-t{]aw hnkva-b-I-c-am-bn-cp-p. sse{_-dn-bn-ep Hmtcm ]pkvX-I-s--nbpw At-l-n\v hi-ap-m-Ipw. Hcn t_mws_-bn \nv aqv hmfy--fp

  • 56

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    Hcp ]pXnb Ad_n \nLp Atlw hcp-n-p. F{X thK-n-emWvGXm\pw t]Pp-I AXn Ipd-hm-Wv -Fv Atlw Ip-]n-Sn--Xv.]pXnb ]pkvX-I- hcpn Hp Itm-Sn-p-I-sb-nepw sNbvXtijtam Atlw sse{_-dn-bn tNm hnp-sIm-Sp-p-I-bp-p.shq tlmkv]n--entev hnZKv NnIn--mbn t]mIp-tmtcmKi-bn InSv hmbn-m kmwkvIm-cnI {]m[m-\y-ap Ad_n{K--fpsS Hcp sIpw Atlw IqsS sImp-t]m-bn. N{nI Zn\-]{Xw Xm]-cy-]qw hmbn-pw. Ah-km-\-Im-ev hmbn-m {]bm-k-am-b-tm Ipn-I-sf-smv hmbn-nv tIpw. a\p-jy BZy-ambn N{-\n Imep-Ip-nb Znhkw tImtf-Pn\v Ah[n \In. AXvkw_--ambn \Inb t\mokn ""BIm-i--fnepw `qan-bn-ep-ap-XvAmlp \nv A[o-\-s-Spn Xn-cn-pp'' F Jp-BhmIyw tNn-cp-p. imkv{X-cw-Ks a\p-jys ]pXnb Ip-]n-Sp--sfn Atlw kZm hnZymn-Isf t_m[-hm-m-cm-p-am-bn-cpp.

    In-Xz-n-\-Xo-X

    apkvenw kap-Zm-b-nse aX-]-c-amb In-Xz-n-\-Xo-X-amb D-X-hy-n-Xz-ns DS-abmbncpp A_p--_m-lv. AXvsImv XsFm hn`m-K-mcpw At-ls BZ-cn-p-Ibpw AwKo-I-cn-p-IbpwAt-l-ns hnZym-` ymk {]h-\-sf ]np-W-p-Ibpw sNbvXp.]t, Xulo-Zns hnj-b-n bmsXmcp hnp hogvNbpw ImWn-m ]ptcm-K-a\ Nn-I-\m-bn-cpp At-lw. cmjv{So-b-ambn apkvenweoKn-t\m-Sp B`n-apJyw Atlw Xpdp ]d-bp-am-bn-cp-p. apkvenweoKns kap--X-cmb t\Xm- XpSw apXt At-l-nstkh\ {]h-\-v t{]mm-l-\hpw ]np-Wbpw \In. _n.-hn.-A-_vZp--tmb Fw.-]n.-A-h-km\w hsc duk-p Deqw Atkm-kn-tb-j sa-dm-bn-cp-p.

    A_p--_mlv hnZymn-I-fn aX-]-ctam cmjv{So-btam Bb HcpInXz Nnbpw hfp-am-bn-cp-n-. PamAs Ckveman ASwFm apkvenw kwL-S-\-I-fp-ambpw Atlw kulr-Z-_w ]pen.kpn--ap-Pm-ln-Zv--P-am-Av t\Xm--sfmw At-l-s kin-p-Ibpw D]-tZiw tXSp-Ibpw sNp-am-bn-cp-p. sI.-kn.-A-_vZp aue-hn-bp-am-bpw sI.-D-a aue-hn-bp-ambpw {]tXy-I-_--ap-m-bn-cp-p.PamAv A\p-Iq-en-I-fmb Nne hnZymn-Isf Hcp Ad-_n-tm-tf-Pn \nv ]pd-m-n-b-tm duk-p Deq-an Ahv A`bw\In-bXv henb hnai-\-n\pw H-m-Sn\pw Imc-W-am-bn. \-IsNp-tm kaq-l-ns GsX-nepw Hcp tImWn \nv hnai-

