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3 rd APASL HCC Conference, Cebu, Philipines Molecular Classification of HCC Michiie Sakamoto MD, PhD Department of Pathology Keio University School of Medicine

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Page 1: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

3rd APASL HCC Conference, Cebu, Philipines

Molecular Classification of HCC

Michiie Sakamoto MD, PhD

Department of Pathology

Keio University School of Medicine

Page 2: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

1. Brief itroduction of molecular classification besed

on gene expression signature

2. β-catenin activated typical subclass

3. TGF-β activated subclass

4. Hepatic progenitor/biliary marker positive subclass

Molecular classification of HCC

Page 3: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Nault, et al. Gastroenterology 2013;145:176-187 5-gene score was significantly associated with prognosis,

independent of tumor stage, etiology, or presence of cirrhosis

Hoshida Y, et al. Cancer Res 2009;69:7385-92

Three class structure of HCC (S1-S3) correlated with clinical

parameters (tumor size, cell differentiation, AFP level)

Boyault S, et al. Hepatology 2007;45:42-52

Villanueva A, et al. Gastroenterology 2011;140:1501-12

Robust subgroups of HCC (G1-G6) associated with clinical and

genetic characteristic. The G3 signature was independent

predictors of HCC recurrence

molecular classification of HCC

Page 4: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Hoshida Y, Toffanin S, Lachenmayer A, et al. Molecular Classification and novel targets

in hepatocellular carcinoma: recent advancement. Senin Liver Dis. 2010; 30(1): 35-51

Global overview of molecular classification of HCC

LGR5

SMADs,

TGFBRII

CK19

Page 5: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

GPR49/LGR5

Orphan G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane

receptor; leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-

coupled receptor 5

Adult stem cell marker: Clevers H et al

Down-stream target of Wnt and Hedgehog signaling

and overexpressed in cancer

Page 6: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

LGR5 is a target gene of

WNT signaling -1-

Overexpression of LGR5 in

HCCs with CTNNB1 mutationsCTNNB1 mutation activates

WNT signaling

Molecular Biology of the Cell 4th edition

Mutation

LiCl

LGR5

Hepatology (2003) 37, 528-533

* Case with CTNNB1 mutation

Page 7: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

LGR5 is a target gene of

WNT signaling -2-

-864

CTTTGAT

ATG

LUC-3-1186

LUC-2-638LUC-1-255

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

P1 P2 P3

Rela

veLuciferaseAcvity PLC/PRF/5

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

P1 P2 P3

Rela

veLuciferaseAcvity Hep G2

LGR5 promoter containsTCF/LEF binding site

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

0 2.5 5 10 15

Rela

veLGR5Expression

LiCl(mM)

LiCl inducesLGR5 expression

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

0 2.5 5 10 15

Rela

veLGR5Expression

LiCl(mM)

PLC/PRF/5

KYN-2

Page 8: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

High expression of GPR49 in Wnt activated HCC cell-lines (qRT-PCR)

0 2 4 6 8 10

PLC/PRF/5

HepG2

tPH5CH

KYN-2

Li-7

KIM-1

Wnt activation

Page 9: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Establishment of LGR5-overexpressing clones.

LGR5-FL

Empty vector

LGR5-

FL

b-actin

B1 G1 G2 G6 F3 S1 V2 V3 V5

0

500

1000

1500

2000

B1 G1 G2 G6 F3 S1 V2 V3 V5

Re

lati

ve L

GR

5 m

RN

A

Page 10: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Morphology of clones containing

LGR5-FL or empty vector.

KY-G1

KY-S1

KY-V2

KY-V2

KY-G1 KY-V2

LGR5-FL empty vector

KY-G1 KY-V2

Suspension culture

Page 11: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Localization of F-actin, E-cadherin and b-catenin in

LGR5-overexpressing or empty vector clones

F-actin

E-cadherin

b-catenin

KY-G1 KY-V2

Page 12: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Growth and survival of KY-G1 and KY-V2 cells.