  • 57

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    \-ap-m-Ip-tm AXns t\sc a ssIsImv Xs tkh-\-]m-X-bn-eqsS aptmv \o-W-sav Atlw hnZymn-I-tfmSv D]-tZ-in-pp: ""\psS Pohn-Xhpw Azm-\hpw \appw IpSpw-_-n\pwthn am{Xw ]cn-an-X-am-hp-I-bm-sW-n \mapw arK-fpw Xn henbhyXym-k-ap-sv ]d-bm-h-X-. \mw ac--fpsS XW-en Biz-kn-pp; Ah-bpsS Ce, sImv, XSn Fnh sImv {]tbm-P\w A\p-`-hn-p-p. Ipw hSnbpw sImv Ahsb Fdn-mepw Ah \apvXcpXv ]g--fm-Wv. krjvSn-I-fn shv Ghpw t{ijvT-\mb a\p-jy ac-t-m \h\pw ap--hv D]-Im-c-sh\p-am-tI--Xt? Xs PohnXw sImv ap--hv Hcp {]tbm-P-\-hp-an-s-n]ns Fv t{ijvT-X-bmWv Ah-\p--Xv.'' Cs\ tkh\\nc-X-ambHcp PohnXw \bn-m\pw FXnp-I-sf-sbmw Ah-K-Wn-m-\p-amWvA_p--_mlv Blzm\w sNp--Xv.

    BcpsS apnepw Xe-Ip-\n-msX A-tmsS \ne-sIm-m\pwthj-nepw s]cp-am--nepw am\yX ]pem\pw Atlw hnZym-n-Isf D]-tZ-in-m-dp-m-bn-cp-p. Cu KpWhnti-j-v AtlwHcp amXr-I-bm-bn-cp-p. AXvsImv Xs-bmWv [\m-Vy-mcpwcmjv{Sob t\Xm-fpw hnZym-k---cmb DX hyn-Xz--fp-samwAt-l-ns ki-I-cm-bn-o-Xpw.

    2. amXr-Im-tbm-Ky-\mb A[ym-]-I

    ImSv hnv \mn-en-d-nb tijw A_p--_mlv Hc-ym-]-I-\m-bmWvPohnXw Bcw-`n-p--Xv. Ayw hscbpw B X]ky XpSp. {]Y-a-ambpw Xs PohnXZuXyw hnm-\hpw [manIt_m[-hp-ap HcpXe-ap-dsb hmsSp-p-I-bm-sWv Atlw hniz-kn-p. tImtfPv\S-n-n\pw tlm-en Xma-kn-p--hv kuP-\y-ambn `Ww\Ip--Xn\pw sIn-S-fpw kuI-cy-fpw hn-n-p--Xn\pw Bh-iy-amb ]Ww tiJ-cn-t ` mcn D-c-hm-ZnXzw Hcp A[ym-]-I-s\\ne-p Xs Npa-Xe IrXy-ambn \nh-ln-p--Xn\v XS--am-Im-Xn-cn-m Atlw \mbn {in-p. tImtfPn-tev \Sp hcmIgn-bm hn[w Btcm-Ky-\ne tami-am-b-tm hoSv mkv dqw Bbnamp-I-bm-bn-cp-p. mv \S-p-n-Xn-\n-Sv At-ls kin-mhcp--h F{X henbhcm-Is ]pdv Imv \np-I-b-msXAtlw \nnX ka-b-n\v apv mv \nn ]pdv hcp {]iv\-ta -bn -. IrXyX ]men -p A_p--_m-lns mkn HhnZymnpw kabw sXn-h-cm ss[cy-ap-m-bn-cp-n-. auem\m

  • 58

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    mn {]-th-in-m ]ns kqNn hoWm Adn-bp \n-_vZ-X-bmWv. Kmw`ocyw apn\np `n\n`-c -amb A-cow.hnZymn-I Ipw ImXpw Iqnv At-l-ns samgn-I {in-pw.

    A[ym-]\ coXn

    JpB hymJym-\-amWv mnse hnj-bw. BZy-ambn Av ]Tn-n-m t]mIp Bb-p-I ]mcm-bW\nb-a- ]menv Km\m--I-ambn HmXp-p. ]ns ip Ad-_n-bn-ep Hcp {]`m-jW {]hm-l-am-Wv. Jp-B Bi-b--fpsS Bg--fn-te-n-dn Ahn-Ssapp-I s]dp-n-sb-Spv hnZymn-Iv \Ip-p. Ahsc ]Tn-n-p--Xn-ep-]cn Nnn-n-p-I-bmWv Atlw sNp-I. CSv kwi-b- D-bn-t-Xv \n_w. Cs-n tNmZy- Ah-cpsSapn-te-s-dnv Ahsc Be-ky-n \nv DWpw. BIm-i-n\v Iogn-ep Fm hnj-b-s--nbpw mn N-I Dbphcpw. N-bn ]s-Sp-msX au\n-bm-bn-cn-phv IW-n\vInpw. mv Ignv ]pdp hcp-tm CXv hsc GtXm Am-X-amb hnm\ temI-m-bn-cpp X-sf {]Xo-Xn-bmWv hnZymn-Ip-m-hp-I.

    A_p--_mlv F A[ym]-I ssIImcyw sNp asmcp{][m\ hnjbw Ad_n D]-\ymk cN-\-bm-Wv. BZy-ambn hnjbw \kmln-Xy-ssi-en-bn \mev hmIy--fn-embn kp-c-amb en]n-bnt_mUn Fgp-Xpw. N sNt hnj-b-ns Fm hi-fpwB Fgp-n AS-n-bn-cn-pw. hnZymnI t_mUn \nvIuXpIw \nd B en]n As\s t\mv _pn ]Ipw.lnPvd XnXnbmsX mn D]-tbm-Kn-p-I-bn-. BZy-Im-e--fn]pXp-h-c Zn\-amb apldw Hn\v tImtf-Pn\v Ah[n \Ip-am-bn-cp-p. lnPvd XnXn tNmZn-m ]d-bm Ign-n-s-n Ip-n-Iv\ iImcw Inpw. mn Ad_nbne-msX kwkm-cn-m ]mSn-sv {]th-i\ Ihm-S-n Fgp-Xn-sh-n-p-m-Ipw.

    Adn-hn-t\m-sSmw in-Whpw

    hnZymn-I-fn Fs-nepw {]tXyI Ign-hp-I Im AXw-Ko-I-cn-p-Ibpw t{]mm-ln-n-p-Ibpw sNpw. CS-bvnsS Kpcp-hnshon sNv kin-t-Xv \n_-w. Nmb \In k-cn-msX Bscbpw hnSp-I-bn-. Npdp-Np-dpw ipjvIm-nbpw ImWn-pIpn-I-sf-bmWv ]e-tmgpw Fs-nepw D-c-hm-Zn-- G]n-p-I. hnZymn-I Bcm-bn-cn--Ww, F-s\-bm-bn-cn-Ww F hnj-