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

0 2 4 6 8 10

KY-G1

KY-V2

***

***

***

Nu

mb

er

of

cell

rati

o

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

0 0.5 1.0

KY-G1KY-V2

*

***Su

rviv

al

rati

o (

%)

Puromycin (mg/ml)

KY-G1 KY-V2

Page 13: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

0

20

40

60

KY-G1 KY-V2

Colony formation and Motility assay

KY-G1 KY-V2

Co

lon

y f

orm

ing

un

it (

%)

P<0.01

0 hr

24 hr

KY-G1 KY-V2

Page 14: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Histological analysis of tumors formed by KY-G1 or KY-V2

clones in the livers of NOG mice.KY-G1 KY-V2

Page 15: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Metastasis of LGR5-overexpressing or empty vector clone in the

liver after implantation into the spleen of NOD mice.

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

KY-

G1

KY-

V2

Me

tas

tasis

/lo

be

P<0.05

KY-G1

KY-V2

Page 16: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Down-regulation of LGR5 in HCC cell lines by

treatment with siRNAs.

HepG2

PLC/PRF/5

siControl si585 si662

Page 17: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Down-regulation of LGR5 in HCC cell lines by treatment with siRNAs.

HepG2

PLC/PRF/5

siControl si585 si662

Page 18: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Motility of HCC cells after down-regulation of

LGR5.

0

50

100

150

200

siC

on

tro

l

si5

85

si6

62

siC

on

tro

l

si5

85

si6

62

0 hr

24 hr

24 hr

Mig

rati

on

(m

m)

HepG2 PLC/PRF/5p<0.05 p<0.05

siContro si585 si662HepG2

PLC/PRF/5

Page 19: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Relationship between Gpr49 mRNA

expression and clinicopathologic

features

Well to mod > poor

F > M

Non-LC > LC

although no statistical siginificance

Page 20: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

GPR49/LGR5 in HCC

Frequent overexpression of GPR49/LGR5 (47%) in

advanced HCC

GPR49/LGR5 seems to be involved in maintenance of

cell polarity and making typical structure of HCC,

increased survival potential and resistance to

chemotherapy: Typical features of HCC

LGR5 may represent β-catenin activated typical

subclass of HCC biologically, and also serve as a

biomarker of the subclass.

Page 21: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

TGF-β activated subclass ? Two Major Opposite Role of TGF-β

Signaling in Cancer

• Growth arrest

CDKN1A (p21) expression

• Malignant progression

EMT

Angiogenesis

Immunosuppression

Page 22: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

TGFβ signaling in HCC

• Levels of TGFβ1 are high in HCC and LC compared with normal liver.

• Mutations in TGFβR2 or smad4 are very rare in HCC.

Microsattelite instability associated with hepatocarcinogenesis.

Kondo Y et al, J Hepatol 1999

• Transforming Growth Factor-β Gene Expression Signature in Mouse HepatocytesPredicts Clinical Outcome in Human Cancer.

Thorgeirsson S et al. Hepatology 2008

Early and Late TGF-β Signatures

Page 23: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Reduced TGFBR2 Expression in Metastatic Liver

Cancer Cells by Two-way Clustering Analysis of

TGF-β Signaling-related Genes

Intrahepatic Metastasis

Primary Focus

*

*

Lab Invest 2010

Page 24: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Responses to TGF-

TGF-

ALEX

+

Li7

+

CDKN1A (p21)

GAPDH

Page 25: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Immunohistochemical expression of

TGFBR2 in HCC cases

Page 26: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

TGFBR2 Expression

in HCC Cases (n = 136)

Page 27: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Case Diffe fc-inf s vp vv va b im NoT BC AFP Px

58M por + 0 1 0 0 0 0 LC C 55 Rec (6M)(LTx)33F mod + 0 1 0 0 0 0 LC B 4399 No rec(50M)71F por + 0 1 0 0 0 0 CH C 1280 No rec(14M)61M mod + 0 1 0 0 0 0 CH B 4 Rec (16M)

63M well + 0 1 0 0 0 0 LC C 14 No rec

(27M, LTx)mod - 0 0 0 0 0 0 LC C 14

Small HCC (2 cm or less) with reduced TGFBR2 expression

Bone Meta

(6 mo post LTx)

Page 28: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Time-to-

recurrence(n=80)Unchanged

Reduced

Page 29: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

•Down-regulation of TGFBR2 in late progression of

HCC

•Decreased expression of TGFBR2 can serve as

immunohistochemical marker for aggressive HCC

•Canonical TGF-β signaling may play a negative role or

non-canonical TGF-β signaling may be activated and

play a positive role in liver cancer progression.