  • 59

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    b-n At-l-n\v Hcp Dm-gvN-bp-m-bn-cp-p. mn Xe-bnPnm-tIv [cn- \n_-w. jns _-\n-SmsX Im ISpiImcw Inpw. XmSn apf-m hf \n_-w. apSnv anX-amb\ofw am{Xta ]mSp-p. Xe ad-msX ]n-bn Cam-ambn \nmA\p-h-Zn-p-I-bn-. alm-m-cmb ]qhnI ]n-X-m-scmw \a-kvIm-c-n am{X-a P\-k-Z-p-I-fnepw Xe-a-d-p--h-cm-bn-cp-p, AtlwhnZymn-Isf DWpw. cmhnse kp_vlv \a-kvIm-c-n\v tijwtlm hnZymn-Iv Jp-B ]mcm-bWw \n_-w. cmhnsecl-ky-ambn tlm ]cn-k-cv IqsS \Sp CXv ]cn-tim-[n-p-IbpwsNpw. bq\n-th-gvknn Xe-n \mj-\ khokv kvIow t]mepkwhn-[m-\-sfmpw \ne-hn-en-m-Xn-cp Am-ev hnZymn-Ifnkmaq-ly-tk-h\ at\m-`mhw hfm Ahv tImtfPv tImu-ns aXn \nam-Ww, sXn ssX sh, sInS \nam-W-n-\m-h-iy-amb Iv IS-, tdmUv \nam-Ww XpSnb {]hr-n-I-sfmwhnZymn-I Ah-cpsS {]nkn-m Bb A_p--_mlv aue-hn-bpsS tat\m--n sNpw. Hcp In aps-Spv {]nknmIqsS-bp-m-Ipw. tlm-en _ncn-bmWn, s\bvtm XpS-nb hntij`-W-ap-m-p-tm Atlw Xs ASp--f-bn hv ]mN-I-n\vt\XrXzw sImSp-pw. Hcp \ ]mN-I-m-c-\m-bn-cpp A_p--_mlvFv ]d-m sXn-.

    hnZymn kvt\lw

    hnZymn-Isf AKm-[-ambn kvt\ln-p Hcp A[ym-]-I-s\-bmWvA_p--_m-ln ImWp-I. Hcp ]qh hnZymn kt-f-\-nAtlw Ahsc A`n-ap-Jo-I-cnp kwkm-cn-m Fgp-t--tm hnIm-cm-[o-\-\mbn s]mn--c-p. ""\n-tfmSv Rm ]cp-j-ambn s]cp-am-dn-bn-p-s-pw \nsf ITn-\-ambn Bt-]n-p-Ibpw ipWvTn-sb-Sp-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-p-spw F\nv Xs Adn-bmw. Ah-sbmw FssshI-ey-fpw Zu_-ey-fpw sXp-I-fp-am-bn-cn-mw. Ch-sbmw\n F\nv amv sNbvXv Xcp-sav hniz-kn-p-p. Cu kz`m-h--sfmw Fn Ds-nepw Rm \n-sf hfscb[nIw kvt\ln-pp F-XmWv ]c-amw. Fs Ghpw henb A`o-jvShpw Ftm-gp-ap {]m-\bpw \n Ckvemans Ghpw \ amXr-I-I-fmbnJp-B hcp ImWn-p-Ibpw dkq ]Tn-n-p-Ibpw sNbvXbYm ]m-hn Pohnv P\-sf tkhn--W-saXmWv'' A_p--_mlv ]qh hnZymn-I-tfm-Sv.

    hnZymn-I Ah-cpsS Cu hyKpcp-hns\ "ssiJp\m' FmWvA`n-kw-t_m-[\ sNbvXn-cp--Xv Kpcp-h--\hpw kvt\lhpw IS-mSpw

  • 60

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    Fmw AS-nb _lp-am\kqN-I-amb Hcp ]Zw.

    t\Xr-Xz-nsenb injy-m

    A_p--_m-lns inWw e`n injy-m-cn ]ecpw Dbho-W-ap--hcpw kaq-l-n DX m\w t\Sn-b-h-cp-am-Wv.{]ikvXcmb \mep t\Xm--fpsS t]cp-I ChnsS DZm-l-c-W-n\vNqn-m-Wn-p-I-bm-Wv. duk-p Deqw Ad-_n-tm-tfPv Bcw-`n1942 se {]Ya t_v hnZymn-bm-bn-cp kn.-]n.-A-_q-_- auehn,Ad_n tImtfPv {]nkn-m, a[pc {]`m-j-W-ns DSa tImgn-tmSv aplvbo ]n Jo_v Fo ]Z-hn-I-sf-m-ap ]n-X.{]-am-Z-amb Hcp ]n-t-n aX-\n-b-a--sf--n-bp At-l-nsbpn-`-{Z-amb hmZ- PUvPn AwKo-I-cnv A\p-Iq-e-ambn hn[n-p.aX-{]-kw-K-th-Zn-I-fnepw kt-f-\--fnepw kn.-]n.-bpsS kmn[yw HcpAe-mcambn-cp-p.

    cm-as {]Xn-`m-im-en 1953 duk-n \nv A^vk-epDeam _ncpZw t\Sn ]pdp h tijw Aen-K bq\n-th-gvkn-n-bn\nv am _ncpZw km-Znp amSv Fw.-C.-Fkv tImtfPv {]nkn-m, N{nI Zn\-]{X-ns apJy-]-{Xm-[n-], sI.-F.-Fw. {]-kn-UvFo \ne-smw tkh\w sNbvX s{]m^. aS A_vZp Akokvaue-hn-bm-Wv. Ncn-{X-K-th-j-I\pw kmln-Xy-Im-c-\p-amb Atlw I\-s ]e {K-fpw ssIc-fnv kw`m-h\ sNbvXn-p-v. 1961 duk-p Deq-an \nv _ncp-Z-sa-Sp ]n-X-\mWv sI.-F.-Fw.-sk-{I--dnbpw Adn-b-s aX-{]-`m-j-I-\p-w kwLm-SI ka\pamb F.-]n.-A-_vZp JmZ aue-hn. Dz-e-\mb hmn, \m]-Xn-e-[nIw {K--fpsS Im-hv, Pam-As Ckveman Akn: Aao Fo \ne-smw Adn-b-s-Sp ssiJv apl-Zv Imc-pv A_p--_m-lnsinjy\pw Adp-]-Xp-I-fpsS HSp-hnse _ncp-Z-[m-cn-bp-am-Wv. duk-nsk-Xn-bmb tUm.-ho-cm sambvXo Ad_n ae-bmf \nLp AS--ap ]e {K--fpsS Imhpw cmjv{S-]-Xn-bpsS ]pc-kvImcwt\Snb ]n-X-\p-am-Wv.

    A_p--_m-lns BZy-Ime injy-m-cn Cs\ DX t{iWn-bn-se-nb F{Xtbm {]KaXn-I-fp-v.

    3. B{iaXpey-amb sImpKrl-n

    k\ym-km-{i-a-n\v Xpey-amb Hcp sImp hon-emWv auehn Xma-kn-n-cp--Xv. ]t ki-I-scm-gn k`w A]qhw. alm-m-cmb aX-]-n-X-m, cmjv{So-b-t\-Xm-, kap-Zmb \mb-I-m hnZym-

  • 61

    t\Xr-kvarXn auem\m A_p--_mlv AlvaZv Aen

    `ymk hnN--W, ]uc-ap-Jy-m XpS-n-b-h-scms \nXy-k-i-I-cm-bn-cn-pw. auem\m A_pl-k Aen \Zvhn, CuPn-]vXnseA_vZp apCw \an, A_vZp Ben AJ-_m-hn, {]kn Ad_nIhn A_vZp asse-_m-cn, koXn kmln-_v, _m^Jn X, kn.-Fv XpS-nb F{Xtbm alm-m kin hoSv. kp{]-[m-\-amb ]eInn aonw-Kp-Ipw Xocp-am-\-pw B hoSv kmn-bm-bn-p-v.GXv sNdnb Ipnpw GXv kabpw AhnsS {]th-in-m-am-bn-cp-p.Fm Atlw \a-kvI-cn-p ka-bv Bsc-nepw hcp-Xv XoscCjvS-s-n -cp-n-. Jp-B ]mcm-bWw ]pd-tv tIpw.hnZymnI _-s-Sp--Xnepw Ah-cp-ambn N sNp--Xnepw{]tXyI Xm]-cy-am-bn-cp-p. Hcp ]t AXv A Akvl-dn-epXs A\p-`-h-ns kzm[o-\-am-bn-cnmw.