•We need further study to clarify TGF-β activated

subclass

TGF-β in HCC

Page 30: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

TGFBR2-independent signaling pathway in pancreas cancer

Page 31: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

TGFBR2-Independent SMAD4 Translocation to

Nucleus and HBV

TGFBR2

SMAD4

TGFBR2 & Etiology (P = 0.023)

TGFBR2+ TGFBR2−

HBV 17 13

HCV 68 15

NBNC 16 6

Page 32: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

A novel prognostic subtype of human hepatocellular

carcinoma derived from hepatic progenitor cellsJu-Seog Lee et al. Nature Medicine 12;410-416, 2006

Hepatoblastic signatures: CK7, CK19, Vimentin etc.

Cytokeratin 19 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

predicts early postoperative recurrence

Uenishi T et al. Cancer Science 94;851-857, 2003

CK7/CK19 -/-:93 cases +/-:49 cases

-/+:1 case +/+:15 cases

Hepatic progenitor/biliary marker positive subclass

Page 33: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

高分化

中分化

低分化

Incidence of CK19 positive HCC inTissue Microarray

10/29 (34.5%)

12/124 (9.7%)

0/25 (0%)

22/178 (12.4%)

Poor

Mod

Well

Grants from MHLW, chaired by Prof Arii

Page 34: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

684 patients received RFA

512 patients received RFA with tumor biopsy

246 patients :Diagnosed as HCC histologically

within the Milan criteria Analyzed in this study

600 patients received

other therapies

172 patients received RFA

without tumor biopsy

1284 patients diagnosed as initial HCC

April 1999 –February 2010 at Musashino Red-Cross Hospital

316 patients:Diagnosed as HCC histologically

70 patients beyond the

Milan criteria

196 patients : Not diagnosed

as HCC histologically

Tsuchiya K, Komuta M et al, Oncology 2011

Expression of Keratin19 is Related to High Recurence of HCC after RFA

Page 35: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

A

B

C

D E

F

G

H

IJ

4Y 10M, Rec (-)

5M, Rec (+) Tsuchiya K, Komuta M et al

Page 36: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Recurrence free rates, in patients treated by RFA, according to

the keratin (K) 19 expression in the tumorR

eccu

rren

ce f

ree

rate

s

Time (years)

0

.2

.4

.6

.8

1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

K19 ≦5% , n=236

K19 > 5% , n=10

P=0.0001

Tsuchiya K, Komuta M et al

Page 37: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Expression of CK19 and EpCAM in surgically resected HCC

Positivenegative

HCC(211)

CK19

EpCAM

5

7

18

Positivenegative

CK19

EpCAM

Page 38: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

S1 S2 S3

Me

ta-a

naly

sis

su

bc

las

ses

Su

bcla

sses

In lit

era

ture

sIH

C m

ark

er

his

top

ath

iolo

gy

Global overview of molecular classification of HCC

Modified from:

Hoshida Y, Toffanin S, Lachenmayer A, et al. Molecular Classification and novel targets

in hepatocellular carcinoma: recent advancement. Semin Liver Dis. 2010; 30(1): 35-51

TGFßR2-SMADs Ki-67 CK19 LGR5

Page 39: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

HE HSP70 Bmi-1 CAP-2 P53 CK19

CL

De

arl

y

HC

C

ad

va

nce

d

HC

C

JJCO 2010

Molecular diagnosis and IHC-based subclassification of HCC

Page 40: Molecular Classification of HCC - Hepatology Society of ...liverphil.org/docs/apasl-2013/molecular-classification-of-hcc-dr... · molecular classification of HCC. Hoshida Y, Toffanin

Acknowledgement

Department of Pathology, Keio Univ

Taketo Yamada Kathryn Effendi

Akinori Hashiguchi Taizo Hibi

Mariko Fukuma Akihisa Ueno

Wenlin Du Junya Douguchi

Youhei Masugi Keiji Tanese

Yuichiro Hayashi Hiroshi Uchida

Ken Yamazaki Taisuke Mori

Tokiya Abe Mina Komuta

Hanako Tsujikawa

Department of Surgery, Internal Medicine and Radiology, Keio Univ

National Cancer Center Research Institute