    AXnYn kmcn Ad_nIfpsS amXr-I-bmWv Atlw kzoI-cn-n-cp--Xv. DZm-c-amb a\-v. t\mvXpd- hn-cp-n ]e-tmgpwAapkvenwIfpw ]s-Sp-pw. hon Atlw ]ip-hn-s\bpw BSn-s\bpwHs hfp Hcp Ij-I-\mb IpSpw-_-\m-Y-\m-bmWv Nne-tmImW-s-Sp-I. ]ip-hns Ib ]nSnp tImtfPv hf-n AXns\ ]pvXon-p-am-bn-cp-p. BnIpnsb Hma\n-p-Ibpw AXn-t\mSv Inmcw]d-bp-Ibpw sNpw. AXn-cm-hnse A_p--_m-lns hon sNp--hv IuXp-I-I-c-amb ImgvN-I ImWm-am-bn-cp-p. ]nXmhpw a-fpwNncnpw Ifnpw Xam-i-I ]dpw a[pc \nan-j- sNe-h-gn-pw.D-bn \nv Ipn-Iv hoWp-In-p hne-s \nanj. Ipn-I kvIqfn-tev t]mIp-tmgpw hon-tev Xncn-s-p-tmgpw Dmvkemw ]d-b \n_-w.

    `mcybpw \mep-a--fp-a-S-n-b-Xm-bn-cpp aue-hn-bpsS IpSpw-_w. Nmh-mSv apXp-h-p-cnse F.-hn.-B-an-\-pn (a.2012) Bbn-cp-p At-l-ns ]Xv\n. aq-a-I k\n-. cm-as aI an-v. aqm-as aI \Po-_. GI-a-I Iuk. k\n--bpsS `mhv A_p--_m-lns Xs injy apl-Zv ^mdq-Jn. duk-p DeqwAd_ntmtf-Pn \nv A v^k-ep De-am-_n-cp-Z-sa-Sp tijw aZo\CkvemanIv bq\n-th-gvkn-n-bnepw tijw CuPn-]vXnse A Akvlkh-I-em-im-e-bnepw ]Tn ]n-X-\mWv At-lw. an-ns`mhv A_p--_m-lns Xs ktlm-Z-cnbpsS ]p{X\pw {]knIem-Im-c-\m-bn-cp F.-]n.-A-_p-hns ktlm-Z-c-\p-amb F.-]n.C_vdmlnw Ipn-bm-Wv. kvIq A[ym-]n-I-bmb \Po-_-bpsS `mhvDz-e-\mb hmn, CJv_m Ihn-X-I Bg-n ]Tn _lp-`mjm]n-X, apnw-eoKv t\Xm-hv, ]men-sa v sa, \nb-a-k-`mw-Kw,hne-s {K--fpsS Imhv Fo \ne-smw {]kn--\mbA_vZp--aZv ka-Zm-\n-bm-Wv. aI Iuk ^mdqJv lb sk-dnkvIq A[ym-]-I\pw ` mcy dko\ AtX kvIqfn A[ym-]n-I-bp-amWv.

  • 62

    ]n.-ap-l-Zv Ip -tcn

    9.Cu {]`m-X-n\v AkvX-a-b-an

    A Akvl-dn \nv _ncpZw t\Sn tIc-f-n-se-nb tijwtcmK--tfmSv anp sImmWv tkh\\nc-X-amb apXv hjhpwauem\m IgnpIqn-b-Xv. C{X-tbsd Akp-J--fp Hcp a\p-jy\vC{X al-mb {]hr-n-I sNm Fs\ Ign-p-shvApXw tXmpw. Am-lp-hns klm-b-n-ep Dd hnizm-kw,{]Xn-k-n-Isf XcWw sNm-\p Ic-fp-d-v, ITn-\m-zm\w FoKpW--fmWv At-ls \bn-n-cp--Xv. \ncm-itbm aptm- p-sh Im]ntmv hen-p `ocp-Xz-tam, FXnp-I-sf--n-bp